Skip to main content

Full text of "Britannica Book Of The Year 1951"

See other formats


TEXT PROBLEM 
WITHIN THE 
BOOK ONLY 



68405 



CD CO 

Ij > 



BRITANNIC A 
BOOK OF THE YEAR 

I 95 1 



BRITANNICA 
BOOK OF THE YEAR 



1951 




*i768 * 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA, LTD 

CHICAGO LONDON TORONTO 



COPYRIGHT BY 

ENCYCLOPEDIA BR1TANNICA, LTD. 
LONDON, 1951 



PRINTED AND BOUND BY 

KNIGHT FORSTFR, LTD. 

LPEDS 



PREFACE 

FOR this, the 1951 edition of the Britannica Book of the Year, the opportunity 
was taken to emphasize by an increase in length the importance of a few articles 
dealing with topics especially prominent in 1950. One of the selected articles 
was COMMUNIST MOVEMENT. For, as the contributor has said in his introductory 
sentence to it, " it was generally recognized by 1950 that the Communist movement 
in the world was a much more complicated affair than had often been realized." 
It was hoped, therefore, that the article would give to all a better understanding of 
the subject's facets. A corollary to this decision was a fuller treatment for the article 
CHINA, a country which by Oct. 1950 had completed its first full year of control by 
the People's Republic. A third choice fell most deservedly but less dramatically 
upon the British domestic topic of LIBRARIES to mark the centenary of the passing 
of the Public Libraries act in 1850. 

The year also demanded a number of new titles. One of these, HOLY YEAR, 
though by its nature transitory, offered the opportunity for some good descriptive 
writing; another, unwelcome, was KOREAN WAR. The barometers of opinion and 
emotion were seldom steady about this war but at the start the mood of the Western 
world was captured by the cartoon reproduced from Punch on page 649. 

Other new articles to be introduced included CIVIL DEFENCE, EUROPEAN COAL 
AND STEEL POOL (Schuman Plan), EASTERN EUROPEAN ECONOMIC PLANNING and 

HEAVY ENGINEERING and LIGHT ENGINEERING. It had been felt for some time 



that the articles on individual industries, which were retained, had failed by 
themselves to give the general reader a sufficiently, clear picture of industrial 
achievements and developments. The articles on heavy and light engineering were 
planned to overcome this defect. 

An innovation was the assigning of separate articles to all British and French 
colonies, the article FRENCH UNION now becoming a general review like its counter- 
part COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS. Marching with the times COMMONWEALTH OF 
NATIONS was itself a change of title taking the place of the former BRITISH EMPIRE. 
Other changes of title were YOUTH EMPLOYMENT for JUVENILE EMPLOYMENT; 
JEWRY, WORLD for JUDAISM. Grave and gay, as much as possible of the happenings 
of 1950 were recorded. KASHMIR was conspicuous; Brumas was remembered. 

JOHN ARM1TAGE 

London Editor. 



EDITORS AND CONTRIBUTORS 

WALTER YUST, Editor in chief of Encyclopaedia Britannica 
JOHN ARM IT AGE, London Editor 

The initials and names of contributors to the Britannica Book of the Year with the principal 
articles written by them are given below. The arrangement is alphabetical by initials. 



A.A.P. Greece 

ALEXANDER ALEXANDROU PALLIS. B.A. Minister Pleni- 
potentiary attached to the Greek Embassy; Director, Greek Office of 
Information, London. Author of Greece's Anatolian Venture 
and After; etc. 

A.C.Ch. X-Ray and Radiology 

ARTHUR C. CHRISTIE, M.D. Chief, Department of Radiology, 
Doctors Hospital Medical Centre, Washington. 

A.Ck. English Literature (in part) 

ARTHUR CROOK. Literary Critic, London. 

A. Da. Football (in part) 

ALLISON DANZIG. Member of sports staff, The New York Times. 
Author of The Racquet Game; etc. 

A.D.Ls. Entomology 

ANTHONY DAVID LEES, M.A., Ph.D. Senior Scientific Officer, 
Agricultural Research Council, Unit of Insect Physiology, Great 
Britain. 

A,Dr. Textile Industry (in part) 

ALFRED DAWBER, Mem. Text. Inst. Editor of Textile Manu- 
facturer, Manchester; compiler of Textile Manufacturer Year Book; 
etc. 

Ae. Rackets; Tennis 

LORD ABERDARE. Chairman, National Association of Boys' 
Clubs. Former rackets and tennis amateur champion of Britain, 
U.S. and Canada. Author of First Steps to Rackets (with E. B. Noel). 

A.Flo. Spanish-American Literature 

ANGEL FLORES. Chairman, Latin American Area Studies, and 
Professor of Latin American Literature, Queens College, Flushing, 
New York. Author of Lope de Vega; Cervantes Across the Centuries; 
The Kafka Problem; Fiesta in November. 

A.G.Br. Dyestuffs (in part) 

ANSCO G. BRUINIER, Jr. Technical Advertising Manager, 
Dyestuffs Division, Organic Chemicals Department, E. I. du Pont 
de Nemours and Company, Inc., Wilmington, Delaware. 

A.G.L.I. Hospitals (in part); Nursing 

A. G. L. IVES, M.V.O., M.A. Secretary, King Edward's Hospital 
Fund for London. Author of British Hospitals. 

A.G.Ne. Munitions of War (in part) 

A. G. NOBLE. Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. Chief of the Bureau of 
Ordnance, Department of the Navy, Washington. 

A.H.H. Venereal Diseases (in part) 

ARTHUR HERBERT HARKNESS, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. Director, 
Endell Street Clinic (Institute of Urology), London; Civil Consultant 
to the Royal Navy. Author of Non-gonococcal Urethritis. 

A.H. J.B. Docks and Harbours (in part) ; etc. 

ALFRED HENRY JAMES BOWN, F.C.I.S., M.I.T. General 
Manager and Clerk, River Wear Commissioners, Sunderland. 
Author of Port Operation and Administration (with C. A. Dove). 

A.H.Ld. Forestry (in part) 

ARTHUR HENRY LLOYD, O.B.E., M.C., T.D., M.A. Lecturer 
in Forestry, University of Oxford. Author of Engineering for Forest 
Rangers. 

A.H.Md. Betting and Gambling (in part} ; Contract Bridge (in part) 
ALBERT H. MOREHEAD. Editor, The Official Rules of Card 
Games', Bridge Editor, The New York Times. Author of The Modern 
Hoyle; etc. 

A.J.A. Social Security, U.S. 

A. J. ALTMEYER. Commissioner, Social Security Administration, 
Federal Security Agency, Washington. 

A. J.Ar. Industrial Health (in part) 

ARTHUR JOSEPH AMOR, C.B.E., M.D., M.Sc., D.l.H. Principal 
Medical Officer, Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd., London. 
Author of An X-ray Atlas of Silicosis; The Chemical Aspects of 
Silicosis; Notes on the Toxicity of Solvents. 

A.J.Coe. South African Literature (in part) 

ABEL JACOBUS COETZEE, M.A., D.Litt., D.Litt. et Phil. Pro- 
fessor of Afrikaans Language and Folklore, University of the 
Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Author of Opkoms 
van die Afrikaanse Kultuurgedagte aan die Rand; Afrikaanse 
Volksgeloof\ etc. 

A.J.Hy. Advertising (in part) 

ARTHUR JAMES HEIGHWAY. Editor, World's Press News, 
London. 

A.J.L1. Spirits (in part) 

ALFRED J. LIEBMANN. President, Schenley Research Institute, 
New York. 



A.J.Mac. Anglican Communion; Church of England; etc. 

ALAN JOHN MACDONALD, D.D., F.S.A., F.R.Hist.S. Pre- 
bendary of St. Paul's; Rural Dean of the City of London and Rector 
of St. Dunstan-in-the-West. Author of Lanfranc, His Life, Work 
and Writings', Hildebrand; etc. 

A.J.P. Rifle Shooting 

ARTHUR JOHN PALMER. Secretary, National Small-Bore 
Association, London. Editor of the Rifleman. 

A.Kk. Printing (in part) 

ALBERT KIRK. Technical Secretary, British Federation of Master 
Printers. 

A.L.Blr. Scandinavian Literature 

ALAN LEIGH BLAIR. Translator and writer on Scandinavian 
literature. 

A.L.HI. Dance (in part) 

ARNOLD LIONEL H ASK ELL, M.A. Director/Principal, Sadler's 
Wells School, London; Vice President and Chairman of the Education 
Committee of the Royal Academy of Dancing; Joint Director of 
the Teacher's Training Course; Chairman of the Ballet Benevolent 
Fund. Author of Balletotnania', Diaghlleff; etc. 

A.L.W.S. Stocks and Shares (in part) 

A. L. W. SHILLADY. Chief Market Editor, Financial Times, 
London. 

A.M.Ds. Local Government (in part) 

AUDREY M. DAV1ES. Librarian, Institute of Public Adminis- 
tration, New York. 

A.M.F. Cartography 

ANTHONY MARGARET FERRAR, B.Sc. Assistant Map 
Curator, Royal Geographical Society, London. 

A.Mjd. Islam 

ABDUL MAJID, M.A. The Imam, the Mosque, Woking, Surrey. 
Editor of Islamic Review, Woking. 

A.Mu. Dance (in part) 

ARTHUR MURRAY. President, National Institute of Social 
Dancing, U.S.A. Author of How to Become a Good Dancer', Modern 
Dancing ; etc. 

An. Child Welfare (in part) 

LADY ALLEN OF HURTWpOD, F.I.L.A. President, Nursery 
School Association of Great Britain; President, World Organization 
for Early Childhood Education; Member of Advisory Council on 
Child Care (Home Office, London). Author of Whose Children? 

A.N.O. International Monetary Fund 

ANDREW N. OVERBY. Deputy Managing Director, International 
Monetary Fund. 

A.R.K. Chambers of Commerce (in part) 

ARTHUR RICHARD KNOWLES, C.B.E., F.C.l.S. Secretary- 
General, The Association of British Chambers of Commerce, 
London. 

A.R.M. Fisheries 

ARTHUR RICHARD MARGETTS, M.A. Scientific Officer, 
Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Fisheries Laboratory, Lowes- 
toft, Suffolk. 

A.R.MacK. Immigration and Emigration (in part} ; Aliens (in part) 
ARGYLE R, MacKEY. Acting Commissioner, Immigration and 
Naturalization Service, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington. 

A.S.A. Telegraphy (in part) 

SIR ARTHUR STANLEY ANGWIN, K.B.E., D.S.O., M.C., f .D., 
M.I.C.E., M.I.E.E., B.Sc.(Eng-). Chairman, Cable and Wireless, Ltd., 
London, 1947-51. 

A.Stn. Exchange Control and Exchange Rates (in part) 

ALEXANDER STEVENSON. Senior Economist, International 
Bank for Reconstruction and Development. 

A.T.CI. New Zealand 

ARTHUR TREVOR CAMPBELL, M.A. Public Relations Officer, 
New Zealand Government, London. 

A.T.Me. Historical Research 

ALEXANDER TAYLOR MILNE, M.A., F.R.Hist.S. Secretary 
and Librarian, Institute of Historical Research, University of 
London. Compiler of Writings on British History (in progress). 

A.Var. Helsinki 

ANTERO VARTIA. Press Attache*, Finnish Legation, London. 

A.W.E. Botany 

ARTHUR WALLIS EXELL, M.A., F.L.S. Deputy Keeper, Botany 
Department, British Museum (Natural History), London. 

A. Ws. Fashion and Dress (in part) 

AUDREY WITHERS, B.A. Editor, Vogue, London. 



VII 1 



CONTRIBUTORS 



B.A.S. Wine* 

BAS1LE A. SAMARAKIS. Director, 1'Office International du Vin, 

Paris. 
B.C.Pt. Theology 

BERNARD CLIFFORD PLOWR1GHT, B.A., B.D. Secretary, 

Life and Work Department, Congregational Union of England and 

Wales, London. Author of Humanism Pagan or Christian', Our 

Gospel or His; Rebel Religion. 
B.Dr. Art Sales 

BERNARD DENVIR, B.A. Art Critic, Tribune and Daily Herald, 

London; Joint Editor, Art News and Review, London. Author of 

Drawings of William Hogarth; etc. 
B.Fy. Machinery and Machine Tools (in part} 

BURNHAM FINNEY. Editor, American Machinist, New York. 

B.J.W. Dentistry 

BRYAN JARDINE WOOD, F.D.S.R.C.S. Editor, British Dental 

Journal, London. 
B.L. Timber (in part) 

BRYAN LATHAM. Past President, Timber Trade Federation of the 

United Kingdom; Member of Timber Advisory Committee to the 

Board of Trade, London. 
B.L.B. Immigration and Emigration (in part} 

BERTHA LILIAN BRACEY, O.B.E., B.A. Women's Affairs 

Ofliccr for Schlcswig-Holstcin, Control Commission for Germany 

(British Element). 
B.Nc. Cinema (in part) 

BOYCE NEMEC. Executive Secretary, Society of Motion Picture 

and Television Engineers, New York. 
B.PI. Girl Guides (in part) 

OLAVE ST. CI AIR, LADY BADEN POWELL, G.B.E. World 

Chief Guide. Author of Opening Doorways. 
B.R.P. Burma; Thailand 

BERTIE REGINALD PEARN, M.A., F.R.Hist.S. Formerly 

Professor of History, University of Rangoon. Author of History 

of Rangoon. 
Br.S. Crime (in part); Police (in part) 

BRUCE SMITH. Secretary, Institute of Public Administration, 

New York. Author of Police Systems in the U.S.; Rural Crim 

Control; etc. 
B.Sk. Gliding (in part) 

BEN SHUPACK, B.S., M.A. Director, Soaring Society of America. 
B.W.C. Swimming (in part) 

BERTRAM WILLIAM CUMMINS. Hon. Publicity Secretary and 

Past President, Amateur Swimming Association. Founder and 

Hon. Editor, Swimming Times, Croydon, Surrey. 

C.A.Br. Australian Literature 

CLIFFORD AMANDUS BURMESTER, B.A. Chief Reference 
Officer, Commonwealth National Library, Canberra, Australia; 
former Librarian, Office of the High Commissioner of Australia in 
London and Liaison Officer of the Commonwealth National Library. 

C. A.Hh. Hotels, Restaurants and Inns (in part) 

CHARLES A. HORRWORTH. Executive Vice-President, American 
Hotel Association, New York. 

C.A.,1. French Union; Indo-China; etc. 

CHARLES-ANDR JULIEN. Professor of the History of Coloni- 
zation at the Sorbonne, Paris. Author of Histoire de VAfrique du 
Nord; Histoire de V expansion et de la colonization francair>es (vol. I, 
1948). 

C.A.Mo. Meat (in part) 

CECIL ALFRED MORRISON. Advertising Manager and Assistant 
Editor Meat Trades* Journal, London. f 

C.A.Sd. Leather; Shoe Industry 

CALVIN ADAMS SHEPARD. Editor, Shoe and Leather News, 
London. 

C.A.T. Spices 

CHARLES A. THAYER. Former President and Former Director, 
American Spice Trade Association. 

C.Bd. Rubber (in part) 

COLIN BRISLAND. Press Officer, British Rubber Development 
Board, London. 

C.B.E. Archery 

CHARLES BERTRAM EDWARDS. Secretary, Grand National 
Archery Society and Royal Toxophilite Society, London. 

C.Bt. Golf (in part) 

CHARLES BARTLETT. Golf Editor, Chicago Tribune; Secretary, 
Golf Writers' Association of America. 

C.Bu. Sculpture (in part) 

CARLYLE BURROWS, B.A. Art Editor, New York Herald Tribune. 

C.C.C. Police (in part) 

CHARLES CRAIK CUNNINGHAM, C.B., C.V.O., M.A., B.Litt. 
Secretary, Scottish Homes Department, Edinburgh. 

C.C.N.V. Physiology 

CHARLES CYRIL NORROY VASS, M.Sc., Ph.D., M.B., Ch.B. 
Reader in Physiology in the University of London. Part author of 
Synopsis of Physiology (4th ed.). 

C.C.Ws. Consumer Credit (in part) 

CHARLES COWLEY WORTERS, F.I.C.M. Secretary, the Hire 
Purchase Trade Association and the International Association for 
Promotion and Protection of Trade, Ltd., London; Member of 
Council of the Institute of Credit Management, London. 

C.Cy. Canadian Literature; etc. 

CHARLES CLAY. Director, Canadian Research and Editorial 
Institute, Ottawa, Ontario. Author of Young yoyageur; Muskrat 
Man; etc. 



C.D.H. Mexico 

C. DAVID HELLYER. Assistant Director, Institute of Inter- 
American Affairs, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. 

C.D.M. Book Collecting and Book Sales 

CHARLES DUDLEY MASSEY. Managing Director of Pickering 
and Chatto, Booksellers, London. 

C.E.L.-Q. Lutherans 

CARL E. LUND-QUIST, B.D. Assistant Executive Director, U.S.A. 
National Committee for Lutheran World Federation; Executive 
Secretary, Division of Public Relations, National Lutheran Council. 

C.E.R. Forestry (in part) 

CHARLES EDGAR RANDALL, A.B., M.A. Information 
Specialist, Division of Information and Education, Forest Service, 
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington. Author of Our Forests; 
etc. 

C.E.R.S. Railways (in part) 

CHARLES ELY ROSE SHERRINGTON, O.B.E., M.C., M.A. 
Secretary, Railway Research Service, London. Author of Economics 
of Rail Transport in Great Britain; 100 Years of Inland Transport. 

C.F.As. Airports (in part) 

CHARLES FERDINAND ANDREWS, A.R.Ae.S., A.I.B. Assistant 
Editor, Air Travel and Editor, Airports and Air Transportation, 
London; former member of the technical stalT of the Aeroplane. 

C.F.Ke. Motor Industry (in part) 

CHARLES F. KETTERING. Director and former Vice President, 
General Motors Corporation. 

C.F.Mt. Wool 

CECIL FINER MALLETF, M.B.E. Joint Editor, Weekly Wool 
Chart. Statistics Adviser, United Kingdom Wool Industry Bureau 
of Statistics. 

C.G.C. Jet Propulsion and Gas Turbines (in part) 

CYRIL GORDON CONWAY, B.Sc. Consulting Engineer, Power 
Jets (Research and Development) Ltd., London. 

C.G.Fe. Chambers of Commerce (in part) 

CECIL GEORGE FREKE, C.I.E., M.A., B.Sc. Director, British 
National Committee, International Chamber of Commerce. 

C.G.My. Poultry 

CLARENCE GEORGE MAY. Editor, Poultry World, London. 
Author of Natural Hatching and Rearing; Bantams for Eggs. 

C.H.Bd. leprosy 

C. H. BINFORD, M.D. Medical Director, U.S. Public Health 
Service; Pathologist, U.S. Marine Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland. 

C.H.Bu. Machinery and Machine Tools (in part) 

CHARLES HENRY BURDER, M.B.E., B.A. Director and Acting 

Editor. Machinery, London. 
Ch.F. Cambridge University 

CHARLES FOX, M.A. Sometime Director of Training in the 

University of Cambridge. Author of Educational Psychology (4th 

ed.); etc. 
Ch.Fl. Motor Racing 

CHARLES FOTHERGILL. Motoring Correspondent, News 

Chronicle, London. Author of The Story of Grand Prix Motor Racing. 
C.H.G.T. Banking (in part); Bank of England; etc. 

C. GORDON TETHER. Money Market Editor, Financial Times, 

London. 
C.L.B. Psychology (in part) 

SIR CYRIL LODOWIC BURT, M.A., D.Sc., Hon.Ll.D.. 

Hon.D.Litt. Fellow of the British Academy. Hon. Fellow, Jesus 

College, Oxford. Professor of Psychology, University of London. 

Author of Mental and Scholastic Tests; The Subnormal Mind; The 

Young Delinquent', etc. 

C.L.Be. Wild Life Conservation (in part) 

CHARLES LEOFRIC BOYLE. Secretary, The Fauna Preservation 
Society, London. 

C.L.D. Motor Transport (in part) 

CHARLES L. DEARING. Senior Staff Member of The Brookings 
Instil ution, Washington. Author of American Highway Policy and 
National Transportation Policy (with Wild red Owen). 

C.L. de B. Fencing 

CHARLES-LOUIS de BEAUMONT, M.A. Membre d'Honneur 
de la Federation Internationale d'Escrime; President, British Empire 
Fencing Federation; Hon. Secretary, Amateur Fencing Association, 
London. Author of Modern British Fencing. 

C.McG. Cuba; Netherlands Overseas Territories (in part); etc. 

CONSTANTINE EDWARD McGUIRE. Economic Adviser 
(U.S.A.). Author of Italy's International Economic Position; etc. 

C.Mn. Shipbuilding (/// part); Shipping, Merchant Marine (in part) 
CUTHBERT MAUGHAN. Shipping Correspondent, The Times, 
London. Author of Commodity Market Terms; Our Mercantile 
Marine; etc. 

C.M.Pn. Industrial Health (in part) 

CARL M. PETERSON, M.D. Secretary, Council on Industrial 
Health, American Medical Association. 

C.M.R. Girl Guides (in part) 

CONSTANCE M. RITTENHOUSE (Mrs. Paul Rittenhouse). 
National Executive Director, Girl Scouts of the United States of 
America. 

C.M.Wi. Bolivia; Ecuador; Liberia 

CHARLES MORROW WILSON. Economist, Caribbean and West 
African Affairs. Director, American Foundation for Tropical 
Medicine. Author of Tropics; World of Tomorrow; Ambassadors 
in White; One Half the People; Liberia; etc. 



CONTRIBUTORS 



IX 



^.r. Missions, Foreign Religious 

CECIL NORTHCOTT, M.A. General Secretary, United Council 
for Missionary Education, London. Author of Religious Liberty. 

C.Q. Motor Cycling 

CYRIL QUANTRILL. Sports Editor, Motor Cycling, London. 

C.R.A, Marriage and Divorce 

CLIFFORD R. ADAMS, M.A., Ph.D. Professor of Psychology 
in Charge of Marriage Counselling for the School of Education, 
The Pennsylvania State College. Regional Consultant, American 
Institute of Family Relations. Author of Looking Ahead to Marriage. 

C.V.C. ' Korean War (in part) 

CHESTER V. CLIFTON, Jr., Lt. Col., U.S. Army. Assistant to 
the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Washington. 

D.A.C. Women's Activities 

DOROTHY A. CANNELL. Writer and Editor, London. 

D.A.G.R. Building and Construction Industry (in part) 

DONALD A. G. REID, B.Sc.(Eng.), A.M.I.C.E., A.M.l.Struct.E. 
Principal, London County Council Brixton School of Building. 

D.A.Sn. Malaya, Federation of; Singapore 

DERRICK ADOLPHUS SINGTON, B.A. Correspondent in the 
Far East, contributing to Glasgow Herald; Manchester Guardian; 
New Statesman; etc. 

D.B.S. Bridges (in part) 

DAVID BARNARD STEINMAN, A.M., C.E., Sc.D., Ph.D., 
F.R.S.A. U.S. Authority on the Design and Construction of Long- 
Span Bridges. 

D.C.B. Words and Meanings, New (in part) 

DAVID CLAYTON BROWNING, M.A., B.A., B.Litt. Journalist 
and author. Author of Everyman's English Dictionary; Everyman's 
Dictionary of Quotations and Proverbs. 

D.Cr. Aircraft Manufacture; Royal Air Force 

DOUGLAS COLYER, C.B., D.F.C., M.A. British Civil Air Attache 
at Paris, Brussels, The Hague, Rome, Madrid and Berne. 

D.D.C. Children's Books (In part} 

DORIS DAV1ES CHILCOT, F.L.A. Principal Assistant in Charge 
of Work with Young People, Islington Public Libraries, London. 

D.Dz. Atomic Energy (in part) 

DAVID DIETZ. Science Editor, Scripps- Howard Newspapers. 
Lecturer in General Science, Western Reserve University, Cleveland, 
Ohio. Author of Atomic Energy in the Coming Era; etc. 

D.F.K. Israel; etc. 

DAVID FRANCIS KESSLER, B.A. Managing Director, The 
Jewish Chronicle, London. 

D.F.Ky. Angling 

DONOVAN FRANK KELLEY. Writer on Angling, Plymouth. 

D.G.B. Sugar (in part) 

DAVID GRAHAM BURNS, B.A. Member of the staff, Common- 
wealth Economic Committee, London. 

D.G.Wo. Textile Industry (in part) 

DOUGLAS G. WOOLF. Former Editor in Chief, Textile World, 
New York. Textile Consultant and Publisher, East Pasadena Herald, 
Pasadena, California. 

D.Hn. Newspapers and Magazines (/// part) 

DEREK HUDSON, M.A. Literary Editor, Spectator, London. 
Author of Thomas Barnes of tl The Times'"; British Journalists and 
Newspapers; etc. 

D.Hs. Nairobi 

DAVID HUGHES, M.A. British Council, Nairobi, Kenya. 

D.I. Ireland, Republic of 

DENIS LIDDELL IRELAND. Senator, Republic of Ireland. 
Author of Eamon de Valera Doesn't See It Through; Six Counties 
in Search of a Nation. 

D.I.C. Spirits (in part) 

DENYS IRVINE COOMBER, B.Sc., A,R.1.C, Ph.D. Senior 
Scientific Officer, Government Chemist's Department, London. 

D.J.H. Wages and Hours (in part) 

DONALD J. HART, M.A. Dean, School of Business Administra- 
tion, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. 

D.Me. Scotland 

SIR DAVID MILNE, K.C.B., M.A. Permanent Under Secretary 
of State for Scotland. 

D.M.T. Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats (in part) 

DONALD MARK TAILBY, B.A. Economic Assistant, Common- 
wealth Economic Committee, London. 

D.N.L. Societies, Learned and Professional 

DAVID NICOLL LOWE, O.B.E., M.A., B.Sc. Secretary, British 
Association for the Advancement of Science. 

D.Nn. London 

LADY DOROTHY NICHOLSON, M.A., M.B.fc. Author of 
Private Letters, Pagan and Christian; Pilgrims were They All; The 
Londoner; etc. 

D.R.Gi. France; Saar 

DARSIE RUTHERFORD GILLIE. Legion of Honour. Paris 
Correspondent, Manchester Guardian. 

D.St. Advertising (in part) 

DANIEL STARCH. Consultant in Business Research. Former 
Lecturer and Professor at Harvard University and the University of 
Wisconsin. Author of Principles of Advertising; etc. 

D.V. Oxford University 

DOUGLAS VEALE, C.B.E., M.A. Registrar of Oxford University 
and Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. 



D.W. Botanical Gardens (in part) 

DONALD WYMAN. Horticulturist, Arnold Arboretum, Harvard 
University, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts. 

D.W.H. Socialist Movement 

DENIS WINSTON HEALEY, M.B.E., M.A. Secretary, Inter- 
national Department of the British Labour Party. 

D.W.K.-J. Bread and Bakery Products 

DOUGLAS WILLIAM KENT-JONES, Ph.D., B.Sc., F.R.I.C. 
Analytical and Consulting Chemist, London. Author of Modern 
Cereal Chemistry ; The Practice and Science of Bread-making. 

E.A.P. Spanish Literature 

EDGAR ALLISON PEERS, M.A., Hon.LL.D. Professor of 
Spanish, University of Liverpool. Author of Studies of the Spanish 
Mystics; A History of the Romantic Movement in Spain; etc. 

E.Ba. Freemasonry 

ERNEST BEHA. Editor of The Freemason, London. Author of 
Lodges with a Difference. 

E.B.K. New Delhi 

Mrs. E. B. BRIDGWATER-KITCAT, M.B.E. Office of the Adviser 
in India to the Central Commercial Committee, New Delhi. 

E.B.Mc. Korea (in part) 

EVELYN BECKER McCUNE (Mrs. George McCune). Lecturer, 
University of California, Berkeley, California. 

E.C.-Js. Infantile Paralysis; Tuberculosis 

EDWARD CLAYTON-JONES, M.D. Assistant Editor, The 
Lancet, London. 

E.C.Sd. Aviation, Civil (in part); Gliding (in part) 

EDWIN COLSTON SHEPHERD, B.A., B.Litt. Air Correspondent, 
Sunday Times. Formerly Aeronautical Correspondent, The Times, 
and Editor, Aeroplane. Author of The R.A.F. To-day; Great Flights. 

Ed.D. Cinema (in part) 

EDGAR DALE. Professor of Education, Bureau of Educational 
Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Author of 
Audio- Visual Methods in Teaching; How to Read a Newspaper; etc. 

Ed.R.P. Architecture (in part) 

EDMUND R. PURVES. Executive Director, American Institute 
of Architects. 

E.E.Bs. Civil Service 

SIR EDWARD ETTINGDENE BRIDGES, G.C.B., G.C.V.O., 
M.C, M.A., Hon.LL.D., Hon.D.Litt., Hon.D.C.L. Permanent 
Secretary to the Treasury, London. 

E.E.R. United States of America 

EDGAR EUGENE ROBINSON, A.M., LL.D. Byrne Professor of 
American History and Director of the Institute of American History, 
Stanford University, Stanford, California. 

E.F.Hk. Yachting 

EDWARD FOWLES HAYLOCK. Editor, Yachting World, London. 

E.G. Children's Books (in part) 

ELIZABETH A. GROVES, B.A. Assistant Professor, School of 
Librarianship, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. 

E.G.Cs. Ice Skating (in part) 

ERIC GEORGE COGGINS. Secretary, National Skating Associa- 
tion of Great Britain. 

E.Hd. , Afghanistan; Ceylon; Tibet; etc. 

EDWIN HAWARD. Secretary, India, Pakistan and Burma Associa- 
tion. Author of A Picture of India; Manchurian Medley; The Last 
Rebellion; etc. 

E.Hin. ' Zoological Gardens (in part) ; Zoology 

EDWARD HINDLE, M.A., Sc.D., Ph.D., F.R.S. Scientific Director, 
Zoological Society of London. Author of Flies and Disease- Biting 
Flies; A Laboratory Notebook of Zoology. 

E.H.Kg. National Trust 

EDWARD HERBERT KEELING, M.C, M.A. Member of 
Parliament; Chairman, Publicity Committee, National Trust. 

E.H.Kr. Mineralogy 

EDWARD HENRY KRAUS. Dean Emeritus of the College of 
Literature, Science and the Arts, and Professor Emeritus of Crystal- 
lography and Mineralogy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 
Michigan. 

E.H.S. Isle of Man 

ERNEST HENRY STENNING, M.A. Vice-Principal, Chaplain 
and Senior Science Master of King William's College, Isle of Man. 
Canon of St. Columba. Chairman of the Ancient Monuments 
Committee. Author of The Isle of Man. 

E.l.F. Horticulture (in part) 

E. I. FARR1NGTON. Former Secretary, Massachusetts Horti- 
cultural Society and Editor of Horticulture. Author of The Gardener's 
Almanac; etc. 

E.I.P. Salvation Army (in part) 

ERNEST 1. PUGMIRE. National Commander of the Salvation 
Army in the United States. 

E.I.U. Vital Statistics 

ECONOMIST INTELLIGENCE UNIT, Economist Newspaper 
Ltd., London. 

E. J.C. Canning Industry (in part) 

EDWIN J. CAMERON. Director, Research Laboratories, National 
Canners' Association, U.S.A. 

E.J.L. " Sweden 

ETHEL JOHN LINDGREN, M.A., Ph.D. Lecturer, Department 
of Anthropology, University of Cambridge. Edi|or of The Study of 
Society; Methods and Problems. 



CONTRIBUTORS 



E.L.Co. Shipping. Merchant Marine (in part) 

E. L. COCHRANE. Vice Admiral, U.S. Navy (Retired). Chairman, 
Federal Maritime Board, and Administrator, Maritime Adminis- 
tration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington. 

E.L.S. Armies of the World 

EDWIN L. SIBERT. Brigadier General, U.S. Array. Director of 
Staff, Inter-American Defence Board, Washington. ' 

E.M.C. Fertilizers 

EDWARD MORTIMER CROWTHER, D.Sc.. F.R.I.C. Head of 
the Chemistry Department and Deputy Director, Rothamsted 
Experimental Station, Harpenden, Hertfordshire. 

E.M.E. Airports (in part) 

EMERY M. ELLINGSON. Manager, Air Transport Association 
of America, Los Angeles, California. 

E.Mgh. Glass (in part) 

EDWARD MEIGH, M.B.E., M.Sc., F.I.I. A., F.S.G.T. Director, 
Glass Technical Services, Ltd., London. 

E.N.T. Paints and Varnishes 

ERIC NESHAN TIRATSOO, Ph.D., D.I.C., B.Sc., A.R.S.M.. 
F.G.S., F.R.G.S., M.Inst.Pct. Editor, Paint Manufacture', Petroleum; 
Atomics; Chemical Industries^ London. Author of Petroleum Geology. 

E.O.G. Cocoa; Coffee 

EDGAR OTTO GOTHSCH, B.Sc.(Econ.). Member of the staff, 
Commonwealth Economic Committee, London. 

E.P.J. Diabetes 

E. P. JOSLIN, M.D., Sc.D. Professor Emeritus of Clinical Medicine, 
Harvard University Medical School; Medical Director, George F. 
Baker Clinic, New England Deaconess Hospital, Boston, Massa- 
chusetts. 

E.R.Bk. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 

EUGENE R. BLACK. President, International Bank for Recon- 
struction and Development, Washington. 

E.S.Br. Lawn Tennis (in part) 

EDWIN S. BAKER, A.B. Executive Secretary, United States Lawn 
Tennis Association. 

E.Se. Book Publishing (in part) ; Literary Prizes (in part) 

EDMOND S. SHGRAVE. Editor, Bookseller, London. 

E.S.J. Youth Employment (in part) 

ELIZABETH S. JOHNSON. Chief. Division of Child Labour and 
Youth Employment, Bureau of Labour Standards, U.S. Department 
of Labour, Washington. 

E.T/B. Mathematics 

ERIC TEMPLE BELL. Professor of Mathematics, California 
Institute of Technology, Pasadena. Author of The Magic of Numbers; 
The Search for Truth ; etc. 

E.V.Lh. Brewing and Beer (in part) 

E. V. LAHEY. Chairman and President, United States Brewers 
Foundation, Incorporated. 

E.W.G. Electrical Industries (in part) ; etc. 

EDWARD WILLIAM GOLDING, M.Sc. .Tech., M.I.E.E., 
M.A.I.E.E. Head of Rural Electrification and Wind-power Depart- 
ment, Electrical Research Association, London. Author of Electrical 
Measurement and Measuring Instruments; etc. 

E.Wi. Italy; Switzerland; etc. 

ELIZABETH WISKEMANN, M.A., M.Litt. Writer on Foreign 
Affairs. Author of Czechs and Germans; Undeclared \yar; Italy; 
The Rome-Berlin Axis. 

E.W.We. Tourist Industry 

ERNEST WALTER WIMBLE, C.B.F, Member of the British 
Tourist and Holidays Board; Member of the Motels Executive 
(British Transport Commission). 

F.A.Sw. Art Exhibitions (in part); Museums (in part) 

FREDERICK A. SWEET. Associate Curator of Painting and 
Sculpture, The Art Institute of Chicago. 

F.C.H. Rotary International 

FREDERICK C. HICKSON, F.C.I.S. General Secretary, Rotary 

International in Great Britain and Ireland. 
F.C.W. Cancer 

FRANCIS CARTER WOOD, M.D. Emeritus Director, Cancer 

Research, Columbia University, and Consulting Pathologist, St. 

Luke's Hospital, New York. Author of Clinical Diagnosis; etc. 
F.E.Lk. Gems 

FRANCIS ERNEST LEAK, F.G.A. Manager, John Bennett, 

Jeweller; Senior Partner of West of England Gemmological Labora- 
tory, Bristol. 
F.E.S. Eritrea; Libya; etc. 

FRANK EDMUND STAFFORD, C.B.E., F.R.A.S., F.R.G.S. 

Adviser on former Italian colonies, African Department, Foreign 

Office, London (attached from Colonial Service). 
F.Ge. Exploration and Discovery: Geography 

FRANK GEORGE, M.A. Assistant Editor, Royal Geographical 

Society, London. 
F.H.Aw. Netherlands 

FRANCIS HARRY ANDREW. Writer on Foreign Affairs, London. 
F.J.K. Electrical Industries (in part) 

FRANCIS J. KOVALCIK. Assistant Editor, Electrical World, 

New York. 

F.J.Os. Town and Country Planning (in part) 

F. J. OSBORN. Chairman of Executive, Town and Country Planning 
Association, London. Author of Green-Belt Cities; etc. 

F.J.S. Food Research (in part) 

FREDERICK J. STARE, M.D. Professor of Nutrition, Schools of 
Medicine and Pflblic Health, Boston, Massachusetts. 



F.L.C. Salvation Army (in part) 

FREDERICK L. COUTTS. Assistant Literary Secretary, Salvation 
Army International Headquarters, London. Author of The Timeless 
Prophets; etc. 

F.L.D. New York City; Police (in part) 

FRANK LEE DONOGHUE. Director of Commerce for the City 
of New York. Author of Guardians of the Mine Country; Spotted 
Horse Patrol. 

F.L.K. Libraries (in part) 

FRANCIS LAWRENCE KENT, M.A. Librarian, United Nations 
Scientific, Educational and Cultural Organization, Paris; formerly 
Librarian of Bristol University. Co-editor of the World List of 
Scientific Periodicals. 

F.M.I. Karachi 

FERGUS MUNRO INNES, C.I.E. Adviser in Pakistan to the 
Central Commercial Committee. Accredited correspondent to 
Economist, Round Table and Capital, London; Contributor to the 
Annual Register, 1949 and 1950. 

F.Neu. Seismology 

FRANK NEUMANN. Chief, Seismology Branch, Coast and 
Geodetic Survey, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington. 

F.N.H. Nuts 

FRANK NORMAN HOWES, D.Sc. Principal Scientific Officer, 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Author of Nuts, their Production and 
Everyday Uses; etc. 

F.P.L.L. Pneumonia 

FRANK PATRICK LEE LANDER, O.B.E., M.D., F.R.C.P. 
Consultant Physician, Putney Hospital, London; Assistant Physician, 
Brompton Hospital and Royal Free Hospital, London. 

F.S.B. Literary Research 

FREDERICK SAMUEL BOAS, M.A., Hon.LL.D., Hon.D.Litt., 
F.R.S.L. A Vice President, Royal Society of Literature and English 
Association; President, Elizabethan Literary Society. Author of 
Shakespeare and his Predecessors; Christohper Marlowe: A Study, 
University Drama in the Tudor Age; etc. 

F.Sn. Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United Kingdom of 

FRANK SINGLETON, M.A. Editor, Tillotson's Newspapers Ltd., 
Bolton, Lancashire. Author of Independent Means; Lancashire and 
the Pen nines. 

F.S.R. Marine Biology 

FREDERICK STRAITEN RUSSELL, F.R.S. Director of the 
Plymouth Laboratory of the Marine Biological Association of the 
United Kingdom. Author of The Seas (with C. M. Yongc). 

F.V.W. Soap, Perfumery and Cosmetics 

FREDERICK VICTOR WELLS, F.C.S., F.R.H.S. Editor of 

Soap, Perfumery and Cosmetics, London; Chairman, Society of 

Cosmetic Chemists of Great Britain. 
F.W.Ta. Cotton (in part) 

FREDERICK WILLIAM TATTERSALL, F.R.S.S., F.R.E.S. 

Cotton Trade Expert and Statistician, Manchester. 
F.W.W.-S. Interior Decoration 

FRANCIS WILLIAM WENTWORTH-SHEILDS, N.R.D. 

Designer; Visiting Instructor at the Twickenham School of Art, 

Middlesex. 
G.A.Ro. Iron and Steel (in part); Metallurgy; etc. 

GAR A. ROUSH. Former Editor, Mineral Industry, New York. 

Author of Strategic Mineral Supplies. 
G.A.Si. United Church of Canada 

GORDON A. SISCO, D.D. Secretary, The United Church of 

Canada. 
G.B:En. Alimentary System 

GEORGE B. EUSTERMAN, M.D. Professor Emeritus of Medicine, 

Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Graduate 

School, University of Minnesota; Head of a Section in Medicine 

(Emeritus), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Co-author (with 

D. C. Balfour) of The Stomach and Duodenum. 

G.D.H.C. Employment (in part); Trade Unions (in part); etc. 

GEORGE DOUGLAS HOWARD COLE, M.A. Chichele Professor 
of Social and Political Theory, Oxford University. Author of The 
British People (with R. W. Postgate) ; World in Transition. 

G.D.H.L. Air Races and Records 

GEORGE DAVID HOUGH LINTON. Former Press Officer, 
Ministry of Civil Aviation, London Airport. 

Ge.Bu. Hospitals (in part) 

GEORGE BUGBEE. Executive Director, American Hospital 
Association, Chicago. 

Ge.C. Christian Science 

GEORGE CHANNING. Manager, Christian Science Committees 
on Publication, Boston, Massachusetts. 

G.E.L. Ear, Nose and Throat, Diseases of (in part) 

GEORGE E. LIEBERMAN, M.D. Associate, in Otolaryngology, 
University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Medicine, Phila- 
delphia. 

G.E.R.D. Oceanography 

GEORGE EDWARD RAVEN DEACON, D.Sc., F.R.S. Deputy 
Chief Scientific Officer, Royal Naval Scientific Service, Great Britain. 

G.Hb. Floods and Flood Control (in part) 

GENE HOLCOMB. Deputy Chief, Technical Information Division, 
Office of the Chief of Engineers, Department of the Army, 
Washington. 

G.H.Ba. Lacrosse 

GEORGE HENRY BARK. Hon. Secretary, English Lacrosse 
Union. 



CONTRIBUTORS 



XI 



G.H.Be. Genetics 

GEOFFREY HERBERT BEALE, M.B.E., Ph.D. Lecturer in 
Genetics, University of Edinburgh. 

G.H.B1. Local Government (in part) 

GEORGE HAROLD BANWELL. Secretary, Association of 
Municipal Corporations, London. 

G.H.H. International Court of Justice 

GREEN H. HACKWORTH, B.A., LL.B., Hon.LL.D. Judge, 
International Court of Justice, The Hague. Author of Digest of 
International Law. 

G.H.M.F. Canning Industry (in part) 

GEORGE HENRY MORRIS FARLEY, B.Sc. Editor, The Canning 
Industry and Tin-Printer and Box Maker, London. 

G.Hs. Hemp; Jute 

GORDON HUGHES. Managing Director, British-Continental 
Trade Press, Ltd.; Editor, Jute and Canvas Review, London. Author 
of Jute Markets and Prices; etc. 

GJ.Wk. Speedway Racing 

GEOFFREY JOHNSON WOODCOCK. Secretary, Speedway 
Riders' Association, Great Britain. 

G.L.B.S. Television (in part) 

GEORGE LISLE BEERS, Sc.D. Assistant Director of Engineering, 
RCA Victor Division, Radio Corporation of America, Camden, 
New Jersey. 

G.L.W. Refugees 

GEORGE L. WARREN, A.B. Adviser on Refugees and Displaced 
Persons, U.S. Department of State, Washington. 

G.M.C. Ear, Nose and Throat, Diseases of (in part) 

GEORGE MORRISON COATES, M.D. Emeritus Professor of 
Otolaryngology, Medical School and Graduate School of Medicine, 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 

G.McA. Housing (in part) 

GILBERT MCALLISTER, M.A. Member of Parliament. Author 
of Town and Country Planning (with Elizabeth Glen McAllister); 
Homes, Towns and Countryside. 

G.M.Hy. Newspapers and Magazines (in part) 

GRANT M. HYDE, A.M. Professor of Journalism, School of 
Journalism, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin. 

G.P. Argentina; Brazil; etc. 

GEORGE PENDLE, M.A. Writer and Broadcaster on Latin 
American alTairs. Author of Much Sky; Impressions of South 
America. 

G.P.O. Post Office (in part) ; Telephone (in part) 

Articles compiled through the courtesy of the Postmaster General, 
London. 

G.R.Mn. Northern Rhodesia; Southern Rhodesia; etc. 

GEORGE ROY NEVILL MORRISON. Journalist. Author of 
Farming in East Africa ; Kenya Carols. 

G.R.Rr. Fives (in part) 

GEOFFREY ROLAND RI.MMER. Chairman, Executive Com- 
mittee of the Rugby Fives Association. 

G.S.B. Korean War (in part) 

GEORGE S. BLANCHARD. Captain, U.S. Army. Assistant to 
the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Washington. 

G.S.K. Presbyterian Church 

GUY SOULLIARD KLETT. Research Historian, Department of 
History, The Presbyterian Church in the United States of America. 

G.St. Russian Literature 

GLEB PETROVICH STRUVE, B.A. Professor of Russian, Univer- 
sity of California, Berkeley, California. Author of 25 Years of Soviet 
Russian Literature. 

G,Wt. Tobacco 

GORDON WEST. Editor of Tobacco, London. 

H.A.E.S. Badminton 

HERBERT A. E. SCHEELE. Hon. Secretary, International Bad- 
minton Federation; Secretary, Badminton Association of England. 

Editor of the Badminton Gazette, 1946-51. 
H.A.Rn. Cold, Common 

HOBART A. REIMANN, M.D. Professor of Medicine, Jefferson 

Medical College, Philadelphia. 
H.B. Motor Cycle and Cycle Industry 

HAROLD BRIERCLIFFE. Assistant Editor, Motor Cycle and 

Cycle Trader , London. 
H.B.Cs. Anthropology (in part) 

HENRY B. COLLINS, Jr. Senior Ethnologist, Bureau of American 

Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 
H.B.S. Heart Diseases 

HOWARD BURNHAM SPRAGUE, M.D. Associate Physician, 

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. 
H.Btr. Council of Europe 

SIR HAROLD BERESFORD BUTLER, M.A., Hon.LL.D. 

Director of the International Labour Office, Geneva, 1932-38; 

Warden of Nuffield College, Oxford, 1939-43. Author of The Lost 

Peace; Peace or Power. 
H.B.Wy. Judiciary, U.S. 

HAROLD B. WILLEY. Deputy Clerk, United States Supremo 

Court, Washington. 
H.C.Ce, Hotels, Restaurants and Inns (in part) 

HENRY CHARLES CLARKE. Formerly Secretary of the Hotels 

and Restaurants Association of Great Britain. Author of Hotels 

and Restaurants as a Career. 
H.C.D. Education (in part); Unifcrsities and Colleges; etc. 

HAROLD COLLETT DENT, Hon.F.E.I.S., B.A. Editor, The Times 

Educational Supplement , London. Author of A New Order in English 

Education; Education in Transition; Secondary Education for All; 

Part-time Education in Great Britain. 



H.C.Ln. Betting and Gambling (in part) 

HERBERT CARL LAWTON, B.Sc., Ph.D. Private Consultant. 
Chairman, Education and Action for Leisure, London. Author of 
Everyman's Leisure. 

H.D.Z. Belgian Colonial Empire; Belgium; etc. 

HERBERT DAVID ZIMAN, M.A. Leader-writer and special 
correspondent of the Daily Telegraph, London. 

He.Br. Banking (in part) 

HENRY BRUfcRE. Chairman of the Board, The Bowery Savings 
Bank, New York. 

H.E.Hn. Squash Rackets 

HENRY ERIC HAYMAN. Secretary, Squash Rackets Association, 
London. 

H.G.N. Congress, U.S. 

HERBERT GEORGE NICHOLAS, M.A. Fellow, Librarian, 
Tutor and Lecturer in Politics and Modern History, Exeter College, 
Oxford; Faculty Fellow, Nuffield College, Oxford; Lecturer in 
Politics, Oxford University. 

H.G.Rn. India; Kashmir; Pakistan 

HUGH GEORGE RAWLINSON, M.A., F.R.A.S. Indian Educa- 
tional Service (retired). Author of India, a short Cultural History; 
British Beginnings in Western India; The British Achievement in 
India. 

H.G.S. Shipbuilding (in part) 

H. GERRISH SMITH. Chairman of the Board, Shipbuilders 
Council of America. 

H.H.Ik. Soil Conservation (in part) 

'HUGH H. BENNETT. Chief, Soil Conservation Service, U.S. 
Department of Agriculture, Washington. 

H.ls. Hong Kong 

WILLIAM HAROLD ING RAMS, C.M.G., O.B.E. Colonial 
Office, London. Author of Arabia and the Isles; Seven across the 
Sahara. 

H.J.A. Narcotics 

H. J. ANSLINGER. Commissioner of Narcotics, Treasury Depart- 
ment, Washington. U.S. Representative on the United Nations 
Commission on Narcotic Drugs. Member, Committee on Narcotic 
Drugs and Drug Addiction, National Research Council. Author of 
The Physician and the Federal Narcotic Law; etc. 

H.Jn. Iceland 

HALLD6R J6NASSON. Department of Statistics, Government 
of Iceland, Reykjavik. 

H.Js. Town and Country Planning (in part) 

HARLEAN JAMES, A.B. Executive Secretary, American Planning 
and Civic Association and National Conference on State Parks; 
Secretary-Treasurer, Joint Committee on the National Capitol. 
Author of Land Planning for the City, State and Nation; Romance 
of the National Parks. 

H.J.S. Suez Canal 

HUGH JOSEPH SCHONF1ELD. Author of The Suez Canal; etc. 

H.L. Golf (in part) 

HENRY CARPENTER LONGHURST, B.A. Author of Golf; etc. 

H.L.B. Fives (in part) 

HEDLEY LE BAS, B.A. Hon. Secretary, Eton Fives Association. 

H.Ln. Denmark; Greenland; etc. 

HELCJE LARSEN, M.A. Teacher at Nyk0bing Katedralskole, 
Denmark. Author of Politiske Crundtauker (Political Ideas); Contri- 
butor to Defem lauge ar (The five long years). 

H.L.T. Rubber (in part) 

HARLXN L. TRUMBULL. Vice President in charge of research, 
The B.F. Goodrich Company, Brecksville, Ohio. 

H.M.H. . American Literature 

HARRISON.M. HAYFORD, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of English, 
Northwestern University, Evanstown, Illinois.. 

H.Mnt. Crime (in part) 

HERMANN MANNHEIM, Dr. jur. Reader in Criminology in 
the University of London. Author of Social Aspects of Crime in 
England between the Wars; Criminal Justice and Social Recon- 
struction; etc. 

H.M.P. Housing (in part); etc. 

HENRY M. PROPPER. Housing Consultant; Lecturer, Division 
of Graduate Studies, Brooklyn College, Brooklyn, New York. 
Former Executive Vice President, National Committee on Housing. 

H.M.W. Psychology 

HELEN M. WOLFLE. Managing Editor, American Psychologist. 

H.Ra. Dermatology 

HERBERT RATTNER, M.D. Professor of Dermatology, North- 
western University, Evanstown, Illinois. 

H.R.MI. Luxembourg 

H. R. MADOL. Commissioner of Information, Legation of the 
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, London. 

H.R.V. Psychiatry 

HENRY R. VIETS, M.D. Lecturer on Neurology, Harvard Medical 
School; Neurologist, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. 
Librarian, Boston Medical Library. 

H.S.A. Cricket 

HARRY SURTEES ALTHAM, D.S.O., M.C., M.A. Master at 
Winchester College, Hampshire. Treasurer of the M.C.C., London. 
Chairman of the M.C.C. Enquiry Committee. Author of A History 
of Cricket. 

H.S.D. Egypt; etc. 

HERBERT STANLEY DEIGHTON, M.A., B.Litt. Fellow, Dean, 
Chaplain and Lecturer in Classics and Modern History, Pembroke 
College, Oxford; Former Visiting Professor, Fuad I University, 
Cairo. 

H.Su. Accidents (in part) 

HELEN ISABEL SUTHERLAND, M.Inst.T.A., F.C.T.S., 
F. Comm. A. Secretary, The Royal Society for, the Prevention of 
Accidents, London. 



Xtl 



CONTRIBUTORS 



H.S.Vg. Air Forces of the World (in part) 

HOY T S. VANDENBERG. Chief of Staff, United States Air Forces, 
Washington. 

H.S.-W. Czechoslovakia; Hungary; Yugoslavia; etc. 

GEORGE HUGH NICHOLAS SETON-WATSON, M.A. Fellow 
and Praelector in Politics, University College, Oxford; Lecturer in 
Politics, Oxford University. Author of Pastern Europe Between the 
Wars, 19 18-4 I; The East European Revolution', etc. 

H.W.Dg. Prisoners of War; Red Cross 

HENRY W. DUNNING. Executive Secretary, League of Red 
Cross Societies, Geneva, Switzerland. 

H.W.Iflk. Child Welfare (in part) 

HOWARD W. HOPKIRK, A.B. Senior Consultant, Child Welfare 
League of America, Inc. 

H.W.Le P. British Anrty 

H. VV. Le PREVOST. Major, British Army. Information Division, 
Ministry of Supply, London; formerly of Directorate of Public 
Relations, War Omce, London. 

H.W.Pe. Friends, the Religious Society of 

HUBERT WILLIAM PEET. Formerly Editor, The Friend, London. 

H./. Wild Life Conservation (In part) 

HOWARD 7AHNISER. Executive Secretary, The Wilderness 
Society (U.S.A.). Editor, The Living Wilderness, Book editor, 
Nature Magazine, 

I.Cg. Post Office (in part) 

ISAAC GREGG. Former Director of Press Relations, Office of the 
Postmaster, Washington. 

l.L.BI. Linen and Flax; etc. 

IRENE BLUNT. Secretary, The National Federation of Textiles, 
Inc., New York. 

I. M.S. Hawaii 

INGRAM M. STAINBACK. Governor of Hawaii. 

I. Mu. Table Tennis 

HON. IVOR MONTAGU, M.A. Chairman, English Table Tennis 
Association; President, International Table Tennis Federation. 
Author of Table Tennis Today ; Table Tennis. 

l.R.M.M. Architecture (in part) 

IAN ROBERT MORE McCALLUM, A.R.I.B.A., A.A.dipt. 
Editor, The Architectural Review. Editor of Physical Planning'. 
The Groundwork of a New Technique. 

l.W.R. Words and Meanings, New (in part) 

I. WILLIS RUSSELL. Chairman of the Research Committee on 
New Words of the American Dialect Society which prepared the 
American contributions to the article. The Committee consisted 
(1950) of Henry Alexander, O. B. Emerson, Atcheson L. Hench, 
Albert H. Marckwardt, Mamie J. Meredith and Peter Tamony. 

J.A.F. Archaeology (in part) 

JAMES A. FORD. Assistant Curator of North American Arch- 
aeology, American Museum of Natural History, New York. 

J.A.G. Furniture Industry (in part) 

JEROME ARTHUR GARY. Editor, Furniture Age, Chicago. 
Author of The Romance of Period Furniture', etc. 

J.A.Hu. Conlirtonwealth of Nations (in part); etc. 

JOHN ANTHONY HUTTON, B.A. Formerly research assistant, 
Institute of Colonial Studies, Oxford. 

J.A.MK Electric Transport (in part) 

JOHN ANDERSON MILLER, Ph.B. GeneraJ Electric Company, 
Schenectady, New York. Author of Fares Please ; Me n and Volts 
at War; etc. 

J.A.Rs. Greyhound Racing 

JOSEPH ALEXANDER RICHARDS. Managing Editor, Grey- 
hound Owner and Breeder ; London. 

J.A.S.R. Coal 

JOHN ANTHONY SYDNEY R1TSON, D.S.O., O.B.E., M.C., 
T.D., B.Sc., M.I.M.E. Professor of Mining in the University of 
London at the Royal School of Mines, Imperial College, London. 

J.Bs. Gynaecology and Obstetrics 

JOSEPHINE BARNES, M.A., D.M., M.R.C.P., F.R.C.S., 
M.R.C.O.G. Assistant, Obstetric Unit, University College Hospital, 
London. Assistant Obstetrician and gynaecologist, Elizabeth 
Garrett Anderson Hospital, London, etc. Author of Gynaecological 
Histology. 

J.Bx. Shops and Department Stores 

JOHN BAXTER, B.Com., Ph.D.(Econ). Head of Research Depart- 
ment, Marks and Spencer, Ltd., London. 

J.C.G. Polo 

JACK ROSE COMPTON GANNON, C.B.E., M.V.O., Writer on 
polo; formerly Manager and Secretary, the Hurlingham Club. 

J.C.G.J. Wales 

J. C. GRIFFITH JONES. Journalist and Broadcaster; Welsh 
Correspondent, Observer, London. 

J.Chn. Archaeology (in part) 

JOHN CHARLTON, M.A., F.S.A. Inspectorate of Ancient Monu- 
ments, England; Excavator of Roman and Mediaeval sites. 

.I.C.P.P. Osteopathy 

JOCELYN CAMPBELL PATRICK PROBY, M.A., B.Litt., D.O. 
Member, General Council and Register of Osteopaths, Ltd., London. 
Author of Essay on Osteopathy; The Relation of Micro-Organisms 
to Disease; etc. 

J.Cw. Music (In part) 

JOHN CULSHAW. Author, lecturer and broadcaster on music. 
Author of Sergei Rachmaninov; The Concerto. 



J.C.Wn. Tunnels 

JOHN CROSSLEY WADDINGTON, M.Inst.C.E., M.A.S.C.E. 
Chief Engineer, A. Waddington and Son, Ltd., London. 

J.De. Taxation (in part) 

JOHN DANE, Jr., Partner, Choate, Hall and Stewart, Boston, 
Massachusetts. 

J.E.Ce. Tea 

JOYCE EVELYN CUTMORE. Economic Assistant, Common- 
wealth Economic Committee, London. 

J.K.N. Livestock (in part) 

JAMES EDWARD NICHOLS, M.Sc., Ph.D., F.R.S.Ed. Professor 
of Agriculture (Animal Husbandry) in the University of Wales at 
the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth. Author of Livestock 
improvement. 

J.E.Sp. Philippines 

JOSEPH E. SPENCER. Associate Professor of Geography, Univer- 
sity of California, Los Angeles. 

J.E.Ss. Northern Ireland 

JOHN EDWARD SAYERS. Political Correspondent, Belfast 
Telegraph. 

J.E.Wi. Germany; Berlin 

JOHN EMLYN WILLIAMS, M.A., Ph.D. Central European 
Correspondent, the Christian Science Monitor, Boston, Massachusetts. 



Ice Hockey (in part) 
Secretary to the British 

Mental Diseases 

i.S., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., 
Royal Hospital and the 

Finland 

Staff Tutor, Cambridge 
Author of Finland; The 



J.F.A. 

JOHN FRANCIS AHEARNE, F.C.I.S. 
Ice Hockey Association. 

J.G.H. 

JOHN GERARD HAMILTON, M.D., B 
D.P.M. Consultant Psychiatrist, Bethlem 
Maudsley Hospital, London. 
J.H.Jn. 

JOHN HAMPDEN JACKSON, M.A. 
University Board of Extra Mural Studies. 
Between-War World; etc. 

J.HI. Civil Defence 

SIR JOHN HODSOLL, Wing Commander, Royal Air Force. 
Director General, Civil Defence Training, Home Office, London. 

J.H.L. Unitarian Church (in part) 

JOHN HOWLAND LATHROP, D.D. Minister, the First Unitarian 
Congregational Society in Brooklyn, New York; Member, Board of 
Directors, American Unitarian Association. 

J.H.Ps. London University 

J. HOOD PHILLIPS, M.A. Secretary to the Senate, University of 
London. 

J.Kd. Water Supply (in part); etc. 

JULIUS KENNARD, B.Sc.(Eng.), M.I.C.E., M.I.W.E., M. Cons.E. 
Chartered civil engineer; Partner of Edward Sandeman, Kcnnard 
and Partners, Westminster, London. 

J.K.L. Banking (in part); Federal Reserve System 

JOHN K. LANGUM. Vicc-President, Federal Reserve Bank of 
Chicago. 

J.K.R. Agriculture (in part); Meat (in part); etc. 

JOHN KERR ROSE, A.M., Ph.D., J.D. Geographer, Legislative 
Reference Service, Library of Congress, Washington. 

J.Ky. Unitarian Church (in part) 

JOHN KIELTY. Secretary, General Assembly, Unitarian and Free 
Christian Churches, London. 

J.LaF. Pius XII; Roman Catholic Church (in part) 

JOHN LaFARGE, S. J. Associate Editor, America, National 
Catholic Weekly, New York. 

J.L.Be. Patents 

JOHN LUCIAN BLAKE, M.Sc. Barrister-at-Law. Comptroller 
General, Patent Office, London. 

J.L.-Ee. Puerto Rico 

JUAN LABADIE-EURITE, M.S.(Agric.). Chief, Division of 
Statistics, Bureau of the Budget, San Juan, Puerto Rico. 

J.L.Ms. Atomic Energy (in part) 

JOHN LOUIS MICHIELS, Ph.D., A.R.C.S. Lecturer in Physics, 
Imperial College, London. 

J.Ln. South Africa, Union of; etc. 

JULIUS LEWIN, B.A., LL.B. Barrister-at-Law. Advocate of the 

Supreme Court qf South Africa. Senior Lecturer in Native Law and 

Administration, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. 

Joint Editor, African Studies; Author of Studies in African Native 

Law; etc. 
J.Lwh. Jewry, World 

JOSEPH LEFTWICH. Author of Yisroel; What Will Happen to 

the Jews; The Tragedy of Anti-Semitism; etc. 

J.M.Br. Juvenile Delinquency 

JOSEPHINE MACALISTER BREW, M.A., LL.D. Education 
Adviser, National Association of Girls' Clubs and Mixed Clubs. 
Author of Informal Education; In the Service of Youth; etc. 

J.McA. Chile; Uruguay 

JOHN McADAMS. Former Instructor of Latin American History 
and Government, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, Puerto 
Rico. 

J.Of. Lawn Tennis (in part) 

JOHN SHELDON OLLIFF. Lawn Tennis Correspondent, Daily 
Telegraph, London. Author of OUiff on Tennis; Lawn Tennis; The 
Romance of Wimbledon. 



CONTRIBUTORS 



xni 



Jo.Ms. National Health Service; National Insurance 

JOHN MOSS, C.B.E. Barrister-at-Law. Author of Health and 
Welfare Services Handbook; Editor of Local Government Law and 
Legislation. 

J.P.D. Boxing (in part) 

JAMES P. DAWSON, Writer on Baseball and Boxing, The New 
York Times. 

J.P.V.Z. Aviation, Civil (in part) 

J. PACKER VAN ZANDT, B.S., Ph.D. Deputy Assistant Secretary 
of the U.S. Air Force, Washington. Author of Civil Aviation and 
Peace; etc. 

J.R.Ay. Nationalization 

JOHN RAYNER APPLEBEY, M.A. Leader Writer, Financial 
Times, London. 

J.R.Ra. Agriculture 

JOHN ROSS RAEBURN, B.Sc.(Agric.), M.S., M.A., Ph.D. Reader 
in Agricultural Economics, University of London. 

J.S.L. Anaesthesiology 

JOHN S. LUNDY, M.D. Professor of Anaesthesiology, University 
of Minnesota Graduate School, Minneapolis. Head, Section on 
Anaesthesiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. 

J.Sto. Electronics (in part) 

JAMES STOKLEY, B.S.(Ed.), M.S. Publicity Representative, 
General Electric Research Laboratory, Schenectady, New York. 
Author of Science Xemakes Our World; Electrons in Action; Editor 
of Science Marches On. 

J.W.D. Canoeing 

JOHN WEBSTER DUDDERIDGE, B.Sc. Hon. Secretary, the 
British Canoe Union. Master in Charge of Physical Education at the 
Haberdashers' Aske's School, Hampstead. 

J.W.Fr. Bowls 

JOHN WILLIAM FISHER, M.R.C.S., D.P.H., D.P.M. Bowls 
correspondent, Western Morning News, Express and Echo, etc. 
Author of A New Way to Better Bowls; Bowls; etc. 

J.W.Ce. Electric Transport (in part) 

JOHN WATK1N GRIEVE, B.Sc., A.M.I.E.E. Assistant (Schemes 
and Calculations), Electrical Engineering New Works and Develop- 
ment Section, The Railway Executive, London. 

J.W.J. Electric Power (in part) 

JOHN W. JENKINS. Publications Division, Federal Power Com- 
mission, Washington. 

J.W.Mw. Reparations; etc. 

JOSEPH W. MARLOW, A.B., LL.B. Lawyer. Former Editor and 
Research Analyst, Military Intelligence Service, U.S. War Depart- 
ment. 

K.Bn. Libraries (in part) 

KARL BROWN, A.B., LL.B. Associate Bibliographer and Editor 
of Publications, New York Public Library. Editor, Library Journal, 
New York. 

K.E.H. Dairy Farming (in part); etc. 

KENNETH EDWARD HUNT, M.A., Dipl.Agric. Demonstrator in 
Agricultural Economics, Oxford University. 

K.E.R. Gold Coast ; Nigeria ; etc. 

KENNETH ERNEST ROBINSON, M.A. Official Fellow of 
Nuffield College, Oxford; Reader in Colonial Administration, 
Oxford University. 

K.G.B. British Borneo; Kenya; etc. 

KENNETH GRANVILLE BRADLEY, B.A., C.M.G. Editor of 
Corona. Author of Diary of a District Officer; The Colonial Service 
as a Career. 

K.Sm. Eastern European Economic Planning; Poland; etc. 

KAZIMIERZ MAC1EJ SMOGORZEWSKI. Foreign Correspon- 
dent; Founder and Editor, Free Europe, London. Author of The 
United States and Great Britain; Poland 1 s Access to the Sea; etc. 

K.W. Petroleum 

KENNETH WILLIAMS, B.A. London Correspondent, Al Ahram. 
Author of Britain and the Mediterranean; Ibn Sa'ud. 

L.A.L. Insurance (in part) 

LEROY A. LINCOLN. Chairman of the Board, Metropolitan 
Life Insurance Company, New York. 

L.A.WI. Telephone (in part) 

LEROY A. WILSON. President, American Telephone and Telegraph 
Company, New York. 

L.B.E. Sewerage 

LEONARD BUSHBY ESCRITT, A.M.I.C.E., F.I.San.E., 
M.R.San. I., Hon.M.inst.S.P., F.G.S. Senior Engineer, G. B. Ker- 
shaw and Kaufman, consulting engineers, London. 

L.Bp. Canada 

LESLIE BISHOP, M.A. Author and Lecturer; former London 
correspondent of the Winnipeg Free Press, Winnipeg, Canada. 

L.de B.H. Swimming (in part) 

LOUIS de BREDA HANDLEY. Honorary Coach, Women's 
Swimming Association of New York. Author of Swimming for 
Women; etc. 

L.D.L. Painting (in part) 

LESTER D. LONGMAN. Head of Art Department, University of 
Iowa. Author of History and Appreciation of Art; Outline of Art 
History. 

L.E.F. Insurance (in part) 

LAURENCE E. FALLS. Secretary-Treasurer, Insurance Institute 
of America, Inc., New York. 

L.E.Ms. Dyestuffs (in pan) ; etc. 

LAURENCE EDMUND MORRIS. Editor, Dyer, London. 



L.F.C. Methodist Church (in part) 

LESLIE FREDERIC CHURCH, B.A., Ph.D., F.R.Hist.S. Editor- 
in-Chief to the Methodist Church in Great Britain and Ireland. 
Author of The Early Methodist People; The Knight of the Burning 
heart; A Life of John Wesley; etc. 

L.Fi. Rome 

LIANA FERRI. Journalist and film script writer, Rome. 

L.Gu. Local Government (in part) 

LUTHER GULICK, A.M., Ph.D., Litt.D. President, Institute of 
Public Administration, New York. Author of Administrative 
Reflections from World War II; etc. 

L.Hdn. Gas 

LESLIE HARRY HARDERN, B.A. Public Relations Officer, 
North Thames Gas Board, London. Joint author of Physical Planning. 

L.Hmn. South African Literature (in pan) 

LOUIS HERRMAN, M.A., Ph.D. Examiner in English for the 
Joint Matriculation Board of South Africa. Author of In the Sealed 
Cave: A Scientific Fantasy. 

L.J.D.R. Classical Studies 

LEOPOLD JOHN DIXON RICHARDSON, M.A. Professor of 
Greek, University College, Cardiff; Hon. Secretary, Classical 
Association. 

L.K.M. International Trade 

LORING K. MACY. Deputy Director, Office of International 
Trade, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington. 

L.L. Furniture Industry (in pan} 

LESLIE LEWIS. Editor, Furnishing World and British Furnishing. 
Author of Furniture Facts. 

L.M. Football (in pan} 

LAURENCE MONTAGUE, B.A. Sports Editor of the Manchester 
Guardian. 

L.M.GH. United Nations 

LELAND M. GOODRICH. Professor of International Organization 
and Administration, Columbia University, New York. Co-author of 
Charter of the United Nations: Commentary and Documents. 

L.M.K. Biochemistry 

LLOYD M. KO/LOFF. Research associate. Department of Bio- 
chemistry, University of Chicago. 

L.M.W. Alaska 

LEW M. WILLIAMS. Secretary of Alaska, United States Depart- 
ment of the Interior, Juneau, Alaska. 

L.N. Gymnastics 

LEONORRISS, Dipl.Phys.Ed. Schoolmaster, Hertfordshire County 
Council. 

Ln.M. Dance (In part) 

LILLIAN MOORE. Concert Dancer. Choreographer for NCB 
Opera Television Series. American Correspondent, Dancing Times, 
London. Former Soloist, Metropolitan Opera Ballet, New York. 

L.O.P. Cinema (in part) 

LOUELLA O. PARSONS. Editor, Motion Picture Department, 
International News Service. Author of The Cay Illiterate; How To 
Write in the Movies. 

L.Pa. English Literature (in part) 

LUKE THORNBROUGH PARSONS. Contributor to The Fort- 
nightly, 'Scots Review, Today and Tomorrow, etc. Author of Clough 
Plays Murder. 

L.Rb. t Baseball 

LOWELL RglDfeNBAUGH. Member of the staff, The Sporting 
News, St. Louis, Missouri. 

L.Rs. Balance of Payments 

LASZLO ROSTAS, Ll.D., Dr.rer.pol. Research Statistician, 
Board of Trade, London. Author of Comparative Productivity in 
British and American Industry; part-author of Taxation of War 
Wealth. 

L.V.D. Field Sports 

LEONARD VINCENT DODDS. Editor, The Field, London. 

L.W.B. Boy Scouts (in part) 

LORNE W. BARCLAY. National Director of Publications, Boy 
Scouts of America. 

L.Wd. Boxing (in part) 

LAINSON WOOD. Boxing Correspondent and Assistant Sports 
Editor, Daily Telegraph, London. 

L.W.F. Prisons (in part) 

LIONEL WRAY FOX, C.B., M.C. Chairman, Prison Commission 
for England and Wales. Author of The Modern English Prison. 

L.Wo. Trade Unions (in part) 

LEO WOLMAN, Ph.D., LL.D. Professor of Economics, Columbia 
University, New York. Author of Ebb and Flow in Trade Unionism; 
etc. 

L.W.R. Friends, Religious Society of (in part) 

LYMAN W. RILEY. Assistant Librarian, Friends Historical 
Library of Swarthroore College, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania. 

M.Ab. Investments Abroad (in pan) 

MILTON ABELSON. Economic Analyst, Washington. 

Ma.Br. Turkey; etc. 

MALCOLM BURR, D.Sc., A.R.S.M., F.R.Ent.Soc. Author of 
In Bolshevik Siberia; Slouch Hat; The Insect Legion; etc. 

M.A.Me. Horse Racing (in part) 

MICHAEL AUSTIN MELFORD, B.A. Sporting Correspondent, 
Daily Telegraph, London. , 



XIV 



CONTRIBUTORS 



M.Blf. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (in part)', etc. 

MAX BELOFF, B.Litt., M.A. Faculty Fellow, Nuffield College, 
Oxford; Reader in the Comparative Study of Institutions, Oxford 
University. Author of The foreign Policy of Soviet Russia, 1929-1941. 

M.C.G. Arts Council of Great Britain 

MARY CECILIA GLASGOW, C.B.E., B.A. Secretary General, 

Arts Council of Great Britain. 
IVI.D.Cn. Plastics Industry 

MAURICE DELOISNE CUR WEN, B.Sc., A.R.l.C. Editor, 

Plastics* London. Author of Plastics in Industry; etc. 
M.Dk. Holy Year; Roman Catholic Church; etc. 

JOHN MICHAEL DERRICK. Assistant Editor, Tablet, London; 

Editor, Catholic Almanac. Author of Eastern Catholics under 

Soviet Rule; etc. 
M.Ds. Iron and Steel (in part) 

MAX EMIL DAVIES, B.A. Public Relations Officer, British Iron 

and Steel Research Association. Joint Editor of the Handbook of 

Steel and Steel Products', Author of The Story of Steel. 
M.Dw. Law and Legislation (in part) 

MITCHELL DAWSON, Ph.B., J.D. -Lawyer and Writer. Former 

Editor. Chicago Bar Record. 
M.F.de C. Virgin Islands 

MORRIS F. DE CASTRO. Governor of the U.S. Virgin Islands. 
M.Fe. Trust Territories 

MAURICE FANSHAWE, B.A. Author of Permanent Court of 

International Justice', Armaments', The Covenant Explained; etc. 
M.Fi. Medicine (in part); etc. 

MORRIS FISHBEIN, M.D. Editor, Excetpia Medico', Contributing 

Editor, Postgraduate Medicine (U.S.A.). 
M.F.T. Food Research (in part) 

MARTHA F. TRULSON. Research Associate in Nutrition, School 

of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts. 

M.G.C. Water Supply (in part) 

MARTIN G. GLAESER. Professor of Economics, University of 
Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin. 

M.Gt. Budget, National (in part); National Income (in part); efr , 

MILTON GILBERT. Chief. National Income Division, U.S. 
Department of Commerce. Author of Currency Depreciation and 
Monetary Policy; National Income and Product Static f ! cs of the U.S. 

M.H.Sm. Air Forces of the World (in part) 

MAURICE H. SMITH. Librarian, Institute of the Aeronautical 
Sciences, New York. 

M.Jol. French Literature; Paris; etc. 

MARIA JOLAS (Mrs. Eugene Jolas). Writer and Critic, Paris. 

M.L.M. Colombia; Costa Rica; etc. 

MAX L. MOORHEAD. Assistant Professor of History, University 
of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma. 

M .Ml. Betting and Gambling (in part) 

S. MICHAEL MacDOUGALL. Author of Gamblers Don't Gamble; 
Card Mastery; MacDougall on Dice and Cards; MacDougall on 
Pinochle; etc. 

M.N. Bacteriology 

MILAN VACLAV NOVAK. Professor and Head of Department of 
Bacteriology, Univ. of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago; 
Bacteriologist in Chief, Research and Educational Hospital Con- 
sultant on Bacteriology, Veterans Administration, Hines Hospital; 
Associate Dean of the Graduate College, University of Illinois, 
Chicago. * 

M.S.F. ' Japan 

MIRIAM S. FARLEY. Editor, Far Eastern Survey, American 
Institute of Pacific Relations. Author of The Problem of Japanese 
Trade Expansion; Aspects of Japan's Labor Problems. 

M.Si. Printing (in part) 

MacD. SINCLAIR. Editor, Printing Equipment Engineer, Cleveland, 

Ohio. 
N.A.D.W. Art Exhibitions (in part); Painting (in part); etc. 

NEVILE ARTHUR DOUGLAS WALLIS, F.R.S.A. Art Critic 

of the Observer, London. Author of Fin de Siccle. 
N.B.D. National Parks (in part) 

NEWTON B. DRURY, B.L., LL.B. Director, National Park Service, 

U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington. 
N.Bh. Jerusalem 

NORMAN BENTWICH, Hon. LL.D., M.A. Professor at the 

Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Author of Palestine; Judea Lives 

Again; etc. 

N.C.B. Timber (in part) 

NELSON C. BROWN, A.B., M.F. Professor in Charge of Forest 
Utili/ation, New York State College of Forestry, Syracuse University, 
New York. 

N.E.W. Plague 

NEWTON E. WAYSON, A.B., M.D. Former Medical Officer in 
Charge, Plague Investigations, U.S. Public Health Service, San 
Francisco. 

N.F.S. Munitions of War (in part) 

NATHANIEL F. SILSBEE. Colonel, United States Air Force 
Reserve. Contributing Editor, Aviation Age, Skyways. Co-author of 
Jet Propulsion Progress. 

N.McW. Athletics (In part); Empire Games 

NORRIS DEWAR McWHIRTER, M.A. Contributor Track and 
Field News (U.S.A.), the Athlete (London); etc, Author of Get to 
Your Marks. 



N.Mgh. Commonwealth of Nations (In part) 

NICHOLAS SETON MANSERGH, O.B.E., B.Litt, M.A., D.Phil. 
Abe Bailey Research Professor of British Commonwealth Relations, 
Royal Institute of International Affairs, London. Author of The 
Commonwealth and the Nations; Britain and Ireland. 

N.N. Country Life 

NORMAN NICHOLSON. Poet and critic, Millom, Cumberland. 
Authot of Cumberland and Westmorland; Five Rivers; The Old 
Man of the Mountains. 

O.F.K. Norway; Oslo 

OLE FERDINAND KNUDSEN, M.Sc.(Econ.). Assistant Press 
Attach^ to the Royal Norwegian Embassy, London. 

O.M.G. China; Peking 

OWEN MORTIMER GREEN, B.A. Far Eastern Specialist, the 
Observer, London. Author of The Foreigner in Chine; Story of the 
Chinese Revolution; etc. 

O.R.F. Physics 

OTTO ROBERT FRISCH, D.Phil., F.R.S., O.B.E. Fellow of 
Trinity College, Cambridge; Jacksonian Professor of Natural 
Philosophy, Cambridge University. Author of Meet the Atoms; 
editor of Progress in Nuclear Physics. 

O.S.T. World Council of Churches 

OLIVER STRATFORD TOMKINS, M.A. Associate General 
Secretary, World Council of Churches. 'Author of The Wholeness 
of the Church. 

O.Tw. Arabia; Arab League; etc. 

OWEN MEREDITH TWEEDY, B.A. Retired Government Officer. 
Author of By Way of the Sahara; Russia at Random; Cairo to Persia 
and Back. 

P.A.Sd. Meteorology 

PERCIVAL ALBERT SHEPPARD, B.Sc., F.Inst.P. Assistant 
Professor of Meteorology, Imperial College, London; Reader in 
Meteorology, London University. Author of " The Earth's Atmos- 
phere " in A Century of Science. 

P.Br. Billiards and Snooker (in part) 

PETER BRANDWEIN. Sports Writer, The New York Times; 
Editor, sports section, Information Please Almanac. 

P.Dn. English Literature (in part) 

PATRIC DICKINSON, B.A. Author of Theseus and the Minotaur; 
Stone in the Midst and Poems. 

P.Eg. Budget, National (in part); Taxation (in part); etc. 

PAUL EINZIG, D.Sc.(Pol. and Econ.). Political Correspondent, 
Financial Times, London. Author of Primitive Money; The Theory 
of Forward Exchange; etc. 

P.H.-M. British West Indies; Caribbean Commission; etc. 

PHILIP HEWITT-MYR1NG. Public Relations Adviser. Articles 
written on behalf of the Development and Welfare Organization 
in the West Indies. 

P.H.M.-B. Tropical Diseases 

SIR PHILIP HENRY MANSON-BAHR, C.M.G., D.S.O., M.A., 
M.D., F.R.C.P., M.R.C.S., D.T.M. and H., F.2.S. Consulting 
Physician, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London. Author of 
Life and Work of Sir Patrick Manson; Dysenteric Disorders; editor 
01 Manson's Tropical Diseases. 7th-13th ed.; etc. 

P.H.P. Chemistry 

PETER HARIOLF PLESCH, M.A., Ph.D., A.R.l.C. Lecturer in 
Physical Chemistry, University College of North Staffordshire, 
Stoke-on-Trent. 

P.J.A.C. Liberal Movement 

PETER J. A. CALVOCORESSL Survey Department, Royal 
Institute of International Affairs, London. Author of Nuremberg. 

P.M.S. Botanical Gardens (in part); Horticulture 

PATRICK MILLINGTON SYNGE, M.A., F.L.S., F.R.G.S. 
Editor to the Royal Horticultural Society. Author of Mountains 
of the Moon ; Plants with Personality ; etc. 

P.O'S. Johnstone, William Raphael 

PETER JOHN O'SULLEVAN. Racing Correspondent, Daily 
Express, London; radio commentator, etc. 

P.Ss. Insurance (in part) 

PERCY STEBBINGS. Insurance Editor; Correspondent to Financial 
Times; Bankers' Magazine; Investors Chronicle, London; etc, 

P.Ta. Employment (in part); Strikes and Lockouts (in part) 

PHILIP TAFT, B.A., Ph.D. Professor of Economics, Brown 
University. Providence, Rhode Island. Author of Economics and 
Problems of Labor; etc. 

P.W.H. Photography (in part) 

PERCY WOOTTON HARRIS, Hon.F.R.P.S., M.R.I. Former 
President, Royal Photographic Society, London. Editor of Miniature 
Camera Magazine, London. 

Q.W. International Law 

QUINCY WRIGHT, A.M., Ph.D., LL.D. Professor of International 
Law, University of Chicago. Author of A Study of War; etc. 

R.A.Bn. Advertising (in part) 

ROGER A. BARTON. Editor, Advertising Agency Magazine and 
Advertising Handbook, New York. Lecturer in Advertising, Columbia 
University, New York. 

Ra.L. Endocrinology (in part) 

RACHMIEL LEVINE, M.D. Director of Metabolic and Endocrine 
Research, Michael Reese Hospital; Professorial Lecturer, Depart- 
ment of Physiology, University of Chicago. Co-author of Carbo- 
hydrate Metabolism. 



CONTRIBUTORS 



xv 



R.Ba. Consumer Credit (in part) 

ROBERT BARTELS. Associate Professor of Marketing, Ohio 
State University, Columbus, Ohio. Co-author of Credits and 
Collections in Theory and Practice. 

R.C.-W. Philosophy 

RUPERT CRAWSHAY-WILLIAMS. B.A. Writer on Philosophy 
and the Psychology of Language and Reasoning. Author of The 
Comforts of Unreason; A Study of the Motives behind Irrational 
Thought. 

R.D.B. Rowing 

RICHARD DESBOROUGH BURNELL, B.A. Rowing Corres- 
pondent, The Times, London. Editor, British Rowing Almanack. 

R.E.Bs. Literary Prizes (in part) 

RUTH ELLEN BAINS, B.A. Assistant Book Editor, R. R. Bowker 
Company, New York. 

R.E.E.H. Baptist Church 

REUBEN E. E. HARKNESS, M.A., B.D., Ph.D. President, The 
American Baptist Historical Society. Professor of Christianity, 
Crozer Seminary, Chester, Pennsylvania. 

R.F.Am. British Council 

GENERAL SIR RONALD FORBES ADAM, Bt., G.C.B., D.S.O., 
O.B.E. Chairman and Director-General of the British Council. 

R.F.G.C. Congregational Churches 

RALPH FORMAN GODLEY CALDER, M.A., B.D. Secretary, 
Colonial Missionary Society; Secretary, Congregational Fund Board. 
Former Editor, Scottish Congregationalist; Editor, British Missionary, 

R.G.D.A. Prices (In part) 

ROY GEORGE DOUGLAS ALLEN, O.B.E., M.A., D.Sc.(Econ.). 
Professor of Statistics, University of London. Author of Mathe- 
matical Analysis for Economists; Statistics for Economists; etc. 

R.G.L. Inventors, Awards to 

RHYS GERRAN LLOYD, M.A., B.Sc. Barrister-at-Law. Secretary 
of the Royal Commission on Awards to Inventors. Editor of Kerly 
on Trade Marks (7th edition). 

R.H.B. Epidemics 

R. H. BARRETT, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. Medical Officer, Ministry 
of Health, London. 

R.H.Frg. Arthritis 

RICHARD HAROLD FREYBERG, M.D. Associate Professor of 
Clinical Medicine, Cornell University Medical College; Director, 
Department of Internal Medicine and Director of Arthritis Clinic, 
Hospital for Special Surgery; Assistant Attending Physician and 
Director of Arthritis Clinic, New York Hospital, New York. 

R.H.Ls. Museums (in part) 

RALPH H. LEWIS. Assistant Chief, Museum Branch, National 
Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington. 

R.Ho. Billiards and Snooker (in part) 

RICHARD HOLT. Editor, Billiard Player, London. 

R.H.Ri. Grain Crops; Wheat 

RICHARD HOOK RICHENS, M.A. Assistant Director of the 
Commonwealth Bureau of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Cambridge. 
Author of The New Genetics in the Soviet Union (with P. S. Hudson). 

R.I!. SI. Jet Propulsion and Gas Turbines (in part) 

REGINALD HERBERT SCHLOTEL, F.R.Ae.S. Deputy Director 
of Engine Research and Development, Ministry of Supply, London. 

Ri.A.B. Ex-Servicemen's Organizations (in part) 

RICHARD A. BROWN. Executive Secretary, Veterans' Organiza- 
tions Information Service, New York. 

R.Is. Anaemia 

RAPHAEL ISAACS, M.A., M.D. Attending Physician in Hacma- 
tology, Michael Reese Hospital, Chicago. Co-author of Diseases of 
the Blood. 

R.J.My. Clothing Industry (in part); Fashion and Dress (in part) 

RONALD JOSEPH MURRAY. Features Editor, Men's Wear, 
London. 

R.Js. Moscow (in part) 

RICHARD JONES. Former Editor of British Ally (Britansky 
Soyuznik), Moscow. Former Assistant News Editor, Daily Telegraph 
and Night News Editor, Daily Mail, London. 

R.LFo. Accidents (in part) 

R. L. FORNEY. General Secretary, National Safety Council, 
Chicago. 

R.L.Hs. Hockey 

RICHARD LYNTON HOLLANDS. Hockey Correspondent, 
Sunday Times and Evening Standard, London. 

Rln. Boy Scouts (in part) 

LORD ROWALLAN, M.C., T.D., LL.D. Chief Scout of the 
British Commonwealth arid Empire. 

R.L.S.-R. Radio, Scientific Developments in; etc. 

REGINALD LESLIE SMITH-ROSE, D.Sc., Ph.D., D.I.C., A.R.C.S. 
Director of Radio Research, Department of Scientific and Industrial 
Research, Slough, Buckinghamshire. 

R.Man. Cinerta (in part) 

ROGER MANVELL, B.A., Ph.D. Director of the British Film 
Academy, London. Editor of The Cinema 1950; Author of Film; 
Author (with Rachel Low) of History of the British Film ; etc. 

R.M.Ge. Soil Conservation (in part) 

ROBERT MACLAGAN GORRIE, D.Sc., F.R.S.E. Soil Conserva- 
tion Officer, Ceylon. Author of Use and Misuse of Land; Soil and 
Water Conservation in the Punjab; etc. 

R.N.Ba. Royal Navy 

ROBERT NESHAM BAX. Admiral, Royal Navy (retired). 



Ro.B. Zoological Gardens (in part) 

ROBERT BEAN. Director of the Chicago Zoological Park, 
Brookfield, Illinois. 

R.R.W.F. Fruit; Market Gardening; etc. 

ROGER ROLAND WESTWELL FOLLEY, B.Sc., B.Com. Depart- 
mental Demonstrator, Institute for Research in Agricultural 
Economics, University of Oxford. 

R.S.T. Munitions of War (in part) 

ROBERT S. THOMAS, A.M. Military Historian, Historical 

Division, Special Staff, War Department, Washington. Author of 

The Story of the 30th Division, A.E.F. 
R.Sy. Methodist Church (in part) 

RALPH STOODY. Executive Director, The Commission on Public 

Information of The Methodist Church, U.S.A. 
R. Tu. Political Parties, U.S. 

RAY TUCKER, B.A. Writer of Syndicated Column, " The National 

Whirligig ". Author of The Mirrors of J932; etc. 
R.U.C. Skiing 

MISS R. U. CROXTON. Secretary, Ski Club of Great Britain. 

R.V.B.B. Navies of the World 

RAYMOND VICTOR BERNARD BLACKMAN, A.M.I.N.A., 
A.l.Mar.E. Editor, Janes Fighting Ships; Author of Modern World 
Book of Ships. 

R.W.B. New Zealand Literature 

ROBERT WILLIAM BURCHFIELD, M.A. Rhodes Scholar at 
Magdalen College, Oxford. 

R.W.Cr. Broadcasting (in part) 

RUFUS WILLIAM CRATER. Associate Editor, Broadcasting- 
Telecasting Magazine, Washington. 

R.W.J.K. Young Men's Christian Association (in part) 

REGINALD WILLIAM JAMES KEEBLE, B.A. Headquarters 
StafY, Young Men's Christian Association, London. 

R.Wr. Young Women's Christian Association (in part) 

RUTH CHRISTABEL WALDER. National General Secretary, 
Young Women's Christian Association of Great Britain. 



Prisons (in part) 
Former President, American Prison 



S.A.L. 

SAM A. LEWISOHN. 
Association. 

S.D.L.R. Peru 

SIDNEY DE LA RUE. Financial Consultant to the Peruvian and 
Liberian Embassies in Washington. 

S.E.Ws. Albania 

SEWARD ELIOT WATROUS. Programme Organizer, British 
Broadcasting Corporation, London. 

S.F.M. Museums (in part) 

SYDNEY FRANK MARKHAM, M.A., B.Litt. Former President, 
Museums Association, London. Hon. Associate Director, Inter- 
national Council of Museums. Author of Museums of the British 
Empire; etc. 

S.F.Sn. Anthropology (in part) 

SOPHIA FELICIA STALLMAN, M.A. Assistant Secretary, Royal 
Anthropological Institute, London; Assistant Secretary, Folk-Lore 
Society, London. 

S.Hr. European Recovery Programme; etc. 

SEBASTIAN HAFFNER, Dr.jur. Diplomatic Correspondent, 
Observer, London. 

S.J.Bkr. Police (in part) 

STANISLAUS JOSEPH BAKER, C.B., B.Sc. Assistant Under- 
secretary of .State, Home Office, London. 

S.L.L. Furs (in part) 

SAMUEL LEWIS LAZARUS. Editor, Far Weekly News, London. 

S.L.S. Clothing Industry (in part) 

STANLEY L. SIMONS, Ph.B., LL.D. Editor, The Clothing Trade 
Journal, Director, Garment Technical Institute, U.S.A. 

S.McC.L. International Labour Organization 

SAMUEL McCUNE LINDSAY. Professor Emeritus of Social 
Legislation, Columbia University, New York. Author of Railway 
Labor in the U.S.; Emergency Housing Legislation; etc. 

S.Nr. Formosa; Pacific Islands, U.S.; etc. 

STANLEY NEHMER. Office of International Trade Policy, Depart- 
ment of State, Washington. Lecturer in Economics, American 
University, Washington. 

S.P.J. Air Forces of the World (in part); etc. 

S. PAUL JOHNSTON. Director, Institute of the Aeronautical 
Sciences, New York. 

S.Ps. Philately 

STANLEY PHILLIPS. Managing Director and Editor in Chief, 
Stanley Gibbons Ltd., London; Vice President, British Philatelic 
Association. Author of Stamp Collecting; Stamps of Great Britain, 
1911-21; etc. 

S.R.S. Glass (in part) 

SAMUEL RAY SCHOLES. Head of Department of Glass Tech- 
nology, New York State College of Ceramics, Alfred, New York. 

S.Sd. Export-Import Bank of Washington 

SIDNEY SHERWOOD, A.B. Secretary, Export-Import Bank of 
Washington. 

S.S.H. Stocks and Shares (in part) 

SOLOMON S. HUEBNER, Sc.D., Ph.D. President, American 
College of Life Underwriters. Professor of Insurance and Com- 
merce. Wharton School of Finance and Commerce, University of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. > 



XVI 



CONTRIBUTORS 



S.So. Endocrinology (in part) 

SAMUEL SOSK1N, M.D.. Ph.D. Director, Medical Research 
Institute. Michael Reese Hospital, and Dean, Michael Reese Hospital 
Postgraduate School; Professorial Lecturer, Department of Physiol- 
ogy, The University of Chicago. Co-author of Carbohydrate Meta- 
bolism', Editor of Progress in Clinical Endocrinology. 

S.Sp. Music (in part) 

SIGMUND SPAETH, A.M., Ph.D. Lecturer and Broadcaster. 
Author of The Art of Enjoying Music', A History of Popular Music in 
America; etc. 

S.I f. Broadcasting (in part) 

SOL TAISHOFF. President, Editor and Publisher of Broadcasting- 
Telecasting Magazine, Washington. 

I. Bar. Wealth and Income, Distribution of (in part) 

TIBOR BARNA, B.Sc.(Econ.), Ph.D. Chief of Economics Section, 
Research Division, Economic Commission for Europe; formerly 
Official Fellow of Nuffield College, Oxford. Author of Redistribution 
of Income through Public Finance. 

T.C. Church of Scotland 

THOMAS CALDWELL, M.A., B.D., Ph.D., D.D. Principal Clerk 
of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. 

T.E.U. Political Parties, British 

T. E. UTLEY, M.A. Editorial Staff, The Times, London. 

T.G.W. Aliens (in part) 

TERENCE GERARD WEILER, B.A. Principal, Aliens Depart- 
ment, Home Office, London. 

T.H.MacD. Roads (in part) 

THOMAS H. MacDONALD. Commissioner, Bureau of Public 
Roads, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington. 

T.J.B. Venereal Diseases (in part) 

THEODORE J. BAUER, M.D. Chief, Division of Venereal Disease, 
U.S. Public Health Service, Washington. 

T.Q.C. Theatre (in part) 

THOMAS QUINN CURT1SS. Dramatic Critic. Editor Common 
Sense, Decision. Former Drama Critic and Drama Editor, Junior 
Bazaar (Harper's); Contributing book-reviewer to Herald-Tribune, 
New York, and The New York Times Book Review. 

T.Rsc. Canasta ; Contract Bridge (in par / 

JOHN TERENCE REESE. Bridge correspondent, Observer and 
Evening News, London. Author of Reese on Play; The Elements of 
Contract (with Hubert Phillips). 

T.T.S. Nervous System 

THEODORE THADDEUS STONE, M.D., M.S., Ph.D., F.A.C.P. 
Professor in Nervous and Mental Diseases, Northwestern University 
Medical School, Chicago; Chief and Attending Ncuro-Psychiatrist, 
Wesley Memorial Hospital, Chicago. 

T.V.H. Athletics (in part) 

THOMAS V. HANEY. Member of the Staff, The New York Times. 

V.E.F. Antarctica 

VIVIAN ERNEST FUCHS, M.A., Ph.D. Head of the Falklands 
Islands Dependencies Scientific Bureau. 

V.S.S. Paper and Pulp Industry 

VINCENT STANLEY SMITH. Advertising Consultant to Paper 
Manufacturers. 

W.A.D. Theatre (in part) 

WILLIAM AUBREY DARLINGTON, M.A. Dramatic Critic, 
the Daily Telegraph, London, and London Drama Correspondent, 
The New York Times. Author of The Actor and His Audience; etc. 

W.A.Ft. Bridges (in part) 

WILLIAM ALBERT FAIRHURST, M.l.Struct.E. Senior Partner, 
F. A. Macdonald and Partner, Consulting Stru9turul and Civil 
F'ngineers, Glasgow. Author of Arch Design Simplified; Reinforced 
Concrete Bridge Design (with A. W. Legal and George Dunn). 

W.As. Heavy Engineering; Light Engineering 

WILLIAM ANDREWS, B.Met., F.l.M. Technical Editor, The 
Times Review of Industry. 

W.B.Hd. Geology 

WALTER BRIAN HARLAND, M.A. Fellow of Gonvillc and 
Caius College, Cambridge; Lecturer in Geology, Cambridge Uni- 
versity. 

W.B.Mi. Immigration and Emigration (in part) 

WATSON B. MILLER. Commissioner, Immigration and Natural- 
ization Service, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington. 

W.C.An. Portugal; Spain; etc. 

WILLIAM CHRISTOPHER ATKINSON, M.A. Stevenson 
Professor of Spanish, University of Glasgow. Author of Spain, a 
Brief History; etc. 

W.E.S. Palaeontology 

WILLIAM ELGIN SWINTON, Ph.D., F.R.S.E. Principal Scientific 
Officer, British Museum (Natural History), London. Author of 
The Dinosaurs; The Corridor oj Life; Geology and the Museum. 

W.F.Br. Urology 

WILLIAM F. BRAASCH, B.S., M.D. Professor Emeritus of 
Urology, University of Minnestoa Graduate School, Mayo Founda- 
tion, Rochester, Minnesota. Editorial Committee, Quarterly Review 
of Urology and Minnesota Medicine. 

W.Fr. Australia. Commonwealth of; etc. 

WOLFGANG FRIEDMANN, LL.D. Professor of Public Law at 
the University of Melbourne, Australia. Author of The Allied 
Military Government of Germany; Legal Theory; Crisis of the National 
State; Introduction to World Politics. 

W.Ft. Paraguay 

WESLEY FROST, A.M., LL.D. Professor of International 
Relations, The American Institute for Foreign Trade, Phoenix, 
Arizona. Former U.S. Ambassador to Paraguay. 



W.G.P. Indonesia; Netherlands Overseas Territories; etc. 

WIBO GODFR1ED PEEKJEMA, D.L. Legal Adviser to the 

Standard- Vacuum Oil Company, The Hague. 
W.H.Ctr. Austria 

WILLIAM HORSFALL CARTER, M.A. Head of Western 
European Section, Research Department, Foreign Office, London. 

W.H.G. Roads (in part) 

WILLIAM HENRY GLANVILLE, C.B.E., D.Sc., Ph.D., M.I.C.E. 
Director of Road Research, Department of Scientific and Industrial 
Research, Road Research Laboratory, Harmondsworth, Middlesex. 

W.H.Jn. Business Review; Gold (in part) 

WALTER HENRY JOHNSTON. B.A. Assistant Editor, Yorkshire 
Post. Translator of Hegel's Science of Logic. 

W.H.McC. Astronomy 

WILLIAM HUNTER McCREA, M.A., Ph.D., B.Sc., F.R.S.E. 
Professor of Mathematics, University of London. Author of 
Relativity Physics; Physics of the Sun and Stars; etc. 

W.H.Oe. Surgery 

/SIR WILLIAM HENEAGE OGILVIE, K.B.E., M.A., M.D., 
Hon.LL.D., Hon.F.A.C.S., Hon.F.R.C.S.C, Hon.F.R.A.C.S., 
Hon. M.S. Surgeon to Guy's Hospital and the Royal Masonic 
Hospital, London; late Vice-President, Royal College of Surgeons, 
London; Editor, Practitioner. Author of Recent Advances in Surgery; 
Forward Surgery in Modern War; Surgery Orthodox and Heterodox; 
etc. 

W.H.R. Beekeeping 

WILLIAM HENRY RICHARDSON. Fellow of the Royal Entomo- 
logical Association; former Chairman, British Beekeepers' 
Association. 

W.H.Tr. Motor-Boat Racing 

WILLIAM H. TAYLOR. Associate Editor, Yachting, New York. 
Co-author of Yachting in North America. 

W.J.Bp. Alder, Kurt; Diels, Otto; etc. 

WILLIAM JOHN BISHOP, F.L.A. Librarian, Wellcome Historical 
Medical Library, London. Author of Notable Names in Medicine 
and Surgery (with H. Bailey); etc. 

WJ.Bt. Furs (in part) 

WILLIAM J. BRETT, B.S. President, the Fur Reporter, New York. 

W.J.C. Railways (in part) 

WILLIAM J. CUNNINGHAM. James J. Hill Professor of Trans- 
portation, Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard 
University. 

VV.J.C1. Co-operative Movement (in part) 

WALLACE JUSTIN CAMPBELL. Director, Washington Office, 
Co-operative League of the U.S.A. 

W.K.F. Pharmacy 

WILLIAM KENNETH FITCH, M.P.S. Editor, Pharmaceutical 
Journal; Publications Manager of the Pharmaceutical Society of 
Great Britain. Author of Gas Warfare. 

W.L.Be. Eye, Diseases of 

WILLIAM L. BENEDICT, M.D. The Mayo Clinic, Rochester, 
Minnesota. Professor of Ophthalmology, University of Minnesota 
Graduate School, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota. 

W.Mr. Organi/ation of American States 

WILLIAM MANGER, Ph.D. Assistant Secretary-General 
Organization of American States. 

W.O.L.S. Youth Employment (in part) 

WILLIAM OWEN LESTER SMITH, LL.D. Professor of the 
Sociology of Education, University of London. Author of Education 
in Great Britain; etc. 

W.P.K. Medicine 

WALTER PHILLIP KENNEDY, B.Sc., Ph.D., F.R.F.P.S.(G)., 
L.R.C.P.E., L.R.C.S.E., F.R.I.C., F.R.S.E. Senior Medical Officer 
Pharmacologist, Ministry of Health, London. 

W.P.Ma. Telegraphy (in part) 

WALTER P. MARSHALL. President, The Western Union Tele- 
graph Company, New York. 

W.R.W. Veterinary Medicine 

WALTER REGINALD WOOLDRIDGE, M.Sc., Ph.D., 
M.R.C.V.S., F.R.I.C. Scientific Director and Chairman of Council 
of Animal Health Trust, London. Author of War Gases and Food- 
stuffs. 

W.Sm. Korea (in part) 

WARREN SMITH. University of California, Berkeley, California. 

W.T.Ws. Judiciary, British; Law and Legislation (In part); etc. 

WILLIAM THOMAS WELLS, B.A. Barrister-at-Law; Member of 
Parliament. Member of the Lord Chancellor's Committee on the 
Practice and Procedure of the Supreme Court. Author of How 
English Law Works. 

W.V.M. Hutchins, Robert Maynard 

WILLIAM V. MORGENSTERN. Director of Public Relations, 
The University of Chicago. 

W.V.Wt. Prices (in part) 

WILLIAM V. WILMOT, Jr. Instructor, Department of Economics, 
University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin. 

W.W.Bn. Education (in part) 

WILLIAM W. BRICKMAN. Department of History and Philosophy 
of Education, New York University; President's Research Fellow, 
Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (1950-51). Former 
Editor, Education Abstracts; author of Guide to Research in Educa- 
tional History. 

X. 

ANONYMOUS. 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1950 



JANUARY 

1 : Great Britain. Six peers were created 
in the New Year Honours. 

Austria. Major General T. J. W. 
Winterton succeeded Lieut. General Sir 
Alexander Galloway as British high 
commissioner. 

India. Cooch Behar state was merged 
with West Bengal. 

2: Persia. The shah returned from his 
visit to the United States. 

3: Egypt. General elections were held. 
The final results gave the Wafd (nation- 
alist party) 225 seats. 

4: Great Britain. The chancellor of the 
exchequer, Sir Stafford Cripps, stated 
that in the fourth quarter of 1949 the 
gold and dollar deficit had fallen to 
$31 million. 

China. The Communist government 
was recognized by Pakistan. 

India-Afghanistan. A five-year treaty 
of peace and friendship was signed in 
New Delhi. 

5 : Greece. The government led by A. Dio- 
midis resigned. Field Marshal A. Papagos 
resigned as commander in chief. 

Indo-China. Bao Dai dissolved the 
Vietnam government and requested 
Nguyen Phan Long to form a new one. 

6: Great Britain. Notes were sent to the 
governments of Bulgaria, Hungary and 
Rumania concerning the alleged violation 
of human rights. Similar notes were sent 
by Canada and the U.S. 

China. The Communist government 
was recognized by Great Britain, Ceylon 
and Norway. 

Greece. John Theotokis formed a 
caretaker government. Field Marshal 
Papagos withdrew his resignation. 

India-Pakistan. Jawaharlal Nehru 
stated it had been proposed that the two 
governments should sign a declaration 
renouncing war as a means of settling 
their disputes. 

North Atlantic Treaty. The North 
Atlantic council met in Washington. 

United States. In his annual economic 
report to congress, President Truman 
stated that the renewed confidence in the 
U.S. economy was "justified by the 
facts." 

9: Commonwealth. A conference of the 
foreign ministers of the Commonwealth 
countries opened in Colombo. 

China. The Communist government 
was recognized by Denmark and Israel. 

Council of Foreign Ministers. The 
deputies of the foreign ministers resumed 
meetings in London on the Austrian 
peace treaty. 

United States. In his budget message, 
President Truman estimated expenditure 
at $42,400 million. 

0: Great Britain. It was announced that 
parliament would be dissolved and that 
a general election would be held on 
Feb. 23. 

Canada. A three-day conference of 
federal and provincial prime ministers 
to discuss a method of making amend- 
ments 19 the British North America act 
opened in Ottawa. 

E.B.Y. 2 



Indonesia. It was learned that a revolt 
was taking place in west Java under 
Captain " Turco " Westerling, a former 
Dutch officer. 

United Nations. The Soviet delegate, 
Y. Malik, proposed that the Chinese 
Nationalists should be expelled from the 
Security council. After it was decided to 
defer consideration, Malik walked out of 
the council. 

11: Italy. The government resigned to 
enable the Saragat Socialists to enter a 
reconstructed government. 

Persia. The government resigned. 
Mohammed Saed, the outgoing prime 
minister was asked to form a goverment. 

12: Egypt. An all- Wafd government was 
formed with Nahas Pasha as prime 
minister. 

Gold Coast. A state of emergency was 
proclaimed following the opening of a 
civil disobedience campaign. 

Soviet Union. A decree was issued 
restoring capital punishment for offences 
of treason, espionage and sabotage. 

13: China. The Communist government 
was recognized by Finland. 

Poland. It was announced that the 
French Institute in Warsaw had been 
closed. 

United Nations. By 6 votes to 3 in the 
Security council, the Soviet motion to 
expel the Chinese Nationalists was 
defeated. Y. Malik again left the council. 

14: Commonwealth. The Colombo confer- 
ence ended. Among the subjects dis- 
cussed were the world situation, China, 
Japanese peace treaty, southeast Asia 
and Europe. Recommendations for 
economic development (the ** Spender 
plan ") in southeast Asia were submitted 
to the Commonwealth governments. 

Bolivia. The government declared a 
state of siege following the discovery of 
" subversive activities." 

China. The Communist government 
was recognized by Sweden. 

Italy. Alcide De Gasperi was asked to 
form a new government. 

Persia. Mohammed Saed formed a 
new government. 

15: Cyprus. An unofficial plebiscite on 
union with Greece resulted in a 96% vote 
in favour. 

16: Finland. Presidential elections were 
held. The final results showed the Social 
Democrats and Agrarians as the largest 
parties. 

International Labour Organization. A 
regional conference opened in Ceylon. 

17: Pakistan. Liaquat Ali Khan agreed to 
the Indian proposal for a ** no- war " 
declaration only after the settlement of 
certain outstanding differences. 

United Nations. The interim committee 
(" little assembly ") met for the first time 
in 1950 and elected Joao Carlos Muniz 
of Brazil as president. 

18: Scandinavia. A joint committee on a 
customs union between Denmark, Ice- 
land, Norway and Sweden issued a report, 
recommending a transition period of 10 
years. 

19: Bulgaria. The government requested 
the immediate recall of D. R. Heath, 
the U.S. minister in Sofia. 

I 



Israel. De jure recognition was granted 
by Italy. 

United Nations. Soviet delegates with- 
drew from the Atomic Energy com- 
mission as a protest at the presence of a 
Chinese Nationalist delegate. 

United States. By 193 votes to 191 the 
House of Representatives defeated a bill 
for continued U.S. aid to Korea. 

20: Bolivia. The government resigned. 

China. Chpu En-lai, prime minister 
and foreign minister, arrived in Moscow. 

United States. In its reply to the 
Bulgarian note, the United States govern- 
ment refuted the allegations against 
D. R. Heath and threatened to break 
diplomatic relations. 

21: Ireland-United States. A treaty of 
friendship, commerce and navigation was 
signed in Dublin. 

22: United States. Alger Hiss, a former 
State Department official, was found 
guilty of perjury for denying under oath 
that 12 years before he had handed 
government documents to a Soviet spy. 

23: Bulgaria. V. Kolarov, prime minister, 
died. 

Israel. The Knesset adopted a resolu- 
tion proclaiming Jerusalem as the capital 
of Israel. 

24: India. The Constituent Assembly 
unanimously elected Rajendra Prasad 
as the first president of India. 

Indonesia. The prime minister of 
West Java, Anwar Tjokroaminoto, was 
arrested. The federal government was 
recognized by the U.S.S.R. 

25: Council of Foreign Ministers. The four 
deputies received Karl Gruber, Austrian 
foreign minister. 

Western Union. The finance ministers 
of the five countries met in Paris. 

26: France. By 540 votes to 2 the National 
Assembly renewed the 3,000-franc cost- 
of-living bonus. 

India. The republic of India was 
formally proclaimed. The last governor 
general, Chakravarti Rajagopalachari, 
handed over to the first president, 
Rajendra Prasad. 

O.E.E.C. The consultative group 
began a two-day meeting in Paris. 

27: Burma. The prime minister, Thakin 
Nu, arrived in Colombo. 

Indonesia. The West Java government 
resigned. 

Italy. A new cabinet was formed 
consisting of 11 Christian Democrats, 
3 Social Democrats and 2 Republicans. 

North Atlantic Treaty. Eight signatory 
nations of the treaty Great Britain, 
Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Luxem- 
bourg, the Netherlands and Norway 
signed bilateral arms aid agreements 
with the United States. 

United Nations. The Trusteeship 
council voted in favour of an Italian 
trusteeship agreement for Somaliland. 

28: Bolivia. A new government was 
formed. All but one of the ministers were 
members of the Republican Socialist 
Union party. 

Egypt. King Farouk received Ernest 
Bevin who had arrived in Cairo on hi* 
return from the Colombo conference. 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1950 



France. By 396 votes to 193 the 
National Assembly ratified the treaties 
with Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. 
30: Indonesia. The head of the state of 
West Java, Wiranata Kusumah, laid 
down his mandate. The parliament 
handed over all powers to the federal 
government. 

O.E.E.C. An agreement was signed 
between representatives of Great Britain, 
Denmark, Norway and Sweden accepting 
recommendations for closer economic 
co-operation. 

South Africa. A motion of no-confi- 
dence in Dr. Malan's government was 
defeated by 78 votes to 71. 
3 1 : Australia. P. C. Spender, minister for 
external affairs, said any attempt by 
Indonesia to establish control over 
Australian New Guinea would be treated 
as an act of hostility. 

Indo-China. The U.S.S.R. recognized 
the administration of Ho Chi Minh. 
The French government protested that 
this step violated international law. 

O.E.E.C. The council appointed 
D. U. Stikker, Netherlands foreign minis- 
ter, to the new post of political conciliator. 
The two vice presidents, Karl Gruber, 
Austria, and Sean MacBride, Ireland, 
were invited to join the consultative 
group. 

United States. President Truman 
announced that he had directed the 
Atomic Energy commission to continue 
work on all forms of atomic weapons, 
including the hydrogen bomb. 



FEBRUARY 

1 : Bulgaria. The National Assembly 
elected Vlko Chervenkov as prime minis- 
ter. 

Indo-China. The Soviet ambassador 
returned the French note to the French 
foreign office. 

Iraq. The prime minister, Ali Jawdat 
al Ayyubi, resigned. 

Soviet Union. The government sent 
notes to the governments of Great 
Britain, Communist China and the United 
States proposing the trial of Emperor 
Hirohito as a war criminal. 
2: France. The Council of the Republic 
ratified the treaties with Cambodia, 
Laos and Vietnam by 294 votes to 20. 

Indo-China. The Vietminh govern- 
ment was recognized by Czechoslovakia. 

Indonesia. Ahmed Sukarno returned to 
Jakarta after visiting India, Pakistan and 
Burma. 

Pakistan. The government withdrew 
its trade ban with South Africa. 

3: Great Britain. The 38th parliament of 
the United Kingdom was dissolved. 

Ernest Bevin returned to London 
from Colombo. 

Chile. Following a wave of strikes the 
government resigned. 

Indo-China. The Vietminh republic 
was recognized by Hungary, Poland and 
Rumania. 

Indonesia. The government was recog- 
nized by Poland. 

Tanganyika. Rioting broke out in the 
native quarter of Dar-es-Salaam. 

United States. The government rejected 
the Soviet note proposing the trial of 
Hirohito. 

4: Chile. President G. Gonzalez Videla 
appointed an all-party cabinet. 

France. Th Socialist members of the 
Cabinet resigned. 



Italy. The Chamber of Deputies 
passed the Somaliland bill by 287 votes 
to 153. The bill provided for preliminary 
expenditure in Somaliland for trusteeship 
purposes. 

Empire Games. The fourth Empire 
Games were opened in Eden Park, 
Auckland, by Sir Bernard Freyberg, 
governor general of New Zealand. 
5: Egypt. The government decided to end 
martial law. 

Greece. The last British troops left 
Greece. 

Iraq. Tawfiq as Suwaidi formed a 
coalition government. 
6: South Africa. Preliminary discussions 
began in Capetown between representa- 
tives of India, Pakistan and South Africa. 

7: France. Non-Socialists were appointed 
to fill the vacancies in the government. 
By 225 votes to 185 (with 200 abstentions) 
the National Assembly supported the 
Bidault government. 

Indo-China. The British and United 
States governments granted recognition 
to the governments of Vietnam, Cam- 
bodia and Laos. 

United Nations. The Soviet, Czecho- 
slovak and Polish delegates walked out 
of the Economic and Social council after 
failing to unseat the Chinese Nationalist 
delegation. 

8: Australia. P. G. Menzics, prime 
minister, announced the ending of petrol 
rationing. 

Bvlgium. The House of Representatives 
voted by 117 votes to 92 in favour of a 
referendum on the return of King Leo- 
pold. 

Indo-China. The governments of Aus- 
tralia and Belgium granted recognition 
to Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. The 
Vietminh government was recognized 
by Bulgaria. 

9: India. Troops were called out in 
Calcutta during an outbreak of com- 
munal rioting. 

United States. The House of Represen- 
tatives passed by 240 votes to 134, a bill 
authorizing economic aid to Korea and 
to Fortnosa. 

10: Great Britain-Israel. A financial agree- 
mcnt was concluded in London. 

United States. The Export-Import bank 
announced a loan of $100 million to 
Indonesia. 

1 1 : India. Twenty people were killed and 
100 injured when police opened fire to 
quell a riot in Salem prison, Madras. 

13: Great Britain. Nominations ended for 
the general election. 1,868 candidates 
had been nominated for 625 seats, 
including two unopposed returns. 

Scandinavia. A conference was held at 
Halmsted, Sweden, between the prime 
ministers of Denmark, Norway and 
Sweden. 

South Africa. Rioting broke out in 
Newclare, near Johannesburg. 

United States. A conference of the 
heads of U.S. diplomatic missions in 14 
Asian countries was held in Bangkok. 

14: Great Britain. In an election speech at 
Edinburgh, Winston Churchill suggested 
direct talks with the Soviet Union on the 
control of atomic energy. 

Italy. The Chamber of Deputies 
passed a motion of confidence in the new 
De Gasperi government. Fighting took 
place in the chamber during the prime 
minister's speech. 

Liberia. A state of emergency was 
proclaimed following a riot by rubber 
workers on strike. 



Soviet Union-China. A 30-yr. treaty 
of friendship, alliance and mutual assist- 
ance was signed in Moscow by A; Vyshin- 
sky and Chou En-lai. Agreements were 
also signed dealing with the Manchurian 
railway, Port Arthur and Dairen, and 
with the establishing of long-term credits 
by the U.S.S.R. to China. 

United States-Yemen. The State 
Department announced the restoration 
of full diplomatic relations which had 
been broken off in 1948. 

15: Finland. Juho Paasikivi was re- 
elected president. 

Indonesia. The first session of the Indo- 
nesian parliament opened in Jakarta. 

16: Burma. The parliament unanimously 
decided to postpone the general election 
for a further 12 months. 

Indonesia. The government was recog- 
nized by Rumania. 

International Court of Justice. Hearings 
began on the question whether the general 
assembly could over-rule the Security 
council on the admission of new members. 

West Indies. Princess Alice was installed 
as first chancellor of the University 
College of the West Indies, in Jamaica. 
17: China. Mao Tse-tung and Chou En-lai 
left Moscow for Peking. 

Nepal. Maharaja Mohan Shumshere 

Jung Bahadur Rana, prime minister, 

arrived in New Delhi on an eight-day 

good will visit to India. 

18: Belgium. The cabinet endbrsed a 

10-yr. plan for the Belgian Congo. 
20: Somaliland. The first Italian troops 

disembarked at Mogadishu. 
21: Eritrea. 22 people were killed in 
rioting between Copts and Moslems. 

Hungary. At a trial in Budapest, Edgar 
Sanders (Great Britain) and Robert 
Voegler (U.S.) were found guilty of 
espionage and sentenced to long terms of 
imprisonment. 

Indo-China. The Yugoslav government 
recognized the Ho Chi Minh adminis- 
tration. 

World Health Organization. Rumania 
withdrew from the W.H.O. 
22: Hungary. The British and U.S. govern- 
ments were requested to reduce the size 
of their legations in Budapest. 

United States. The government sus- 
pended diplomatic relations with Bulgaria 
(later Poland agreed to represent Bul- 
garian interests in the U.S., and Switzer- 
land, U.S. interests in Bulgaria). 

23: Great Britain. A general election was 
held. The Labour party was returned to 
office with a majority over all other 
parties of 6. Over 84% of the electorate 
voted. 

China. Communist troops landed on 
Namoa island. 

Eritrea. A total curfew was imposed in 
Asmara following continued clashes. 

Italy. The trial of Marshal Rudolfo 
Graziani on charges of war crimes opened 
before a military court in Rome. 

24: Western Germany. It was announced 
that Field Marshal Manstein's sentence 
had been reduced from 18 to 12 years. 

25: Indonesia. The leader of the West Java 
revolt, Captain Westerling, was arrested in 
Singapore on charges of entering the 
colony illegally. 

Soviet Union. A Ministry of the Navy 
of the U.S.S.R. was created. Admiral 
I. S. Yumashev was appointed minister. 

27: United States-Canada. A treaty on the 
preservation and usage of the Niagara 
falls was signed in Washington. 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1950 



28: Great Britain. The Labour government 
was reformed. Emanuel Shin well 
returned to the cabinet as minister of 
defence, and Hugh Qaitskell was appoin- 
ted minister of state for economic affairs. 

Chile. The government was defeated 
in the congress. 

Indo-China. The governments of 
Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam were 
recognized by Thailand. 

International Court of Justice. Hearings 
began in the case concerning the inter- 
pretations of the peace treaties with 
Bulgaria, Hungary and Rumania. 

MARCH 

1: Great Britain. The new House of 
Commons met for the first time and re- 
elected Colonel Douglas Clifton Brown 
as speaker. 

Dr. K. E. J. Fuchs, a naturalized 
British subject working on atomic re- 
search, was sentenced to 14 yr. imprison- 
ment for giving information on atomic 
energy to the U.S.S.R. 

Council of Foreign Ministers. The 
deputies met to discuss the Austrian 
treaty. 

Iceland. The government led by Olafur 
Thors resigned. 

Persia. The shah of Persia arrived in 
Karachi on a state visit to Pakistan. 

Soviet Union. The rouble was revalued 
on a gold basis. New price reductions in 
many goods came into effect. 

United States. The U.S. Export-Import 
bank authorized an additional $20 million 
loan to Yugoslavia. 

2: Western Germany. The high com- 
mission signed a law prohibiting German 
activity in the field of atomic energy. 
3: France-Saar. A series of agreements 
was signed in Paris by R. Schuman, 
French foreign minister, and Johannes 
Hoffmann, prime minister of the Saar. 

International Court of Justice. The 
court ruled that the general assembly was 
not competent to override the Security 
council on the question of the admission 
of new members. 

Rumania. The British Information 
office in Bucharest was closed at the 
request of the Rumanian government. 

Spain. The government granted recog- 
nition to Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. 

United States. The House of Repre- 
sentatives passed a bill by 186 votes to 
146 granting statehood to Alaska; the 
bill was then passed to the Senate for 
approval. 

4: Elections were held in South Australia. 
The Liberal-Country league government 
was returned to office. 

China. Mao Tse-tung and Chou En-lai 
returned from Moscow. 

United States. The government rejected 
a Hungarian request to reduce the size 
of its legation in Budapest as " improper 
and irrelevant." 

Western Germany. Konrad Adenauer, 
federal chancellor, strongly criticized the 
Saar agreements. 

5: Greece. A general election was held. 
The Populist party emerged as the 
largest with 62 seats in a chamber of 250. 
6: Great Britain. The King opened 
parliament. His speech announced a 
limited programme of legislation. 

India. Jawaharlal Nehru arrived in 
Calcutta to study the communal situation. 

United Nations. The Economic and 
Social council granted " category A " 
consultative status to the International 
Confederation of Free Trade Unions. 



World Health Organization, Albania 
withdrew from the W.H.O. 

7: Great Britain-France. President Vin- 
cent Auriol and Mme. Auriol of France 
arrived in Britain on a state visit. 

Burma. A joint note from Great 
Britain, Australia, Ceylon, India and 
Pakistan announced that the Common- 
wealth would make a loan to Burma of 
6 million. 

France-Italy. Agreements were signed 
to further a customs union. 

Germany. Sir Brian Robertson, British 
high commissioner, re-affirmed the British 
intention of remaining in Berlin. 

United States. The House of Represen- 
tatives passed a bill granting statehood 
to Hawaii; the bill was subsequently 
passed to the Senate for approval. 

8: Great Britain. The secretary of state 
for commonwealth relations, P. Gordon- 
Walker, announced that the government 
had decided to withhold recognition of 
Seretse Khama as chief of the Bamang- 
wato tribe in Bechuanaland for at least 
five years. 

China. General Chen Cheng was 
elected Nationalist prime minister in 
succession to Marshal Yen Hsi-shan. 

Nigeria. The secretary of the Zikist 
movement, Mokwugwo Okoye, was 
sentenced to 33 month's imprisonment on 
charges of possessing seditious publica- 
tions. 

Singapore. Captain Westcrling pleaded 
guilty to entering the colony illegally and 
was sentenced to one month's imprison- 
ment. 

9: Great Britain. A division in the new 
House of Commons on steel nationaliza- 
tion gave the government a majority of 
14 (310 votes to 296). 

Conservatives retained the Moss Side 
seat of Manchester. Polling had been 
delayed because of the death of a 
candidate. 

Indonesia. Central Java, East Java, the 
town of Padang in Sumatra, and the 
islands of Madura and Sebang were 
merged with the republic. 

10: Scandinavia. A two-day conference of 
the foreign ministers of Sweden, Den- 
mark and Norway opened in Stockholm. 
A representative of Iceland was present. 

1 1 : Belgium. A referendum was held on 
the question of King Leopold's return, 
57-68% of the votes being cast in favour. 

12: Indo-China. The Holy See granted 
recognition to Vietnam, Laos and Cam- 
bodia. 

Indonesia. West Java was merged with 
the republic. 

Soviet Union. Elections were held for 
the Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of 
Nationalities. 99-98% of the electorate 
voted; the Communist and non-party 
lists received for the Soviet of the Union 
99-73% and for the Soviet of National- 
ities 99-78% of the respective votes. 

13: Great Britain. A debate on housing 
in the House of Commons resulted in a 
government majority of 25. 

Belgium. The prime minister, G. Eys- 
kens, left Brussels for discussions with 
King Leopold. 

International Monetary Fund and Bank. 
Poland withdrew from membership. 

Syria-Lebanon. The Syrian government 
announced the rupture of the customs 
union between the two countries. 

14: Czechoslovakia. Vladimir dementis 
was replaced as foreign minister by 
Vilem Siroky. 



Iceland. A coalition government was 
formed by Steingrimur Steinthdrsson. 

India. Jawaharlal Nehru made a 
second visit to Calcutta to study the 
communal situation. 

1 5 : Persia-India. A treaty of friendship was 
signed in Tehran. 

16: Great Britain. The appointments were 
announced of General Sir Brian Robert- 
son as commander in chief Middle East 
Forces, and Sir Ivonc Kirkpatrick as 
high commissioner in Germany. 

The government requested the Rum- 
anian government to close its information 
office in London. 

Belgium. King Leopold declared he 
would accept the decision of parliament 
and would abdicate if parliament con- 
sidered he should not resume his duties. 

17: Finland. The president of the parlia- 
ment, Urho Kekkonen, formed a govern- 
ment. 

Persia. The shah left Karachi at the 
end of his good-will visit to Pakistan. 
18: Belgium. The government led by 
G. Eyskcns resigned. 

Iceland. The Kr6na was devalued to 
16-29 to the U.S. dollar, and its value 
increased in relation to the pound sterling 
from 26-22 to 45 -60. 

19: Belgium. G. Eyskens was asked to 
form a new government. 

Burma. Government forces recaptured 
Toungoo, 180 mi. north of Rangoon. 

Persia. The government led by 
Mohammed Saed resigned. 
21: Great Britain. The appointment was 
announced of Sir Gladwyn Jebb as 
permanent representative at the United 
Nations in succession to Sir Alexander 
Cadogan. 

Malaya. General Sir Harold Briggs 
was appointed director of operations. 
22: Belgium. G. Eyskens failed to form a 
government and Count Henri Carton de 
Wiart was asked to try. 

Persia. Ali Mansur was asked to form 
a government. 

United States. President Truman 
nominated Thomas E. Murray to succeed 
David E. Lilienthal on the Atomic 
Energy commission. 

23: Belgium. The ministers of state, last 
convened in 1914, met to discuss the 
political situation. 

Greece. A new cabinet under Sophocles 
Venizelos was sworn in. 

World Meteorological Organization. 
The organization formally came into 
effect. 

24: Belgium. Count Carton de Wiart gave 
up his attempt to form a government. 

Italy-Turkey. A treaty of friendship 
was signed in Rome. 

25: Australia. A general election was held 
in Western Australia. The Liberal- 
Country coalition government was re- 
turned to office. 

Belgium. Albert Deveze agreed to try 
to form a government. 

Indo-China. Three members of Bao 
Dai's cabinet resigned. 

Netherlands-Indonesia. The first union 
conference opened in Jakarta under the 
chairmanship of Dr. Hatta. 

Afghanistan. The king arrived in Teh- 
ran on a state visit to Persia. 

Yugoslavia. General elections were 
held. 93% of the votes cast were in 
favour of the official People's Front. 
27: Arab League. The council of the league 
met in Cairo. 

China. The Communist government 
was recognized by the Netherlands 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1950 



India. Howrah was placed under 
martial law following communal dis- 
turbances. 

29: Horse Racing. Mrs. L. Brotherton's 
Freebooter, ridden by J. Power, won the 
Grand National by 15 lengths. 
29: Great Britain. The government was 
defeated in the House of Commons by 
283 votes to 257 after a debate on fuel 
and petrol policy. 

Arab League. A Jordan representative 
and representatives from the Gaza 
government attended the council meeting. 

China-Soviet Union. An agreement 
was signed giving the U.S.S.R. half of 
Sinkiang oil and non-ferrous metal output 
for 30 years. 

North Atlantic Treaty. The North 
Atlantic Defence, Financial and Econo- 
mic committee met in London. 

United States. The House of Represen- 
tatives voted, by 99 votes to 66, to with- 
hold E.C.A. funds to Great Britain until 
the British policy on Ireland was changed. 

30: Great Britain. Clement Attlee 
announced that the government's defeat 
would not be regarded as a vote of no 
confidence and that the government 
would not resign. 

Great Britain-Israel. A financial agree- 
ment was signed in London. 

France. Leon Blum, three times prime 
minister of France, died. 

International Court of Justice. By 1 1 
votes to 3 the court decided that disputes 
existed under the peace treaties with 
Bulgaria, Hungary and Rumania. 

Kenya. The town of Nairobi was raised 
to the status of a city. The King was 
represented by the Duke of Gloucester. 
31: Great Britain. The financial year 
ended with a budget surplus of 549 
million. 

Council of Europe. The council of 
ministers approved the text of invitations 
to Western Germany and the Saar and 
allocated 18 seats in the assembly to 
Germany and three to the Saar. 

India. Total prohibition was intro- 
duced in Bombay. 

Kenya. The Duke of Gloucester was 
made the first freeman of Nairobi. 

United States. The Foreign Aid bill 
was passed by the House of Representa- 
tives by 287 votes to 86, after the decision 
concerning the partition of Ireland 
(March 29) had been rescinded. 



APRIL 

I : Arab League. The council agreed to 
expel any member concluding a separate 
peace with Israel. 

India. The central government took 
over control of the armed forces, posts 
and telegraphs, customs and income tax 
from the states. 

North Atlantic Treaty. The defence 
ministers of the 12 treaty powers met at 
The Hague. 

Somaliland. The administration of the 
former Italian colony was transferred 
from the British to the Italian authorities 
as trustees. 

Rowing. Cambridge won the university 
boat race by 3} lengths in 20 min. 1 5 sec. 

2: Burma. On the advice of the official 
astrologers the government resigned at 
9.15 a.m. and resumed office again five 
minutes later. 

Greece. P. Kanellopoulos resigned 
from the govf rnment to allow it to be 
broadened. 



India-Pakistan. Liaquat Ali Khan, 
prime minister of Pakistan, arrived in 
New Delhi for talks with Jawaharlal 
Nehru. 

Norway. The prime minister announced 
increases in the prices of many foodstuffs 
and other commodities. 

3: Belgium. Albert Deveze, the Liberal 
leader who was trying to form a govern- 
ment, saw King Leopold at Pregny. 

E.R.P. The half-way mark of the 
European Recovery programme was 
celebrated. Since April 1948, the total 
U.S. aid to Europe under the programme 
was $8,686 million. 

Norway. The rationing of margarine, 
butter and cooking fats ended. 

Persia. A new cabinet was appointed 
with Ali Mansur as prime minister. 

Trinidad. A new constitution for the 
colony was published. 

United Nations. The Soviet delegate 
left the Economic and Social commission 
in protest at the presence of a Chinese 
Nationalist delegate. 

4: Great Britain. Sir Stafford Cripps 
said that in the first quarter of 1950 the 
gold and dollar reserves had risen by 
$296 million. 

Afghanistan-India. A treaty of trade 
and commerce was signed at Kabul. 

Belgium. Albert Deveze gave up his 
attempt to form ^ government. 

O.E.E.C. D. U. Stikker (Netherlands) 
was elected chairman of the council. The 
consultative group was abolished. Sir 
Edmund Hall-Patch (Great Britain) 
remained chairman of the executive 
committee. 

Saar. The parliament ratified the five 
agreements with France by 47 votes to 1 . 

United Nations. The Trusteeship 
council adopted a statute for Jerusalem 
by nine votes to none. 

5 : Great Britain. Maurice Webb, minister 
of food, announced increases in price of 
butter and bacon. 

Sir Frank Soskice, solicitor general, 
was elected in the first by-election of the 
new parliament in the Neepsend division 
of Sheffield. 

Belgium. Paul van Zeeland agreed to 
try to form a government. 

.Pakistan. Sir Frederick Bourne, gover- 
nor of East Bengal, retired and was 
succeeded by Malik Firoz Khan Noon. 

Soviet Union. A Ministry of Cotton 
Growing of the U.S.S.R. was created. 

6: India. President Prasad inaugurated 
the programme of total prohibition in 
Bombay state. 

Indonesia. The federal government 
arrested Sultan Hamid II of West Borneo. 
United States. President Truman 
announced the appointment of John 
Foster Dulles, Republican, as consultant 
to the secretary of state. 

7 : New Zealand. F. W. Doidge, minister 
for external affairs, announced that the 
New Zealand legation in Moscow would 
be closed. 

8: American States. The council of the 
Organization of American States voted 
unanimously to warn Cuba, Guatemala 
and the Dominican Republic that sanc- 
tions would be applied if there was further 
unrest in the Caribbean area. 

India-Pakistan. The two prime mini- 
sters reached agreement on minority 
rights, with special reference to East 
Bengal, West Bengal and Assam. 

9 : Arab League. The political committee 
unanimously approved a collective secur- 
ity pact. 



Bolivia. The government devalued the 
peso by 43%. 

10: Iraq. The High Court sentenced Ali 
Khalid, former chief of police, to life 
imprisonment for trying to overthrow 
the government by force. 

11: China. The Sino-Soviet treaty of 
friendship, alliance and mutual assistance 
was ratified by the Chinese People's 
government. 

Soviet Union. The government, in a 
note to the U.S. government, alleged that 
U.S. aircraft flew over Latvia and opened 
fire on Soviet fighters on April 8. 

12: Chile. President Gabriel Gonzalez 
Videla arrived in Washington on a state 
visit. 

Jordan. The prime minister, Tawfik 
Pasha Abulhuda, resigned. 

Soviet Union. The government pro- 
tested to Italy over the failure to deliver 
reparations. 

Soviet Union-Eastern Germany. A 
trade and payments agreement was 
signed in Moscow. 

United Nations. The Security council 
appointed Sir Owen Dixon, Australian 
high court judge, mediator in the Kashmir 
dispute. 

13: Arab League. The council of the 
league adjourned after all member states 
had signed an agreement for collective 
defence and economic co-operation. 

Jordan. A new cabinet was formed by 
Said Pasha el Mufti. 

South Africa. In a speech to the Union 
House of Assembly Dr. Malan proposed 
that the negotiations started with Great 
Britain over the three protectorates and 
interrupted by World War II should be 
resumed. 

14: Greece. S. Venizelos, the prime 
minister, resigned. General N. Plastiras 
was asked to form a new government. 
Poland. The government decided to 
recognize the Mongolian People's repub- 
lic. 

15: Belgium. In a broadcast King Leopold 
announced that after being recalled by 
parliament he might delegate his powers 
temporarily to the crown prince. 

Greece. A coalition government led by 
General Plastiras was sworn in. 

16: Great Britain. It was announced that 
Stanley Evans, parliamentary secretary to 
the ministry of food, had resigned. 

Trieste. Elections were held in the 
Yugoslav zone. 86 77 % of the electorate 
voted, of whom 88-36% voted for the 
People's front. 

Western Union. The eighth session of 
the consultative council was held in 
Brussels. 

17: Bechuanaland. Seretse Khama returned 
to Serowe where he was greeted by 
tribesmen. 

18: Great Britain. Sir Stafford Cripps 
presented his third budget to the House 
of Commons. The lower rates of income 
tax were reduced and the price of petrol 
increased. Total revenue for 1950-51 was 
estimated at 3,898 million and expendi- 
ture at 3,455 million. 

International Bank. An agreement for a 
loan of $18-5 million to India was signed 
in Washington. 

Shipping. The Seafarers' section of the 
International Transport Workers' federa- 
tion meeting at Amsterdam decided to 
boycott all ships sailing under the flag of 
Panama. 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1950 



United States. The text of the U.S. 
reply to the Soviet note of April 1 1 was 
published. It accused the Soviet govern- 
ment of shooting down an unarmed plane 
over the Baltic. 

19: India. The president accepted the 
resignations of the minister for industry 
and supply, S. P. Mookerjee, and the 
minister for commerce, K. C. Neogy. 

Pakistan-India. Trade negotiations 
were resumed in Karachi. 

Soviet Union-China. A trade agreement 
and an agreement on an exchange of 
goods were signed in Moscow. 

United Nations. The Soviet Union 
withdrew its support for an international 
regime for Jerusalem. 

20: Great Britain. The minister of labour, 
George Isaacs, denounced a strike at the 
London docks as Communist inspired. 
6,737 men were on strike. 

Australia. A motion of censure on the 
speaker, A. G. Cameron, was defeated 
in the House of Representatives by 67 
votes to 38. 

21 : Soviet Union. The government rejected 
the U.S. note of April 18 concerning a 
missing U.S. plane. 

World Health Organization. Czecho- 
slovakia withdrew from the W.H.O. 
22: Italy. Count Carlo Sforza stated that 
Italy was willing to negotiate directly with 
Yugoslavia over Trieste. 
23 : Great Britain. The centenary of William 
Wordsworth, who died at Ambleside on 
April 23, 1 850, was celebrated in the Lake 
district. 

Roman Catholic Church. The first 

canonization during the Holy Year took 

place at St. Peter's when Emilias dc Rodat 

was declared a saint. 

24: Norway. The rationing of chocolate 

and sweets ended. 

25: Great Britain. The Labour party 
retained its seat in the Dumbarton west 
by-election with a majority of 293. 

Czechoslovakia. Alexej Cepicka, mini- 
ster of justice, was appointed minister of 
defence. 

Food and Agriculture Organization. 
Poland left the organization because, it 
alleged, the F.A.O. had not given it 
sufficient help after World War II. 

France. It was announced that oil 
deposits had been found near Pau. 

South Pacific. The first conference of 
representatives of the native peoples of 
the South Pacific opened in Suva, Fiji. 
26: Great Britain. The government sur- 
vived two divisions on its budget propo- 
sals with majorities of five in each division. 

Council of Foreign Ministers. The 
deputies held their 252nd meeting in 
London. 

Indonesia. A republic of the South 
Moluccas was declared in Amboina. 

Pakistan-India. Jawaharlal Nehru 
arrived in Karachi for talks with Liaquat 
Ali Khan. 

27: Great Britain. The British government 
recognized Jordan and granted de jure 
recognition to Israel. 

The London Dock Labour board 
announced that unless the strikers 
returned by May 1 their services would be 
terminated. About 14,400 men were on 
strike. 

Australia. R. G. Menzies, prime 
minister, introduced in the House of 
Representatives a bill dissolving the 
Communist party. 

Indo-China. The prime minister of 
Vietnam, N'guyen Phan Long, resigned. 
Bao Dai asked Tran Van Huu to form a 
government. 



Pakistan-India. Talks in Karachi 
between Liaquat Ali Khan and Jawahar- 
lal Nehru were ended. 
28: France. F. Joliot was dismissed from 
his post of high commissioner for atomic 
energy. 

Singapore. An attempt was made on 
the life of governor, Sir Franklin Girnson, 
when a grenade was thrown at him. 

Thailand. The marriage of King 
Phumiphon Adundet and Princess Sirikit 
Kitiyakara was solemnized in Bangkok. 
29: Australia. The Labour government in 
Queensland was returned to office in a 
general election. 

Belgium. The regent dissolved parlia- 
ment. 

Football. Arsenal beat Liverpool by 
2 goals to in the Football Association 
cup final at Wembley. 
30: Italy. The Free Italian Confederation 
of Trade Unions, the Italian Federation 
of Labour and the Italian Confederation 
of Worker's Trade Unions decided to 
form one trade union federation. 

Panama. The government outlawed 
the Communist party. 



MAY 

1 : Great Britain. After a debate in the 
House of Commons on the government's 
road transport policy the government and 
opposition tied in a division with 278 
votes each. The chairman of committees 
gave a casting vote in favour of the 
government. 

Commonwealth. Representatives of the 
Commonwealth countries met in London 
to consider the terms of a peace settlement 
with Japan. 

Indo-China. King Norodom Sihanouk 
of Cambodia took over the functions of 
head of the government in view of the 
serious internal situation. 

South Africa. In May day disturbances 
on the Rand, 18 Africans were killed and 
38 wounded. 

2: Great Britain. The 5s. limit on meals 
in restaurants was removed. 

India. Chandernagore, French India, 
was formally merged with the republic of* 
India. * 

Italy. At a trial in Rome Marshal 
Graziani was found guilty of military 
collaboration with the Germans. He was 
sentenced to 19 yr. imprisonment, of 
which 13 yr. 8 rrKh. were remitted. 

3 : Great Britain. It was announced that a 
British trawler fishing in the White sea had 
been arrested by the Russians and taken 
into Murmansk. 

4: Great Britain. In a by-election at 
Brighouse and Spenborough Labour 
retained its seat with a reduced majority. 
Council of Foreign Ministers. The 
253rd meeting of the deputies discussing 
the Austrian treaty was held in London. 
The deputies adjourned till May 22. 

5: India. After resignations over the Indo- 
Pakistan minorities agreement Jawaharlal 
Nehru formed a new government. 
C. C. Biswas was appointed minister of 
state for minorities. 

South Africa. A bill to outlaw the 
Communist party was introduced in the 
House of Assembly. 

United States. The Senate approved a 
$3,122 million programme of U.S. foreign 
economic aid for the financial year 
starting on July 1. 

6: Nicaragua. President Manuel Roman y 
Reyes died in Philadelphia, U.S. 



7: Great Britain. In May day demon- 
strations in London skirmishes took place 
and 70 persons were arrested. 

Haiti. The cabinet resigned over a 
move to permit the re-election of President 
Dumarsais Estime. 

India. The Punjab mail train was 
derailed. More than 70 persons were 
killed. 

8: Hungary. A bill to establish local 
councils on the Soviet model was passed 
by the National Assembly. 

Syria. K ha led el Azam, prime minister, 
resigned. He was asked to form a new 
government. 

United States. After discussions in 
Paris with Robert Schuman, Dean 
Acheson announced that the U.S. would 
provide economic aid to Indo-China. 

World Health Organization. The third 
world health assembly opened in Geneva. 
Rajkumari Amrit Kaur of India was 
elected president. 

9: Great Britain. The House of Commons 
approved a loan of 3-75 million to 
Burma. This was Great Britain's share 
of a Commonwealth loan of 6 million. 

France. Robert Schuman announced a 
French plan for the joint control of 
French and German steel and coal under 
a common authority which other coun- 
tries would join. (This became known as 
the " Schuman plan "). 

Western Germany. The cabinet 
decided to accept the invitation to join 
the Council of Europe as an associate 
member. 

10: Haiti. President Dumarsais Estime 
resigned after a coup d'hat led by a 
military junta. 

Red Cross. The Soviet delegation left 
the committee of the League of Red Cross 
Societies in Geneva in protest at the 
presence of Chinese Nationalists. 
1 1 : Great Britian. A conference in London 
between Ernest Bevin, Dean Acheson 
and Robert Schuman opened with a 
general review of the world situation. 

In the House of Commons, Clement 
Attlee welcomed the French proposal 
for integrating French and German heavy 
industry as a contribution towards the 
solution of a major European problem. 

United Nations. The secretary general, 
Trygve Lie, arrived in Moscow. 
12: Czechoslovakia. The government 
denounced the 1947 cultural agreement 
with Great Britain and ordered British 
information offices in Czechoslovakia to 
close from May 13. 

Monaco. The offices of the French 
Communist party in Monaco were closed. 
13: Great Britain. The British, French and 
the U.S. foreign ministers announced that 
they had reached agreement on the main 
lines of policy in all parts of the world. 

Australia. Elections were held for the 
Victoria Legislative Assembly. The 
Liberal and Country party lost 3 seats but 
remained the largest with 27 scats. 
14: Great Britain. The foreign ministers of 
Great Britain, France and the U.S. 
issued a declaration on Germany. 

Norway. The city of Oslo began to 
celebrate the 900th anniversary of its 
founding. 

Soviet Union. The government sent a 
note to the government of Persia pro- 
testing at the carrying out of surveys near 
the Soviet Union-Persian frontier by 
foreigners. 

Turkey. In a general election the 
People's party led by President Ismet 
Indnii was heavily defeated by the 
Democrats under CelAl Bavar. 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1950 



15: Great Britain. In retaliation against 
the Czechoslovak action the British 
government ordered the closing of the 
Czechoslovak institute in London and 
the discontinuance of the information 
work of the embassy. 

Commonwealth Conference. A con- 
ference of Commonwealth countries on 
economic aid to southeast Asia opened 
in Sydney. 

North Atlantic Treaty. The North 
Atlantic council met for its fourth session 
in London. 

Soviet Union. J. V. Stalin received 
Trygve Lie, secretary general of the 
United Nations. 

Universal Postal Union. The executive 
and liaison committee met in Berne. For 
the first time at an international confer- 
ence representatives from Communist 
China were admitted. 

16: Arab League. The political committee 
of the league announced that Syria, 
Saudi Arabia, Lebanon and Egypt were 
in favour of expelling Jordan. 

Egypt. The crown council deprived 
Princess Fathia of her title following her 
marriage in San Francisco to a commoner. 

France. The National Assembly, by 
320 votes to 1 79, passed a resolution that 
would permit the Comtc de Paris, 
pretender to the French throne, to return 
to France. 

International Court of Justice. The 
court started hearings on the status of 
South- West Africa. 

1 7 : United States. The Export-Import bank 
announced a credit of $125 million to a 
group of Argentine banks. 
18: Council of Europe. Representatives of 
the committee of ministers and of the 
consultative assembly met in London and 
decided to create a joint committee of 
five representatives of the ministers and 
seven of the assembly. 

North Atlantic Treaty. The fourth 
meeting of the Council ended. It was 
decided to set up a permanent defence 
organization in London. 
19: Burma. Government forces recaptured 
Prome. 

Commonwealth Conference. The con- 
ference at Sydney ended. Agreement was 
reached on the need for a programme of 
economic development for south and 
southeast Asia. 

Indonesia. A treaty was signed between 
the republic of the United States of 
Indonesia and the republic of Indonesia 
providing for the implementation of the 
principle of the unitary state. 
20: Great Britain. The points rationing 
system ended. (The only foods remaining 
on the ration were meat, butter, mar- 
garine, tea, cooking fat, cheese, sugar and 
sweets.) 

Western Germany. A mining disaster 
at Gclsenkirchen caused more than 75 
deaths. 

21: Great Britain. During widespread 
storms in southern, central and eastern 
England, a tornado developed over the 
Chiltern hills causing considerable dam- 
age. 

A conference of Labour party leaders, 
T.U.C. and Co-operative party repre- 
sentatives ended at Dorking, Surrey. 

Bolivia. The government announced 
that 13 persons were killed and 112 
wounded in rioting at La Paz on May 18 
and 19. 

Nicaragua. General Anastasio Samoza 
was elected president in succession to 
V. M. Roman y Reyes, who died on 
May 6. 



Peru. A severe earthquake shook parts 

of Peru. The city of Cuzco was destroyed. 

22: Council of Foreign Ministers. The 

253rd meeting of the deputies discussing 
the Austrian treaty was held in London. 
No progress was made. 

India. Jawaharlal Nehru stated that it 
had been decided not to recognize the 
Bao Dai government in Vietnam or the 
Vietminh communist government. 

Turkey. Celal Bayar, leader of the 
Democratic party, was elected president 
by the Grand National Assembly. 
Adnan Menderes was appointed prime 
minister. 

U.N.E.S.C.O. The fifth general 
conference opened in Florence. The 
delegates of Czechoslovakia and Hungary 
left in protest at the presence of Chinese 
Nationalist delegates. 

Western Union. Naval exercises of 
units from the British, French and 
Netherlands navies started in the Bay of 
Biscay. 

23: Eastern Germany. The British, United 
States and French governments sent notes 
to the Soviet government protesting 
at the creation of a militarized police 
force in Eastern Germany. 

Netherlands. Queen Juliana and the 
Prince of the Netherlands arrived in 
Paris on a state visit. 

South Africa. General Smuts was made 
a freeman of Johannesburg on the eve of 
his 80th birthday. 

United States. The House of Repre- 
sentatives, by 247 votes to 88, passed the 
Foreign Economic Aid bill. 
24: Great Britain. Field Marshal Earl 
Wavell died in London. 

The Minister of Food announced that 
Sir Leslie Plummer had agreed to relin- 
quish the chairmanship of the Overseas 
Food corporation 

25: Finland. The Trade Union federation, 
the last non-Communist member of the 
W.F.T.U. decided to withdraw from 
membership. 

Malta. It was announced in London 
and Valetta that the British government 
would ferant Malta 1 -5 million over the 
next five years. 

Middle East. The governments of 
Great Britain, France and the U.S. 
announced that they had reached agree- 
ment on the supply of arms to Arab 
countries and to Israel. 
26: Council of Foreign Ministers. The 
deputies met in London to fix the date of 
their next meeting. 

Germany. The text was published of 
letters sent by the British, French and 
U.S. high commissioners in Germany to 
General Kotikov proposing measures to 
bring about the political and economic 
unity of Germany. 

27: Great Britain. Petrol rationing in 
force from Sept. 1939 was ended. 

Bulgaria. Vladimir Poptomov was 
replaced as foreign minister by Mincho 
Neychev. 

Horse Racing. M. Boussac's Galcador, 
ridden by W. R. Johnstone, won the 
Derby at Epsom. 

28: Albania. Elections were held for the 
People's Assembly. 99% of the electorate 
voted; 98% of the votes were cast for 
candidates of the Democratic Front. 

Germany. The Free German Youth, 
during a great Whitsun rally in Berlin, 
marched past the East German govern- 
ment in flic Lustgarten. 
29: Syria. The prime minister, Khaled el 
Azam, and his government resigned. He 
was asked to form a new government. 



30: Asian Conference. A conference of 
seven southeast Asian and Pacific coun- 
tries ended at Baguio, Philippines. 

Hungary. The government announced 
the closing of a 10-mi. zone along the 
Yugoslav frontier. 

Korea. A general election was held in 
South Korea. Nine persons were killed 
in disturbances. Of the 2,237 candidates, 
30 had been arrested after the discovery 
of a " Communist spy-ring." 

Yugoslavia. The government recalled 
its diplomatic staff in Tirana, Albania, 
and closed the legation. 
31: France. Jean Mons was replaced as 
resident general of Tunisia by Louis 
Perillier. 

New Zealand. The immediate ending 
of petrol rationing was announced. 

South Africa. The House of Assembly 
gave a second reading, by 69 votes to 61, 
to the Group Areas bill. 

Cricket. In the test trial at Bradford 
the Rest were dismissed for 27 runs, 
J. Laker taking 8 wickets for 2 runs. 



JUNE 

1: Poland. The government decided to 
create three new provinces to be known as 
Koszalin, Opole and Zielona G6ra. 

United Nations. The Soviet represen- 
tatives left the Trusteeship council in 
protest at the presence of Chinese 
Nationalists. 

Aviation. The first permanent passenger 
helicopter service from Liverpool to 
Cardiff was started. 

2: India. Jawaharlal Nehru left India for 
a tour of southeast Asian countries. 

South Africa. Dr. Malan announced 
that the government had decided not to 
recognize the Chinese Communist govern- 
ment. 

3: North Atlantic Treaty. The defence 
ministers of Great Britain, Norway and 
Denmark met in London. 
4: Belgium. A general election was held. 
In both the Chamber of Deputies and the 
Senate the Social Christian party obtained 
a small overall majority. 

Japan. Elections were held for 132 
scats in the House of Councillors. The 
Liberals (the government party) obtained 
76 seats. The Socialists vote was doubled, 
the Communist halved, compared with 
1949. 

Switzerland. A referendum was held 
on a law proposing to withdraw the power 
of levying direct taxes from the federal 
government. The proposed law was 
defeated by 485,400 votes to 266,800. 

Syria. A new cabinet was formed by 
Nazim el Kudsy. 

5: Brunei. Omar Ali Saifudin, brother of 
the last sultan, was chosen as the new 
sultan of Brunei. 

Eastern Germany-Poland. A German 
delegation led by Walter Ulbricht arrived 
in Warsaw. Agreement was reached on 
the Oder-Neisse frontier between Ger- 
many and Poland. 

Egypt. Field Marshal Sir William Slim 
held discussions in Cairo with the prime 
minister and foreign minister. 

United States. President Truman 
signed the Foreign Aid bill. 

Mountaineering. Two Frenchmen 
climbed the 26,492-ft. Annapurna peak in 
Nepal. This became the highest peak 
climbed by man. 

6: Belgium. G. Eyskens, prime minister, 
placed the resignation of his cabinet in 
the hands of the regent. 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1950 



Malta. Dr. P. Boffa's government was 
defeated by 21 votes to 18 on a motion to 
consider the 1950-51 budget. 

7: Eastern Germany. It was announced 
that the commandant of Berlin, General 
A. G. Kotikpv, was to be replaced by 
S. A. Dienghin. 

Indonesia. Jawaharlal Nehru, prime 
minister of India, arrived at Jakarta at 
the beginning of a ten-day visit to 
Indonesia. 

Soviet Union. The government sent 
notes on the administration of the 
Antarctica to the governments of Great 
Britain, Argentina, Australia, France, 
New Zealand, Norway and the U.S. 

8: Great Britain. Seven barons were 
created in the Birthday Honours. They 
included Lewis Silkin, D. R. Rees- 
Williams, Sir Gilbert Campion and E. W. 
Hives. 

Belgium. A new Social Christian 
government under Jean Duvieusart was 
sworn in. 

Burma-China. Diplomatic relations 
were established. 

India. The government announced that 
it would not participate in the proposed 
round table conference between South 
Africa, India and Pakistan. 

Western Germany. The Allied High 
commission announced that the Federal 
German government would have greater 
freedom to negotiate and conclude inter- 
national agreements other than on trade 
and payments. 

9: Great Britain. The report was pub- 
lished of the disturbances in Nigeria in 
Nov. 1949. The view was expressed that 
the chief commissioner for the eastern 
provinces had erred in treating the 
miners' dispute at Enugu as political 
rather than industrial. 

Finland. Urho Kekkonen, prime 
minister, arrived in Moscow to sign the 
Finnish-Soviet trade agreement. 

10: Singapore. Field Marshal Sir William 
Slim arrived in Singapore. 

11: Great Britain. James Griffiths and 
John Strachey returned to London after 
visiting the far east. 

12: Arab League. The council of the league 
met in Alexandria. 

Austria. ' The governments of Great 
Britain, France and the U.S. sent notes 
to the Soviet Union concerning Austria. 
They asked the Soviet Union to appoint 
a civilian high commissioner. 

Soviet Union. The Supreme Soviet met. 
Mikhail Yasnov was elected chairman 
of the Soviet of the Union, and Z. 
Shayakhmetov, chairman of the Soviet of 
Nationalities. 

Cricket. England won the first test 
against the West Indies at Old Traffbrd, 
Manchester, by 202 runs. 

13: Great Britain. Parliament re-assembled 
after the Whitsun recess. The prime 
minister, in a statement on the Schuman 
plan said that the British government was 
unable to accept commitments in advance. 
The Labour party issued a policy state- 
ment on European unity. 

Malta. Dr. Boffa, prime minister, 
requested the governor to dissolve the 
Legislative Assembly. 

Peru. A revolt, led by Francisco J. 
Mostajo, broke out in Arequipa. 

South Africa. The House of Assembly, 
by 73 votes to 58, gave a third reading to 
the Group Areas bill. 



Soviet Union. A. G. Zverev, minister 
of finance, presented his budget to the 
Supreme Soviet. Revenue was estimated 
at 432,000 million roubles and expendi- 
ture at 427,937 million roubles. 

Soviet Union-Finland. A five-year trade 
agreement was signed in Moscow. 

U.N.E.S.C.O. Atthegeneralconference 
in Florence, Dr. Jaime Torres Bodet, 
director general, submitted his resignation 
in protest at the inadequate budget for 
the organization. 

14: Belgium. The government rejected a 
plan to give further credits of Belgian 
francs to finance intra-European trade. 

Netherlands. The minister of economic 
affairs, J. R. M. Van Der Brink, an- 
nounced that the Netherlands had 
reserved freedom of action in case the 
Schuman plan proved to be impracticable. 

O.E.E.C. The Netherlands government 
circulated proposals for the integration 
of European economies. 

United Nations. The Trusteeship 
council voted in favour of returning the 
Jerusalem question to the general 
assembly. 

15: Great Britain. The first German consul- 
general in London since 1939 arrived in 
London. 

Peru. The revolt was quelled. More 
than 40 persons had been killed. 

U.N.E.S.C.O. Dr. Jaime Torres Bodet 
withdrew his resignation. 

Western Germany. The Bundestag 
voted by 220 votes to 152 to join the 
Council of Europe. 

16: Trieste. The governments of Great 
Britain, France and the U.S. rejected the 
Soviet note of April 20 in which the 
Soviet government claimed that the 
western powers had violated the Italian 
peace treaty. 

United States. President Truman 
appointed W. Averell Harriman, E.C.A. 
representative in Europe, to be his special 
assistant. 

17: Africa. A 20-yr. convention relating to 
the port of Beira and the Beira railway 
was signed in Lisbon by representatives 
of the British, Portuguese and Southern 
Rhodesian governments. 

Arab League. Egypt, Saudi Arabia,' 
Syria, the Lebanon and the Yemen signed 
a collective security pact. Iraq did not 
sign and Jordan was not present. 

Australia. Elections were held in New 
South Wales. The Labour government 
was returned with a majority of two 
(including the two independent members). 

India. Jawaharlal Nehru arrived in 
Singapore. 

Soviet Union. The Soviet of the Union 
and the Soviet of Nationalities both 
adopted the budget. The proposed 
income was increased to 433,167 million 
roubles. 

18: Western Germany. Elections were held 
in North Rhine- Westphalia. The Christ- 
ian Democrats remained the largest party. 

19: Egypt. King Farouk ordered the 
enlargement of the Senate by 30 seats. 
A number of senators were removed and 
replaced by Wafdists. 

New Zealand. The prime minister 
announced that the Legislative Council 
would be abolished in the next parlia- 
mentary session. 

South Africa. The Group Areas bill 
was given a third reading in the Senate 
by 20 votes to 19. 

20: India. Jawaharlal Nehru arrived in 
Rangoon. 



Schuman Plan. A six-power conference 
opened in Paris. The countries repre- 
sented were Belgium, France, Italy, 
Luxembourg, Netherlands and Western 
Germany. 

South Africa. During a debate in the 
House of Assembly on the Suppression of 
Communism bill the Communist party 
announced its dissolution. 

United States. Dean Acheson, addres- 
sing the annual conference of state 
governors at White Sulphur Springs, West 
Virginia, spoke of U.S. assistance to 
under-developed areas. 
21: South Africa. The Suppression of 
Communism bill was read a third time in 
the House of Assembly by 61 votes to 49. 
22: Argentina. The Senate approved a 
declaration affirming Argentine sover- 
eignty over the Falkland islands. 

France. The government was defeated 
when the National Assembly approved, 
by 351 votes to 201, a Socialist bill to 
increase civil servants' salaries. 

New Zealand. 25 members were 
appointed to the Legislative Council 
thus giving the government a majority. 

South Africa. The president of the 
Senate used his casting vote to secure a 
second reading of the Suppression of 
Communism bill. 

War Crimes. The court at Los Negros, 
Philippines, found Takuma Nishimura, a 
former lieut. general in the Japanese army, 
guilty of the murder of 1 10 Australian 
and 35 Indian prisoners of war and 
sentenced him to death. 
23: Australia. Parliament rose for the 
winter recess without passing the Com- 
munist Party Dissolution bill. 

Egypt. The Liberal, Saadist, National- 
ist and Kotla parliamentary groups 
decided to boycott the sittings of the 
Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. 
24: Council of Europe. The joint committee 
of representatives of the committee of 
ministers and the consultative assembly 
met in Strasbourg. 

France. The Bidault government was 
defeated on a motion of confidence in the 
National Assembly by 230 votes to 352. 

North Atlantic Treaty. The defence 
ministers of Great Britain, Denmark and 
Norway met in Copenhagen. 

Football. The World Cup series opened 
in Rio de Janeiro. 

25 : Australia. The government of Victoria 
resigned after the governor had refused a 
dissolution. 

Korea. Troops from the Democratic 
People's Republic of Korea (North 
Korea) invaded the territory of the 
Republic of Korea (South Korea). The 
Ongjin peninsular was evacuated. The 
Security council met at Lake Success. 
By 9 votes to (U.S.S.R. absent and 
Yugoslavia abstaining) the council de- 
clared the fighting in Korea a threat to 
international peace and called upon 
North Korea to cease hostilities forth- 
with and to retire to the 38th parallel. 
26: France. President Auriol invited Henri 
Queuille, Radical, to try to form a 
government. 

Korea. Troops from North Korea 
entered Suisak, seven miles north of 
Seoul. A seven-man military committee 
was formed in North Korea under Kim 
lr Sung. 

Persia. A new cabinet was formed by 
General AH Razmara, formerly chief of 
staff. 

South Africa. A day of protest by non- 
Europeans in South Africa passed off 
quietly. * 



8 



DIARY OF EVfeNTS, 1950 



27: Great Britain. The government's policy 
on the Schuman plan was approved in the 
House of Commons by 309 votes to 296. 

A private member's bill, the Liberties 
of the Subject bill, was given a second 
reading in the House of Lords by 66 
votes to 24, a majority of 42 against the 
government. 

Korea. President Truman ordered U.S. 
planes and warships to give cover and 
support to the South Koreans, and 
directed the U.S. 7th fleet to be prepared 
to intervene to prevent any attack on 
Formosa. He also announced increased 
military aid to the Philippines and Indo- 
China. Clement Attlee in the House of 
Commons endorsed President Truman's 
statement. The Security council, by 7 
votes to 1 (Yugoslavia) the U.S.S.R. 
was absent and Egypt and India abstained 
-denounced the attack in Korea as a 
breach of the peace and authorized all 
members of the U.N. to help the South 
Koreans. 

28: Burma. The agreement of the Common- 
wealth loan to Burma was signed in 
Rangoon. 

Japan. Shigeru Yoshida formed a new 
government. He retained the posts of 
prime minister and foreign minister. 

Korea. The British government put 
their naval forces in the Pacific at the 
disposal of the United Nations. The 
North Koreans occupied Seoul. The 
South Korean government moved to 
Taejon. 

29: Great Britain. Sir David Kelly, 
ambassador in Moscow, called at the 
Soviet foreign office and expressed the 
British hope that the Soviet Union would 
co-operate in effecting a peaceful settle- 
ment in Korea. 

Indo-China. A conference opened at 
Pau, France, to discuss the establishment 
of certain federal services. 

Korea. General Douglas Mac Arthur 
visited Korea. The South Koreans 
recaptured Kimpo airport. The Austra- 
lian and New Zealand governments put 
naval forces at the disposal of the United 
Nations. India announced its support 
for the Security council resolution of 
June 27 on Korea. 

United Nations. The Commission for 
Eritrea presented three separate reports 
to the general assembly. 

Cricket. West Indies beat England by 
326 runs in the second test match at 
Lords. 

30: Australia. A new Labour government 
in New South Wales led by James McGirr, 
prime minister from 1947, was sworn in. 

Belgium. Jean Duvieusart's govern- 
ment obtained a vote of confidence in the 
House of Representatives by 108 votes to 
100. 

Korea. General MacArthur was 
authorized " to use certain supporting 
ground units " in Korea. It was an- 
nounced that 23 member states had 
endorsed the security council decision of 
June 28. 



JULY 

1: France. Henri Queuillc was elected 
prime minister by 363 votes to 208 in the 
National Assembly. 

Jordan. A new currency was intro- 
duced. The Palestine pound was replaced 
by the Jordan dinar, and Jordan re- 
entered the Stirling area. 



2: France* Henri Queuille announced his 

cabinet. Robert Schuman remained 

foreign minister and Paul Reynaud was 

appointed minister for associated states 

, and far east. 

Korea. R.A.A.F. aircraft went into 
action for the first time. 

Pakistan. Liaquat AH Khan arrived 
in London from the United States. 

Peru. Presidential elections were held. 
General Manuel A. Odrfa was elected. 

Football. England was beaten by Spain 
in the World cup at Rio de Janeiro, and 
was thus eliminated from the competition. 

3: Korea. U.S. marines and marine air 
units were ordered to Japan. The North 
Korean forces were pushing forward on a 
wide front. Two New Zealand frigates 
left for Korean waters. 

United Nations. The 1 1th session of the 
Economic and Social council opened in 
Geneva. The Soviet, Polish and Czecho- 
slovak delegates were absent. 

4: France. The National Assembly 
unseated the Queuille government by 
334 votes to 221. 

Korea. North Korean forces captured 
the town and airfield of Suwon. A. A. 
Gromyko, Soviet deputy foreign minister, 
described the events in Korea as "an 
internal conflict between two groups in 
one state " and accused the United States 
of aggression. Kim Ir Sung was appointed 
supreme commander of North Korean 
forces. The North Korean government 
announced measures for agrarian reform 
in South Korea. 

5: Great Britain. The House of Commons 
approved, without a division, the govern- 
ment's policy on Korea. 

France. Guy Mollet, secretary general 
of the Socialist party, agreed to undertake 
a " mission of inquiry " to form a govern- 
ment. 

6: Korea. The North Koreans captured 
Pyongtaek and Chonan, 23 mi. and 37 mi. 
respectively south of Suwon. The United 
Nations announced that 45 member 
states nad replied to the Security council 
resolution 3 states, U.S.S.R., Poland, 
and Czechoslovakia, had rejected the 
appeal. 

Poland-Eastern Germany. The frontier 
treaty, negotiated in Warsaw in June, was 
signed by J6zef Cyrankiewicz and Otto 
Grotewohl in Zgorzelec (Gorlitz). 

Soviet Union. At the request of A. 
Gromyko, deputy foreign minister, the 
British ambassador called at the Soviet 
foreign office. 

7: Korea. The U.N. Security council 
approved a unified command for the U.N. 
forces in Korea. The United States was 
asked to name a commander. 

O.E.E.C. The council approved a 
scheme for a European Payments union. 

United States. The government decided 
to use conscription to bring its forces up 
to strength required for the fighting in 
Korea. 

Golf. A. D. Locke of South Africa won 
the Open championship at Troon, Ayr- 
shire, for the second year in succession. 

Lawn Tennis. B. Patty (U.S.A.) beat 
F. A. Sedgrnan (Australia) in the final of 
the men's singles at Wimbledon. 

8: France. Ren6 Pleven accepted the 
president's invitation to form a govern- 
ment. 

Korea. The North Koreans occupied 
Chonan. 



Trieste. The Soviet government replied 
to the notes of Great Britain, France and 
the United States on June 16 and again 
maintained that the responsibility for the 
non-implementation of the Italian peace 
treaty concerning Trieste lay with the 
western powers. 

Lawn Tennis. Miss Louise Brough 
(U.S.A.) won the women's singles, the 
women's doubles with Mrs. M. du Pont 
(U.S.A.) and the mixed doubles with E. 
W. Sturgess (South Africa) at Wimbledon. 

9: Western Germany. Elections were held 
for a new Landtag in Schleswig-Holstein. 

10: Great Britain. The Finance bill was 
given a third reading in the House of 
Commons. The government had received 
majorities in all the divisions on Opposi- 
tion amendments. 

Council of Foreign Ministers. The 
deputies held the 256th meeting in London 
to discuss the Austrian treaty. The Soviet 
delegate, G. N. Zarubin, repeated the 
Soviet view on Trieste and the deputies 
adjourned until Sept. 7. 

Korea. The United Nations announced 
that 48 member states were supporting 
the Security council resolution. In addi- 
tion 3 non-membersCeylon, Italy and 
Jordan had announced their support. 

World Power Conference. The fourth 
World Power conference opened in 
London under the chairmanship of Sir 
Harold Hartley. 

1 1 : France. Ren6 Pleven was elected prime 
minister in the National Assembly by 
373 votes to 185. 

International Court of Justice. The 
court gave an advisory opinion on the 
international status of South- West Africa. 
The court declared unanimously that 
South-West Africa was still under man- 
date and also declared that the inter- 
national obligations from the mandate 
were still incumbent on the South African 
government. 

Korea. The North Koreans broke 
through the U.S. line between Chonui 
and Chochiwon. The North Koreans 
occupied Chochiwon. 

International Bank. Pakistan joined the 
bank and the International Monetary 
fund. 

Soviet Union. The government sent a 
note to United Nations challenging the 
decision of the Security council regarding 
a unified command in Korea and the use 
of the United Nations flag. A. Gromyko, 
deputy foreign minister, again received the 
British ambassador. 

12: France. Ren6 Pleven announced his 
new cabinet. R. Schuman remained 
foreign minister. Guy Mollet was 
appointed minister in charge of Council 
of Europe affairs. 

Korea. The U.S. forces withdrew to 
the south bank of the Kum river. 

13: Australia. The prime minister, R. G. 
Menzies, arrived in London. 

France. The Pleven government 
received a vote of confidence by 335 votes 
to 226. 

India. Jawaharlal Nehru in a letter to 
Marshal Stalin appealed to him to use his 
influence to help to find a basis for a final 
solution of the Korean situation. 

Korea. U.S. Superfortresses dropped 
500 tons of bombs on military targets in 
North Korea. The United Nations flag 
was flown for the first time over General 
MacArthur's headquarters in Tokyo. 

Persia. The shah offered to mediate in 
the Pakistan-Afghanistan dispute. 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1950 



14: Great Britain. Several naval ammuni- 
tion barges blew up in Portsmouth har- 
bour. Sabotage was suspected. 

Korea. The secretary general of the 
United Nations telegraphed all member- 
states asking them to provide further 
assistance to the South Koreans. 

Sierra Leone. Proposals for a new 
constitution in the colony were published. 

Yugoslavia. The government sent a 
note to Bulgaria demanding an immediate 
end to frontier provocations. 
15: Korea. The North Koreans crossed the 
Kum river. 

Persia. The government replied to the 
Soviet note complaining about the 
alleged conduct of Americans engaged in 
oil surveys near the Soviet-Persian border. 
The Persian government stated that to 
avoid friction it would engage only 
Persian subjects to make the surveys. 

Soviet Union. Marshal Stalin, in a 
reply to Pandit Nehru's letter, stated that 
he believed a settlement of the Korean 
question could only be achieved if the 
Security council heard representatives of 
the Korean people and of the People's 
Government of China. 
16: Korea. The U.S. defence on the Kum 
river collapsed. 

Football. Uruguay beat Brazil by 2 
goals to 1 to win the World cup at Rio de 
Janeiro. 

17: Council of Europe. It was announced 
that the Saar and Western Germany had 
accepted the statute of the council and had 
become associate members. 

Korea. U.S. forces abandoned the 
airfield at Taejon. 

Soviet Union-Afghanistan. A four-year 
trade agreement was signed in Moscow. 
18: Indonesia. The Ministry of Defence 
announced that landings had taken place 
on Buru against the rebel " Republic of 
the South Moluccas." 
19: United States. President Truman in a 
message to congress asked for $10,000 
million for the armed forces. He also 
reported that he had empowered the 
secretary of defence to call up as many men 
as necessary. 

20: Great Britain. In the House of Com- 
mons Clement Attlee welcomed President 
Truman's statement on July 19. He also 
reported on the talks in Moscow between 
the British ambassador, Sir David Kelly, 
and A. Gromyko, Soviet deputy foreign 
minister. 

Belgium. A joint session of both houses 
of parliament recalled King Leopold to 
the throne after six years of exile. 198 
votes were cast in favour, none against 
the opposition parties leaving the chamber 
before the vote was taken. 

India. Liaquat Ali Khan arrived in New 
Delhi for talks with Jawaharlal Nehru. 
Both ministers later met Sir Owen Dixon, 
U.N. mediator on Kashmir. 

Indonesia. A conference was held in 
Jakarta between the federal state and the 
republic of Indonesia. Many issues 
concerning the establishment of a unitary 
state were settled. 

Korea. Taejon was occupied by the 
North Koreans. 

Western Union. The five defence 
ministers met in Paris. The ministers 
considered the international situation and 
decided on increasing the defensive power 
of the western Union land, air and sea 
forces. 

21 : Argentina. The government suspended 
meat shipments to Britain because of the 
failure to reach agreement with the 
British government on prices. 



Belgium. The prime minister, Jean 
Duvieusart, flew to Geneva to see King 
Leopold. 

22: Belgium. King Leopold, accompanied 
by Prince Baudouin and Prince Albert, 
returned to Belgium after six years of 
exile. He broadcast to his peoples and 
appealed for unity. The Socialist ministers 
of state resigned and the Liberal ministers 
refused to attend a meeting of the state 
council. The government formally 
resigned and was asked by the king to 
remain in office. 

Canada. W. L. Mackenzie King died 
at Kingsmere, near Ottawa. 

23: Korea. The North Koreans occupied 
Kwangchwu, capital of South Chunra 
province, and Boyn. 

24: Commonwealth. The standing commit- 
tee of the Commonwealth Consultative 
committee met in Colombo. 

India. Jawaharlal Nehru and Liaquat 
Ali Khan met in New Delhi to discuss the 
working of the minorities agreement. 
The five-day tripartite talks on Kashmir 
ended. 

Guatemala. After disturbances and 
strikes the government suspended all 
civil rights for thirty days. 

25: Baltic Sea. Denmark and Sweden 
jointly accused the Soviet Union of 
" encroaching upon the freedom of the 
open sea " in a protest on the Soviet claim 
for a 12-mi. limit in the Baltic. 

North Atlantic Treaty. The first meeting 
of the deputies* council met in London. 
Charles Spoffard (U.S.) was elected 
chairman. 

Cricket. West Indies beat England by 
10 wickets in the third test match at 
Nottingham. 

26: Great Britain. At the opening of a two- 
day debate on defence, Emanuel Shinwcll, 
minister of defence, announced that a 
self-contained British force would be sent 
to Korea. 

Indonesia. The Royal Netherlands 
Indonesian army ceased to exist. 

Korea. The New Zealand government 
decided to send a special combat unit to 
Korea, and the Australian government 
decided to provide ground forces. 

United States. President Truman signed 
the bill authorizing $1,222-5 millicfn in 
arms aid to the North Atlantic treaty 
and other nations. 

27: Great Britain. The debate on defence 
continued. Winston Churchill moved 
that the debate be continued in private 
session. This was defeated by one vote. 

Australia. R. G. Menzies arrived in 
Washington. 

United Nations. Yakov Malik 
announced that the Soviet Union was 
resuming its seat on the Security council 
on Aug. 1. 

28 : Israel. It was announced that de jure 
recognition had been granted by New 
Zealand. 

Korea. The North Koreans launched 
attacks all along the front and occupied 
Hatong and Kwangyang. 

North Atlantic Treaty. The council of 
deputies unanimously approved recom- 
mendations designed to accelerate defence 
production. 

Aviation. British European Airways 
used the Vickers Viscount jet airliner on 
the London-Paris route. This was the 
first time a jet aircraft was used on a 
regular scheduled service. 

29: Belgium. Disturbances took place all 
day in Brussels. 



30: Great Britain. C. R. Attlee broadcast 
an appeal for increased production, per- 
sonal service and a close watch on the 
"enemy within.** 

Belgium. Anti-Leopold disturbances 
increased in many parts of the country. 
Three men were shot by police near 
Lige. J. Duvieusart called on King 
Leopold during the evening. 
31: Great Britain. Patrick Gordon- Walker, 
secretary of state for commonwealth 
relations, arrived in Australia from New 
Zealand. 

China. General MacArthur arrived in 
Formosa for two-day talks with Chiang 
Kai-shek. 

Egypt. The Senate and Chamber of 
Deputies approved an addition to the 
penal code forbidding the publication of 
news concerning the royal family unless 
issued by the minister of the interior. 

India. An emergency session of the 
parliament opened in New Delhi. 
Hyderabad was represented for the first 
time. 

Korea. The U.S. 2nd Infantry division 
arrived at Pusan. The North Koreans 
continued to advance and occupied 
Chinju. 

Nepal-India. Treaties of peace and 
friendship and of trade and commerce 
were signed at Kathmandu. 

Portugal. Dr. Salazar reshuffled his 
cabinet and created three new ministries. 



AUGUST 

1: Belgium. King Leopold's agreement 
with the leading political parties was 
announced. He would transfer the royal 
prerogatives to Prince Baudouin at once, 
and would abdicate on Sept. 7, 1951 
Prince Baudouin's 21st birthday. 

Korea. North Korean troops entered 
Masan. 

United Nations. Yakov Malik returned 
to the Security council. As president he 
ruled that Dr. T. F. Tsiang was not the 
legal representative of China. He was 
over-ruled by 8 votes to 3 (Soviet Union, 
India and Yugoslavia). 
2: Nigeria. 30,000 technicians and clerks 
employed by the United Africa company 
started a strike. 

Western Union. The ninth session of 
the consultative council was held at 
The Hague. 

3 : Great Britain. Details were announced 
of the government's defence plan. It was 
estimated that 3,400 million would be 
spent in three years, but this would 
depend on the amount of U.S. aid. 

Council of Europe. The committee of 
ministers met at Strasbourg for their 
fifth session. 

Pakistan. The government accepted 
Persia's offer to mediate in the dispute 
with Afghanistan. 

United Nations. The U.S. proposal that 
the Korean situation should be the only 
item on the Security council agenda was 
approved by 8 votes to 1 . On a proposal 
to discuss the question of Chinese 
representation the voting was 5-5. 
4: Great Britain. Raymond Blackburn, 
Labour M.P. for Northfield, Birmingham, 
resigned from the Labour party. 

Venezuela. A severe earthquake shook 
El Tocuyo, 200 mi. west of Caracas. 
More than 100 deaths were reported. 
6: France. The government handed its 
memorandum on defence to the U.S. 
ambassador. It estimated an expenditure 
in three years of about 2,000 million. 



10 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1950 



7: Colombia. Laureano G6mez was 
sworn in as 48th president of Colombia. 

Council of Europe. Paul-Henri Spaak 
was re-elected president of the consulta- 
tive assembly by 90 votes to 23. The four 
vice-presidents elected were: Lord Lay ton 
(Great Britain), F. de Menthon (France), 
S. Jocini (Italy) and A. Gjores (Sweden). 
The Saar and Western Germany took 
their seats in the assembly. 

Korea. U.S. troops launched an attack 
east of Chinju. 

8: Belgium. Jean Duvieusart, prime 
minister, announced that the government 
intended to propose an increase in 
defence expenditure of Fr. 5,000 million. 

Indonesia. The Ministry of Defence 
announced that a cease-fire had been 
achieved in the fighting in Macassar. 

Swimming. Florence Chad wick (U.S.) 
completed her crossing of the English 
channel in 13 hr. 23 min. 1 hr. 11 min. 
faster than the previous fastest time by a 
woman. 

9: Belgium. The Chamber of Representa- 
tives passed the bill transferring the royal 
prerogatives to Prince Baudouin by 
165 votes to 27. 

Denmark. Hans Hedtoft, prime minis- 
ter, announced that he would ask the 
king to dissolve parliament. The lower 
house passed a bill authorizing an 
additional expenditure of Kr. 350 million 
for defence over the next two years. 

Korea. U.S. forces continued to drive 
North Korean forces back across the 
Naktong river. 

10: Belgium. The Senate approved the bill 
to transfer the royal powers by 121 votes 
to 22. 

Korea. United States forces continued 
their advance towards Chinju. The North 
Koreans occupied Pohang. 

United Nations. The eleven members 
of the Security council met informally 
to discuss the Soviet obstruction in the 
council, but no agreement was reached. 

11: Great Britain. The prime minister 
announced that parliament would be 
recalled on Sept. 12. 

Belgium. Prince Baudouin was sworn 
in as prince royal. Jean Duvieusart, 
prime minister, submitted the resignation 
of his government. 

Council of Europe. A resolution 
introduced by Winston Churchill calling 
for the creation of a European army was 
carried by 89 votes to 5, with 27 absten- 
tions. 

12: Korea. Two British correspondents, 
Ian Morrison, The Times, and Christopher 
Buckley, Daily Telegraph, were killed. 

Nigeria. 23 people were killed in inter- 
tribal rioting in eastern Nigeria. 

13: Australia. Robert Menzies, prime 
minister, arrived in Tokyo. 

Belgium. Paul Van Zeeland accepted 
the prince royal's invitation to try to 
form a government. 

14: Belgium. Princess de Rethy, wife of 
King Leopold, returned to Belgium after 
an exile of six years. 

Indonesia. The House of Assembly 
approved a provisional unitary constitu- 
tion by 90 votes to 18. 

United Nations. In the Security council 
the Indian delegate proposed the setting 
up of a commission of the six non- 
permanent members to prepare plans for 
the future of Korea. 

15: Great Britain. Princess Elizabeth 
gave birth to a daughter at Clarence 
House. London at 11 SO a m 



Arab League. The political committee 
of the league met in Alexandria. 

Belgium. A new Social Christian 
government was formed. Joseph Pholien 
became prime minister; Paul van Zeeland 
remained foreign minister. 

India. Severe earth tremors rocked 
parts of eastern India. Most damage 
was done in Upper Assam. 

Korea. North Korea forces occupied 
Kosung. 

16: Great Britain. The prime minister 
met Winston Churchill and Clement 
Davies who had asked for an earlier 
recall of parliament. Mr. Attlee was 
unable to meet their request. 

Burma. The government announced 
that its forces had liberated the entire 
Henzada district in western Burma. 

Cricket. West Indies beat England 
by an innings and 56 runs in the fourth 
and last test match at the Oval. West 
Indies thus won the rubber by three 
matches to one. 

17: Belgium. The Chamber of Representa- 
tives passed a vote of confidence in the 
government of J. Pholien by 107 votes 
to 78. 

China. Chinese batteries mounted on 
Taitami and Puntin islands opened fire 
on H.M.S. "Concord." The ship was 
not damaged but there was one minor 
casualty. 

Greece. The nine Liberal ministers 
tendered their resignations. 

Indonesia. On the fifth anniversary of 
the declaration of the republic Indonesia 
was declared a unitary state. President 
Sukarno in a speech in Jakarta re- 
affirmed the Indonesian claim to Irian 
(Dutch New Guinea). The government 
formally resigned. 

Korea. The North Koreans launched a 
big offensive east of the Naktong river. 

18: Belgium. Julien Lahaut, leader of the 
Communist party, was shot dead in his 
home at Seraing. 

The Senate, by 82 votes to 61, passed 
a motion of confidence in the government. 

Council of Europe. The consultative 
assembly adopted a series of resolutions 
to reinforce the council and also its own 
authority. 

Greece. The cabinet resigned. 
Sophocles Venizelos, Liberal, was asked 
to form a new government. 

19: Korea. The government of Syngman 
Rhee left Taegu for Pusan. 

New Zealand. The Legislative Council 
Abolition bill passed through its final 
stages. 

20: Great Britain. The War Office 
announced that an infantry force was 
being sent immediately from Hong Kong 
to Korea. 

21: Great Britain. The Labour party 
issued a statement of policy entitled 
Labour and the New Society. It proposed 
a world plan for mutual assistance to 
succeed the European Recovery pro- 
gramme in 1952. 

Bechuanaland. Seretse Khama, exiled 
chief-designate of the Bamangwato, 
arrived in London, with his wife and 
daughter. 

Greece. A partial cabinet of members 
of the Liberal party was sworn in under 
Sophocles Venizelos as prime minister. 

United States. The Senate, by 84 votes 
to 3, passed the Economic Controls bill. 

22: Canada. A national railway strike 
began. Louis St. Laurent, prime minister, 
announced the recall of parliament. 



France. The government decided to 
send a battalion of troops to Korea. 

Internationa) Bank. It was announced 
that the bank would make a loan of 
$100 million to Australia. 
> North Atlantic Treaty. The council of 
deputies opened its second session. 

Southeast Asia. A conference of 
governors of British territories opened in 
Bukit Serene, Malaya. 

Swimming. 24 swimmers left Cap Griz 
Nez in the Daily Mail international cross- 
channel swimming race. 9 of them, 7 
men and 2 women, completed the 
crossing. 

23: Kashmir. The U.N. mediator, Sir 
Owen Dixon, left Karachi for London 
and Lake Success to report the failure 
of his mission. Liaquat Ali Khan said 
the responsibility for the failure M lies 
squarely on the shoulders of India." 

Netherlands. It was announced that 
2,000 infantrymen would be sent to 
Korea. 

United States. Two trade unions called 
for a nation-wide rail strike to start on 
Aug. 28. 

24: China. Chou En-lai, foreign minister, 
cabled to the U.N. Security council 
asking for action to be taken against 
4i U.S. armed aggression in Formosa.*' 

Kashmir. Jawaharlal Nehru, in a state- 
ment in New Delhi said " I put the blame 
100% on Pakistan for the whole Kashmir 
trouble." 

25: Council of Europe. The consultative 
assembly adopted the report of its legal 
administrative committee expressing gen- 
eral approval of the draft European 
convention on human rights. 

Hong Kong. British troops left Hong 
Kong for service in Korea. 

Norway. The government announced 
that defence expenditure would be 
increased by 12-5 million over the 
next 2i years. 

Pakistan. Liaquat Ali Khan announced 
a gift of 400 tons of rice to the victims of 
the Assam earthquake in India. 

United States. A proposed rail strike 
was called off after President Truman 
ordered the taking over of the nation's 
railways. 

26: Bulgaria. Two former Communist 
ministers, Bonu Petrovski and Lubomir 
Kayrakov, were sentenced to life 
imprisonment for " passing economic 
information to the west." 

Council of Europe. By 73 votes to 
with 32 abstentions, the assembly 
approved the proposals of the economic 
committee on the links between the coal 
and steel pool and the Council of Europe. 

Lawn Tennis. Australia beat the U.S. 
in the Davis Cup contest. The cup was 
won from Australia by the U.S. in 1946. 
27: China. U.S. planes crossed the boun- 
dary between Korea and China and 
raided Antung airfield causing casualties. 
28: Council of Europe. The consultative 
assembly adjourned its second session. 

Greece, The government was enlarged 
by the inclusion of members of the 
Democratic Socialist party. 

Israel. The Haifa refineries resumed 
operations for the first time for over two 
years. 

Peru. General Manuel A. Odrla was 
installed as president. 

United States. President Truman 
reaffirmed his government's policy on 
Formosa after directing (on Aug. 26) 
General MacArthur to withdraw a state- 
ment \vhich related Formosa to the U.S. 
defence position in the Pacific. 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1950 



11 



29: Great Britain- Yemen. Discussions 
began at the Foreign Office on frontier 
and diplomatic matters affecting Great 
Britain, Yemen and Aden protectorate. 

Argentina. The peso was devalued from 
9-4 to 14 to the pound. 

China. A U.S. aircraft shot at Chinese 
boats on the Chinese bank of the Yalu 
river killing 10 and injuring 23. 

Korea. British troops, the first United 
Nations troops to be sent to aid the 
United States forces, landed in Korea. 

United Nations. The Security council, 
by 7 votes to 2 with 1 abstention, decided 
to place the question of Formosa on the 
agenda. 

30: Great Britain. Clement Attlee, in a 
broadcast, announced increased pay for 
servicemen and an increase to 2 yr. in the 
period of national service. 

The 1 12th annual meeting of the British 
Association for the Advancement of 
Science opened in Birmingham under the 
presidency of Sir Harold Hartley. 

Canada. A bill to end the Canadian 
railway strike was given a third reading 
in the House of Commons. The strike 
ended the same evening. 

South- West Africa. Voting took place 
for six members to sit in the Union House 
of Assembly, and for 18 members in the 
South-West African Legislative Assembly. 
Dr. Malan's Nationalist party won the 6 
seats in the Union House of Assembly 
and 15 of the seats in the South- West 
Africa Legislative Assembly. 

United States. Dean Acheson reaffirmed 
that the U.S. had no agressive intentions 
towards Communist China in Formosa 
or elsewhere. 

31: Great Britain. The Foreign Office 
announced that British Ally, the Russian- 
language newspaper published in Mos- 
cow, would close down. 

India. Police opened fire on demon- 
strators in Bombay killing 5 and wound- 
ing 41. 

United Nations. The Security council 
decided to add to its agenda the question 
of a complaint by China that a U.S. 
plane caused damage in China near the 
Korean border. 

Aviation. 55 persons were killed when 
an American Trans- World Airlines Con- 
stellation crashed in Egypt. 



SEPTEMBER 

1 : Korea. The North Koreans launched 
an offensive on a 50-mi. front against 
U.S. troops. They gained much ground 
east of Naktong while the Americans 
regained Haman in the south. 

Scandinavia. A meeting of the foreign 
ministers of Denmark, Iceland, Norway 
and Sweden ended in Reykjavik. The 
ministers discussed the agenda for the 
U.N. general assembly. 

2: Belgium. The government announced 
that a bill extending military service 
from one to two years would be laid 
before parliament. 

France. R. Pleven, prime minister, 
announced that the period of military 
service would be increased. 

India. Purshottamdas Tandon was 
elected president of the Indian national 
congress. 

3. Israel. A conference opened in 
Jerusalem between cabinet ministers and 
Jewish leaders from the United States, 
Great Britain and South Africa to 
prepare a long-term plan for maintaining 
the existing rate of immigration. 



4: Greece. The E.P.E.K. party decided 
not to join the government of S. Veniz- 
elos. The cabinet was completed by the 
inclusion of more Liberal and Demo- 
cratic Socialist ministers. 

Korea. The U.N. forces shot down a 
plane " bearing a red star/' The body 
of a Russian was discovered. 

Persia. Fighting broke out between 
Kurdish tribesmen and government forces 
near the Iraqi frontier. 

5 : Commonwealth. It was announced that 
the King and Queen would visit Australia 
and New Zealand in 1952. 

Denmark. A general election was held 
for the lower house. Hans Hedtoft's 
Social Democrat party obtained 59 
seats as against 57 in the old house. 

Korea. The North Koreans captured 
Pohang. 

Syria. Hashem Bey Atassi was elected 
president. 

Tibet, A Tibetan mission arrived in 
New Delhi for talks with the Chinese 
ambassador. 

Western Union. The five defence 
ministers held their eighth meeting. 

6: International Monetary Fund. The 

annual session of the fund and of the 
International Bank for Reconstruction 
and Development opened in Paris. 

Korea. The North Koreans continued 
their pressure against the U.N. troops 
on the northern front. 

United Nations. Y. Malik, the Soviet 
delegate to the Security council, explained 
that the Soviet plane shot down off Korea 
was unarmed on a training flight from 
Port Arthur. A U.S. resolution seeking 
to isolate the Korean war was vetoed 
by the Soviet delegate. 

7: Great Britain. The Trades Union 
congress voted in favour of abandoning 
the policy of wage restraint and in favour 
of equal pay for women. 

France. The minister of the interior 
declared illegal the Spanish Communist 
party (whose headquarters were in 
France) and the Unified Socialist Party 
of Catalonia (Pyrenean France). 

Syria. Nazim el Kudsi formed the first 
constitutional cabinet in Syria since the 
coup d'etat of Husni ez Zaim in March, 
1949. 

Western Germany. Hans Ehard was 
elected president of the Bundesrat in 
succession to K. Arnold. 

9: Canada. The minister of national 
defence announced that the Canadian 
regular forces had been placed on active 
service. 

Greece. The government led by 
S. Venizelos was defeated on a vote of 
confidence by 124 votes to 106. Venizelos 
resigned and recommended a general 
election. The king called on C. Tsaldaris, 
Populist, to form a government. 

10: Great Britain. 116 of 129 miners 
trapped in a mine at New Cumnock, 
Ayrshire, were brought safely to the 
surface. 

South Africa. An exchange of notes 
between South Africa and Great Britain 
confirming the transfer of Prince Edward 
and Marion islands to South Africa was 
published. 

1 1 : Greece. The king called on K. Tsald- 
aris, S. Venizelos and G. Papandreou 
to collaborate in order to give Greece a 
strong government. Venizelos became 
prime minister, the other leading parties 
agreeing to serve in the government. 

Iraq. The government led by Tewfik 
el Suwaidi resigned. 



Malta. The final results in the general 
election were announced. The Nationalist 
party obtained 12 seats, the Malta 
Labour party 11, Dr. P. Sofia's Labour 
group 1 1 and others 6. 

South Africa. Field Marshal Jan 
Christiaan Smuts died at his home near 
Pretoria. 

United Nations. The Security council 
rejected a proposal to invite Chinese 
Communists to attend the debate on 
charges that U.S. planes had violated 
Chinese territory. The voting was 6 votes 
to 3 in favour with 2 abstentions, but 
7 votes were necessary for a resolution 
to be carried. 

12: Great Britain. Parliament reassembled 
for an emergency session. Clement 
Attlee opened a debate on defence in the 
House of Commons. The Conservatives 
supported the government. 

United Nations. The Security council 
approved the annual report by 10 votes 
to 0. The Soviet delegate abstained. 

United States. The foreign ministers 

of the U.S., Great Britain and France 

opened a three-day session in New York. 

13: Greece. A three-party government 

under S. Venizelos was sworn in. 

Denmark. King Frederik asked the 
outgoing prime minister, Hans Hedtoft, 
Socialist, to form a government. 

United Nations. A U.S. proposal that a 
committee of inquiry should be sent to 
China to investigate charges of U.S. 
violation of the border was vetoed by 
the Soviet representative. 
14: Great Britain. The government 
announced its intention of carrying out 
the Iron and Steel act at the earliest 
opportunity. 

Foreign Ministers Conference. The 
conference in New York of the foreign 
ministers of Great Britain, France and the 
United States was adjourned. The 
ministers agreed that " immediate effec- 
tive steps must be taken ... to strengthen 
the defence of the free world, both in 
Europe and Asia." 

15: Great Britain. The National Service 
bill, extending national service to 2 years 
was passed by the House of Commons. 

Greece. The new government led by 
S. Venizelos received a vote of confidence 
with a majority of 110. 

Korea. United Nations forces made a 
number of landings. The U.S. 10th Army 
corps and elements of the 1st Marine 
division landed at Inchon, the port for 
Seoul. 

North Atlantic Treaty. The fifth session 
of the council opened in New York under 
the chairmanship of Dean Acheson. 
16: Iraq. General Nuri cs Said formed a 

new government. 

17: Bahamas. Sir George Sandford, 
governor from Feb. 1 950, died at Govern- 
ment house, Nassau. 

Korea. United Nations forces captured 
Kimpo airfield, 15 mi. northwest of Seoul. 

Malta. Paul Boffa, prime minister, 
resigned, and E. Mizzi, leader of the 
Nationalist party, was asked to form a 
government. 

18: India. The government granted de jure 
recognition to Israel. 

Indo-China. Vietminh forces captured 
the French military outpost of Dong-khe. 

Korea. United Nations forces crossed 
the Han river and reached a point within 
7 mi. of Seoul. 

North Atlantic Treaty. The council 
" warmly welcomed " the proposal to 
create an integrated military force ade- 
quate enough to defend turope. 



12 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1950 



Trinidad. The first general elections 
were held in the colony. The Home Rule 
party fed by Uriah Butler and the 
Independents each obtained six of the 
18 seats. 

19: Great Britain. The House of Commons 
approved the government's proposal to 
take over the iron and steel industry by 
306 votes to 300. 

Commonwealth. Commonwealth minis- 
ters met in London to discuss economic 
and trade questions. 

Foreign Ministers Conference. The 
ministers concluded their conference in 
New York and agreed to end the state of 
war with Germany, to reinforce their 
troops in Germany, to treat an attack on 
Berlin or Western Germany as an attack 
upon themselves and to give greater 
powers to the West German government 
including the setting up of a foreign 
ministry. 

Korea. Troops of the U.S. 24th 
division crossed the Naktong river 4 mi. 
south of Waegwan. 

O.E.E.C. The agreement setting up a 
European Payments union within the 
framework of the O.E.E.C. was signed 
in Paris. 

United Nations. The fifth session of the 
general assembly opened at Flushing 
Meadow. The question of Chinese 
representation was referred to a com- 
mittee. 

20: Korea. United Nations troops cut the 
road to Pyongyang. 

New Zealand. A state of emergency 
was declared because of a dock strike 
which had started on Sept. 15. 

Norway. The parliament unanimously 
approved proposals for spending an 
additional 12-5 million on defence. 

South Africa. E. G. Jansen, minister 
of Native affairs, was appointed governor 
general designate to succeed G. B. van 
Zyl. 

United Nations. In the general assembly 
Dean Acheson (U.S.) submitted a plan 
for a world security force and for greater 
powers for the assembly. 

21: Great Britain. C. R. Attlee flew to 
Balmoral for an audience with the King. 
Indonesia. The government decided 
to give Irian (Dutch New Guinea) direct 
representation in the Indonesian parlia- 
ment. 

22: Foreign Ministers Conference. The 

foreign ministers of Great Britain, France 
and the U.S. again met in New York. 
The three defence ministers were also 
present. 

New Zealand. Dockers at all New 
Zealand ports returned to work. 

Nobel Prize. The Nobel prize com- 
mittee of the Norwegian Storting decided 
to award the Peace prize to Ralph Bunche, 
former U.N. acting mediator in Palestine. 

United States. President Truman 
vetoed the Communist Control bill. 
The House of Representatives over-rode 
the veto. 

23: Korea. U.S. aircraft accidentally 
attacked men of the Argyll and Suther- 
land Highlanders. 

United States. The Senate over-rode 
the President's veto on the Communist 
Control bill, which thus became law. 

24: Indo-China. French forces recaptured 
Chucphaithan, a frontier post west of 
Moncay. 

25: Great Britain. Lord Trefgarne resigned 
as chairman yf the Colonial Develop- 
ment corporation. 



Commonwealth Conference. A confer- 
ence on economic development of south 
and southeast Asia opened in London. 

Korea. United Nations troops cap- 
tured Osan and Chochiwon, thus reducing 
the gap between the U.N. northern and 
southern armies to 25 mi. 

Spain-Portugal. Dr. O. Salazar arrived 
at Vigo for talks with General Franco. 

United Nations. Ernest Bevin, in a 
speech to the general assembly, pledged 
British support for the U.S. 4t peace 
force " plan outlined by Dean Acheson 
on Sept. 20. 

United States. Paul Hoffman resigned 
as head of the E.C.A. and was succeeded 
by his deputy, William Foster. 
26: Great Britain. 80 miners died and 19 
escaped in a fire at Creswell colliery, near 
Worksop, Derbyshire. 

International Court of Justice. The 
court began public hearings of a dispute 
between Peru and Colombia. 

Korea. United Nations troops occupied 
Seoul. Troops of the U.N. northern and 
southern armies met south of Seoul. 

Malta. E. Mizzi, leader of the Nation- 
alist party, formed a minority govern- 
ment. 

North Atlantic Treaty. The council 
announced a plan for setting up an 
integrated defence force for Europe under 
a supreme commander. 

United States The resignation of Lewis 
Douglas as ambassador in London was 
announced. 

27: r ;reat Britain. Labour retained its 
seat in a by-election at North-East 
Leicester. 

United States. Walter Sherman Giffotd 
was nominated ambassador to Great 
Britain. 

28: Spain-Portugal. It was announced 
that discussions on international affairs 
had taken place in Spain and Portugal 
between General Franco and Dr. Salazar. 

Trade Conference. International talks 
on tariffs and trade opened in Torquay. 

United Nations. Indonesia was admit- 
ted as the 60th member. 
29: Korea. South Korean forces reached 
the 38th parallel: General MacArthur 
formally handed over control of Seoul to 
Syngman Rhee. 

^Sweden. The village of Surte, near 
Gothenburg, was wrecked when its clay 
foundations slid into the river valley. 
The Gota river, railway lines and roads 
were blocked. 

United Nations. The Security council 
decided to invite the Chinese Communist 
government to be represented during its 
discussion on Formosa. Brazil and the 
Netherlands were elected to the Security 
council. After 12 ballots neither Turkey 
nor Lebanon secured a two-thirds maj- 
ority for the third seat. Great Britain, 
U.S.S.R., Uruguay, Philippines, Poland 
and Sweden were elected to the Economic 
and Social council. Dominica and Thai- 
lancj were elected to the Trusteeship 
council. 

30: Canada. Douglas Abbott, minister of 
finance, announced the freeing of the 
Canadian dollar. 

India. At a press conference in New 
Delhi, Jawaharlal Nehru said it would be 
wrong for United Nations forces to 
invade North Korea. 



OCTOBER 

1 : Korea. General MacArthur called on 
the North Koreans to surrender. South 
Korean forces crossed into North Korea. 



Vietnam. French and Vietnam force* 
entered the town of Thai-Nguyen, th< 
military capital of the Vietminh forces. 

2: Great Britain. The 49th annual con- 
ference of the Labour party opened al 
Margate under the chairmanship of Sam 
Watson. 

Indonesia. An offensive was launched 
by Indonesian troops against Amboina 
island, centre of the South Moluccas 
republic. This was the only state still 
resisting incorporation into Indonesia. 

Korea. South Korean forces occupied 
Yangyang, north of the 38th parallel. 

United Nations. A. Vyshinsky put 
forward proposals for Korea to the 
political committee. His draft resolutions 
named the United States as the aggressor, 
and called for the withdrawal of the U.S. 
forces and the disbandment of the existing 
U.N. commission. 

3: Great Britain. The Treasury announced 
that the gold and dollar reserves of the 
sterling area on Sept. 30, 1950, were 
2,756 million compared with 1,340 
million at the time of devaluation of 
sterling, Sept. 18, 1949. 

Brazil. Getulio Vargas was elected 
president to succeed Eurico Dutra. 

Islamic Conference. Ghulam Moham- 
med, Pakistan finance minister, in his 
presidential address to the second Islamic 
Economic conference at Tehran, called 
for some integration of Moslem countries 
on an economic basis. 

4: Commonwealth Conference. The meet- 
ings on aid to Asia ended in London. 

Pakistan. The Ministry of Defence 
announced that Afghan tribesmen and 
troops had crossed into Pakistan and 
were being driven back. 

5: Israel. The cabinet conferred on the 
prime minister, David Ben-Gurion, the 
special powers formerly held by the 
British high commissioner, enabling him 
to conduct an intensive war against the 
black market. 

7: Tibet. Chinese forces invaded Tibet. 
(This action was not made public until 
the end of October). 

United Nations. The general assembly 
approved, by 47 votes to 5 with 8 
abstentions, an eight-power resolution 
for the unification and rehabilitation of a 
peaceful and democratic Korea. 

8: Great Britain. Hugh Gaitskell, minister 
of state for economic affairs, arrived in 
New York. 

Korea. U.S. forces crossed the 38th 
parallel and South Korean troops 
occupied Wonsan. 

Morocco. The sultan of Morocco 
arrived at Bordeaux on a state visist to 
France. 

Pakistan. Jogendra Nath Mandal, 
Hindu minister of law, resigned. 

9: Great Britain. The minister of supply 
appointed Feb. 15, 1951, as the general 
date of transfer of the iron and steel 
industry. 

Denmark. Winston Churchill arrived 
in Copenhagen as the guest of the Danish 
government. 

Western Germany. Gustav Heinemann, 
minister of the interior, resigned. 

10: Canada-United States. The Niagara 
waters treaty became operative after 
the deposit of ratification documents. 

Denmark. Winston Churchill was awar- 
ded the degree of doctor of philosophy 
and arts by Copenhagen university. 

Morocco. The sultan of Morocco 
arrived in Paris. 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1950 



13 



11: Korea. British and Commonwealth 
forces advanced across the 38th parallel. 

Medicine. The minister of health 
announced the setting up of a committee 
to investigate the claims of David Rees 
Evans to have discovered a treatment for 
cancer. 

12: Great Britain- Yemen. Negotiations 
which opened on Aug. 29 ended. Among 
the subjects discussed was the setting up 
of diplomatic relations between the two 
countries. 

Jordan. King Abdullah accepted the 
resignation of his cabinet and asked 
Said Pasha el Mufti to form a new 
government. 

United Nations. The Security council 
notified the president of the general 
assembly that it had been unable to agree 
on a recommendation regarding the 
appointment of a secretary general. 

13: United States. President Truman 
arrived at Honolulu on his way to a 
meeting with General Douglas Mac- 
Arthur. 

14: Indonesia. Mohammed Hatta, former 
prime minister, was elected vice-president. 
Jordan. A new cabinet was formed 
under Said Pasfca el Mufti. 

United States. President Truman and 
General MacArthur held a three-hour 
meeting on Wake island. They discussed 
Korea and other far eastern matters. 

15: Eastern Germany. Elections were held 
for both houses of parliament. 98-44% 
of the electorate voted. 

Israel. The cabinet resigned after 
members of the Religious bloc had 
notified the prime minister, David Ben- 
Gurion, that they were unwilling to 
accept his proposed cabinet changes. 

16: Australia. The executive of the Labour 
party decided to withdraw its opposition 
to the government's Communist Party 
Dissolution bill. 

Israel. David Ben-Gurion proposed 
the formation of a caretaker cabinet until 
a general election. 

Malta. The second parliament elected 
under the 1947 constitution was opened. 

Western Germany. Erich Kohler 
resigned as president of the Bundestag. 

17: Great Britain. The judicial committee 
of the Privy Council reported that in 
their opinion the Rev. J. G. MacManaway 
was disabled from sitting in the House of 
Commons because he was a priest of the 
Church of Ireland. 

18: Indo- China. Vietminh troops entered 
the border town of Langson. 

Israel. The Knesset rejected David 
Ben-Gurion's proposals for a caretaker 
government. 

Scotland. The Queen opened the Loch 
Sloy scheme, the first of the major 
projects of the North of Scotland Hydro- 
Electric board to come into operation. 
19: Great Britain. Sir Stafford Cripps 
resigned as chancellor of the exchequer 
for reasons of health. Hugh Gaitskell, 
minister of state for economic affairs, 
was appointed to succeed him. 

The House of Commons declared 
vacant the Rev. MacManaway's seat at 
West Belfast. 

Israel. President Weizmann asked 
P. Rosen, leader of the Progressive party, 
to try to form a government. 

Korea. United Nations forces captured 
Pyongyang, capital of North Korea. 

Tibet. Chinese troops occupied Chang- 
tu (Chamdo), northeast of Lhasa. 
20: Australia. The Communist Party 
Dissolution bill received the royal assent. 



21: Great Britain. Princess Elizabeth's 
second child, Princess Anne Elizabeth 
Alice Louise, was christened by the 
archbishop of York at Buckingham 
palace. 

Germany. A statement was issued at 
the end of a two-day conference in 
Prague attended by V. Molotov and the 
foreign ministers of the eastern European 
countries and Eastern Germany. The 
conference proposed a four-power dec- 
laration against the remilitarization of 
Germany, and a peace treaty with 
Germany. 

Jordan. King Abdullah arrived in 
Baghdad. 

22: Indo-China. French forces withdrew 
from Loc Binh, a frontier post, and 
evacuated Langson. 

Tibet. Chinese forces occupied Lhad- 
zong, 250 mi. northeast of Lhasa. 

23: Arab League. The 13th regular meeting 
of the council was held in Cairo. It 
lasted 20 min. 

24: Great Britain. The House of Commons 
approved an address to the King for 
making arrangements for the building 
of the new chamber and thanked the 
Lords for the hospitality of their chamber 
for nearly ten years. 

Australia. Eric Harrison, minister 
resident in London, was sworn in as 
Australian minister of the interior in 
London by the lord chancellor. 

France. R. Pleven, prime minister, 
proposed the creation of a unified 
European defence force in which Ger- 
many could play a part. 

North Atlantic Treaty. The council of 
deputies decided to establish an economic 
and financial working group at the head- 
quarters of O.E.E.C. in Paris. 

25: Great Britain. The Conservative 
party retained its seat in a by-election at 
Scotstoun, Glasgow. 

Hugh Gaitskell took the oath as 
chancellor of the exchequer. 

United Nations. The Security council 
again considered the appointment of a 
secretary general. Carlos Romulo 
(Philippines) and Charles Malik (Leb- 
anon) each received 4 votes. , 

26: Great Britain. The King opened the 
new House of Commons chamber. 
Speakers and presiding officers of 29 
Commonwealth assemblies were present. 
The House of Lords returned to its own 
chamber, which since 1941 had been 
occupied by the Commons. 

Denmark. Hans Hedtoft's minority 
Labour government resigned. 

Korea. South Korean patrols reached 
the Manchurian border north of Kojang. 

Tibet. India sent a note to the Chinese 
expressing " deep regret " that the 
Chinese had invaded Tibet instead of 
trying to reach a settlement by negotia- 
tion. 

Nobel Prize. The prize for physiology 
and medicine was awarded jointly to 
P. S. Hench and E. C. Kendall of the 
Mayo clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, U.S., 
and to T. Reichstein of Basle, Switzer- 
land, for the discovery of Cortisone. 

27: France. General Juin returned to 
France after visiting Indo-China. 

Tibet. Chinese forces occupied Shosh- 
ado. 

28 : France. The bill to extend compulsory 
military service from 1 yr. to 18 months 
was passed by 414 votes to 185. 

North Atlantic Treaty. The defence 
committee met in Washington. 



29: Sweden. King Gustaf V died at 
Drottningholm castle at the age of 92 
after a reign of 43 years. 

Western Germany. K. Adenauer 
publicly rejected the French terms to 
allow German units to serve in a Euro- 
pean army. 

30: Israel. David Ben-Gurion announced 
the formation of a coalition government. 

Nepal-Great Britain. A treaty of 
perpetual peace and friendship was 
signed in Kathmandu. 

North Borneo. The newly constituted 
Legislative Council met for the first 
time. 

Poland. A drastic revaluation of the 
zloty came into effect. The new zloty 
was based on gold and was at par with the 
Soviet rouble. 

Sweden. King Gustaf VI Adolf took 
the royal oath. 

Syria. General Sami Hinnawi, leader 
of the revolt against Husni ez Zaim in 
Aug. 1949, was shot dead in Beirut. 

Tibet. In a reply to the Indian note 
the Chinese government reiterated its 
claim that Tibet was an integral part of 
China and a matter solely for the Chinese 
government. 

31: Great Britain. The King opened parlia- 
ment. The King's speech included pro- 
posals for a permanent Supplies and 
Service bill and the taking over of the 
beet sugar industry. 

Italy. Palmiro Togliatti, leader of the 
Communist party, underwent an emer- 
gency operation for the removal of a 
blood clot on the brain. 

Puerto Rico. An unsuccessful attempt 
was made on the life of the governor, 
Luis Mufloz Marin. 

Tibet. In a further note to the Chinese 
government the Indian government again 
expressed " their hope that the Chinese 
government will still prefer methods of 
peaceful negotiation and settlement to 
solution under duress and by force." 

NOVEMBER 

1: Roman Catholic Church. The Pope 
proclaimed a dogma of the bodily 
assumption into heaven of the Virgin 
Mary. 

United Nations. By 46 votes to 5 with 
7 abstentions, the general assembly 
decided to prolong Trygve Lie's term as 
secretary general for three years. 

United States. Two Puerto Ricans 
attempted to shoot their way into 
President Truman's home in Washington 
with the intention of assassinating him. 
One was shot dead and the other wounded. 
One guard was shot dead. An attempt 
was made to blow up the Puerto Rican 
government offices in New York. 
2: Great Britain. George Bernard Shaw 
died at his home at Ayot St. Lawrence, 
Hertfordshire. 

Conservatives retained their seat in a 
by-election at Oxford city. 

Greece. S. Venizelos's coalition 
government resigned after disagreements 
with the Populist party. 

Indo-China. Vietminh forces occupied 
Laokay. 

3: Bulgaria. A decree became effective 
which permitted Soviet citizens to assume 
posts in Bulgaria as though they were 
Bulgarians. 

Greece. S. Venizelos formed a Liberal- 
Social Democrat coalition government. 

Indonesia. The Indonesian flag was 
again hoisted in the city cf Amboina after 
five weeks of military operations. 



14 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1950 



Soviet Union. The government handed 
notes to the British, French and United 
States ambassadors in Moscow proposing 
a meeting of the Council of Foreign 
Ministers to consider " the question of 
implementing the Potsdam agreement on 
the demilitarization of Germany.'* 

4: Persia-Soviet Union. A new trade 
agreement was signed in Tehran. 

United Nations. The general assembly 
annulled its decision of Dec. 1946 calling 
on member states to withdraw their 
ambassadors or ministers from Madrid. 

5: Korea. General MacArthur reported 
that Chinese Communist troops were now 
engaged with the U.N. forces. 

6: Great Britain. In a division on housing 
the government received a majority of 12. 

7: Great Britain. In two divisions on cost 
of living and controls the government 
received majorities of 15 and 10. 

Nepal. The ruler, Maharajadhiraja 
Tribhuvana Bir Bikram Jung Bahadur, 
and his family sought asylum in the 
Indian embassy in Kathmandu. The 
crown prince's second son, aged 3, was 
proclaimed king. 

Soviet Union. Celebrations were held 
to mark the 33rd anniversary of the 1917 
revolution. 

United States. Flections were held for 
the House of Representatives and 36 
seats in the Senate. The final results were: 
Senate, Democrats 49, Republicans 47; 
House of Representatives, Democrats 
227, Republicans 196, Independents 1. 

8: Great Britain. The government was 
defeated by 6 votes in the House of 
Commons on a motion concerning 
private members' bills. 

Eastern Germany. Otto Grotcwohl, 
prime minister, announced that the 
government had resigned. He was asked 
to form a new cabinet. 

France. General Boyer de la Tour du 
Moulin was appointed to succeed General 
Alessandri as commander in Tongking. 

Japan. The Soviet representative 
attended the Allied Council for Japan for 
the first time since April 26. 

United Nations. The Security council 
decided to invite Chinese Communist 
representatives to be present for discus- 
sion on General MacArthur's report that 
Chinese troops were fighting in Korea. 

9: France. The National Assembly 
defeated by 466 votes to 98 a motion 
calling on the government to ameliorate 
the conditions of Marshal Petain's 
detention. 

Sweden. King Gustaf V was buried in 
Riddarholm church, Stockholm. The 
Duke of Gloucester represented King 
George VI. 

10: Great Britain. Lord Tedder was elected 
chancellor of Cambridge university in 
succession to General Smuts. 

It was announced that it had been 
decided to establish diplomatic relations 
with Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. 

Nobel Prizes. The 1950 prize for litera- 
ture was awarded to Earl Russell (Bert- 
rand Russell); the 1949 prize to William 
Faulkner (United States); the prize for 
physics was awarded to Professor Cecil 
Powell of Bristol. 

11: France. M. Thorez, secretary general 
of the French Communist party, left 
Paris by air for medical treatment in the 
Soviet Union! 



World Peace Congress. It was 

announced that because of the action of 
the British government in refusing entry 
into Britain of many delegates the con- 
ference due to open at Sheffield on Nov. 
13 would open in Warsaw on Nov. 16. 
Yugoslavia. The government ordered 
the Albanian legation in Belgrade to be 
closed. 

12: Great Britain. Remembrance day cere- 
monies were held throughout Britain and 
the Commonwealth. 

Tibet. Chinese forces occupied Lho 
Dzong and captured Chapatsitun, the 
commander of the 7th Tibetan regiment. 

13: Nepal. The exiled king of Nepal 
visited President Prasad in New Delhi. 

United Nations. The secretary general 
announced the receipt of an appeal 
(dated Nov. 7) from the government of 
Tibet for aid. 

Venezuela. Lieut. Colonel Carlos 
Delgado Chalbaud, president of the 
military junta since 1948, was shot dead 
in Caracas. 

14: Great Britain. The National Coal 
board issued its national plan for spending 
635 million on capital development 
before 1965. 

Great Britain- Yugoslavia. It was 
announced that Britain had agreed to 
make available to Yugoslavia a credit of 
3 million for tKe purchase of food and 
consumer goods. 

India. In opening the winter session 
of parliament President Prasad an- 
nounced the postponement of the first 
general elections from April-May 1951 
to Nov.-Dec. 1951. 

Venezuela. General Rafael Urbina, 
who shot Lieut. Colonel Chalbaud on 
Nov. 1 3, was shot while trying to escape. 

Boxing. Jack Gardner beat the holder 
Bruce Woodcock for the British and 
Empire heavy-weight titles. 

15: Eastern Germany. Otto Grotcwohl 
presented his new National Front govern- 
ment to the Volkskammer. It included 
5 deputy prime ministers. 

16: Great Britain. Conservatives retained 
the seat in the Handsworth, Birmingham* 
by-election with an increased majority. 

Egypt. In his speech to the parliament, 
King Farouk said his government would 
insist on the evacuation of British troops 
from Egyptian soil and the unification of 
the Nile valley under the Egyptian crown. 

Greece. The new government received 
a vote of confidence by 1 64 votes to 54. 
The Populist party, which was excluded 
from the government, voted for the 
government. 

India. The Madras government lifted 
its ban on the Communist party. 

World Peace Congress. The World 
Peace congress transferred from Shef- 
fieldopened in Warsaw. 

17: Tibet. The Dalai Lama was invested 
with full powers as the spiritual and 
temporal head of the state. 

United Nations. The general assembly, 
by 50 votes to 0, approved proposals for 
the creation of a unified and sovereign 
state of Libya. 

18: Council of Europe. The second session 

of the consultative assembly was resumed 

in Strasbourg. 
19: Indonesia. All inhabitants of Jakarta 

were confined to their houses for six 

hours while troops and police searched 

for illegal arms. 
Korea. U.S. troops captured Kapsan 

and advanced to within 16 mi. of the 

Manchurian border. 



20: Great Britain. Ernest Bevin stated in 
the House of Commons that Great 
Britain had no intention of withdrawing 
British forces and so leaving the middle 
east defenceless. 

Philip Noel-Baker, minister of fuel and 
power, announced that the National 
Coal board would be buying coal from 
abroad. 

International Court of Justice. The 
court delivered judgement in the Colom- 
bian-Peruvian asylum case. 

Netherlands-Indonesia. The second 
union conference opened in The Hague 
under the chairmanship of Willem Drees. 

Scandinavia. The foreign ministers and 
ministers for trade of Denmark, Norway 
and Sweden met in Copenhagen. The 
Iceland minister in Copenhagen was 
present. 

United Nations. The general assembly 
approved the U.S.-sponsored peace reso- 
lution by 51 votes to 5. 
21: Great Britain. Queen Juliana and the 
prince of the Netherlands arrived in 
Britain on a state visit. 

The government was defeated by 65 
votes to 32 in House of Lords on a 
private member's bill to amend the 
Transport act. 

22: Great Britain. Following demands 
from Conservative and Labour members, 
the government agreed to suspend 
delivery of Centurion tanks to Egypt until 
the foreign secretary had reported to the 
House of Commons on his discussions 
with the Egyptian foreign minister. 

Austria. The three western govern- 
ments sent notes to the Soviet government 
protesting at further Soviet interference 
with the Austrian police. 

Commonwealth. C. R. Attlee announced 
in London that a conference of Common- 
wealth prime ministers would be held in 
London in Jan. 1951. 

Egypt. A state of emergency was 
declared in Cairo, Alexandria and Port 
Said when students began a series of 
anti-British demonstrations. 

Railways. 78 persons were killed in a 
rail crash outside New York. 
23: Great Britain. It was confirmed that 
Britain had sent a message to the Chinese 
government reassuring it that the presence 
of U.N. troops in Korea was not a threat 
to China. 

Finland. Urho Kekkonen, prime mini- 
ster, announced that he would try to 
broaden the government. 

France. The government's policy on 
Indo-China was approved in the National 
Assembly by 345 votes to 193. 

Gibraltar. The Duke of Edinburgh 
opened the new Legislative Council. 

Korea. General MacArthur launched 
a new offensive in Korea. 
24: China. The people's government in the 
Tibetan autonomous region in Sikang was 
founded. 

United States. President Truman 
announced the allocation of $16 million 
to provide food for the Yugoslav armed 
forces. 

Council of Europe. The session of the 
consultative assembly was ended. 
25: Indo-China. French troops retook the 
frontier post of Tan May. 

Italy. Mount Etna began to erupt. 

Korea. The North Korean and Chinese 
troops began a counter offensive. 

Libya. The first meeting of the Libyan 
Constituent Assembly was held. The 
Mufti of Tripolitania was elected presi- 
dent and the assembly declared that the 
Emir of Cyrenaica should be king of all 
Libya. 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1950 



15 



Malta. Princess Elizabeth arrived by 
air from London. 

26: Indo-China. A conference presided over 
by Bao Dai and attended by the prime 
minister of Vietnam, Tran Van Huu, and 
military commanders was held in Tong- 
king. 

Uruguay. Elections were held for the 
presidency. A. Martinez Trueba was 
elected to succeed Luis Batlle Berres. 

27: Commonwealth. A conference of the 
Commonwealth Parliamentary associa- 
tion opened in Wellington, New Zealand. 

France. The economic conference at 
Pau between representatives of France 
and Indo-China ended after five months. 

India-Nepal. Two representatives of 
the government of Nepal arrived in New 
Delhi for talks with Indian ministers. 

United Nations. Delegates from the 
Chinese People's republic attended a 
meeting of the Security council for the 
first time. 

Venezuela. G. Suarez Flammerich was 
installed as president of the new civilian- 
military junta, 

28: Great Britain. By 389 votes to 134 the 
House of Commons, on a free vote, 
carried an amendment to prevent the 
Sunday opening of the Festival of Britain 
fun fair. 

Commonwealth. Details were published 
of the proposals for co-operative econo- 
mic development in south and southeast 
Asia, known as the Colombo plan. 

France. The king and queen of Den- 
mark arrived in Paris on a state visit. 

The government was defeated in the 
National Assembly on a Communist 
motion to impeach Jules Moch, minister 
of defence. Rene Pleven offered the 
resignation of his government to the 
president, but it was not accepted. 

India-Pakistan. Correspondence was 
published between Jawaharlal Nehru and 
Liaquat Ali Khan on the proposed " no 
war " declaration. 

Korea. General Mac Arthur reported 
to the United Nations that 200,000 
Chinese troops were in Korea. 

United Nations. General Wu Hsiu- 
chuan, leader of the Chinese Communist 
delegation, accused the United States of 
aggression against China, Korea, Vietnam 
the Philippines, Japan and other Asian 
countries, after Warren Austin, U.S., had 
accused China of aggression in Korea. 

29: Great Britain. The House of Commons 
opened a two-day debate on foreign 
affairs. 

The Ulster Unionists retained the seat 
in a by-election at West Belfast but with a 
much reduced majority. 

Korea. United Nations forces, after 
being forced back across the Chongchon 
river, were in general retreat towards 
Sunchon. 

30: Great Britain. At the close of the 
foreign affairs debate, C. R. Attlee 
announced that he was flying to Washing- 
ton for talks with President Truman. 

Labour retained its seats in by-elections 
at South East Bristol and Abertillery. 

France, By 369 votes to 181 the 
National' Assembly adopted a bill for 
constitutional reform. 

Indo-China. It was announced that the 
frontier post of Chuc-Phai-San had been 
recaptured by French and Vietnam 
troops. 

United States. President Truman stated 
that the use of the atomic bomb in Korea 
was under consideration. 



DECEMBER 

1: France. The National Assembly 
approved a motion of confidence in the 
government by 347 votes to 184, 

United States. President Truman sent 
a message to congress asking for a 
further $17,978 million for defence. 

2: Great Britain. Clement Attlee and 
Ernest Bevin held consultations in 
London with Rene Pleven and Robert 
Schuman of France. 

Bulgaria-Turkey. The frontier, closed 
on Oct. 7, was reopened by decision of 
the Turkish government. 

United Nations. The general assembly 
passed resolutions dealing with the 
federation of Eritrea with Ethiopia, aid 
to Palestinian refugees and the treatment 
of Indians in South Africa. 

3 : Jordan. Said Pasha el Mufti submitted 
the resignation of his cabinet and was 
succeeded by Samir Pasha el Rifai. 

Nepal. Sir Esler Dening of the British 
Foreign Office arrived in New Delhi and 
left for Kathmandu accompanied by 
Frank Roberts, deputy high commis- 
sioner in India. 

Western Germany. Elections were held 
in the western sectors of Berlin. The 
Social Democrats remained the largest 
party with 44-7% of the votes. 

4: Great Britain. Sir Eric Young resigned 
from the National Coal board. 

China. Chou En-lai, in a statement on 
the peace treaty with Japan, declared that 
Communist China should take part in 
preparing the treaty. 

Netherlands- Indonesia. The conference 
on the future of Dutch New Guinea 
opened at The Hague. 

United States. Clement Attlee met 
President Truman in Washington. 

5: Greece. Princess Elizabeth and the 
Duke of Edinburgh arrived in Greece 
for a week's visit to King Paul and Queen 
Frederika. 

India-Sikkim. A new treaty was signed 
in Gangtok, providing that Sikkim 
should continue to be a protectorate of 
India enjoying internal autonomy. 

United Nations. Asian and Arab mem-' 
bers appealed to Communist China and 
North Korea not to cross the 38th 
parallel. 

Cricket. Australia beat England in 
the first test match at Brisbane by 70 runs. 

6: Great Britain. A memorial to the first 
Earl of Oxford and Asquith was unveiled 
in the Palace of Westminster by Winston 
Churchill. 

France. General de Lattre de Tassigny 
was appointed high commissioner and 
commander in chief in Indo-China. 

Haiti. Paul E. Magloire was installed 
as president. 

India. Jawaharlal Nehru appealed to 
the four great powers to try to solve the 
far eastern crisis by peaceful negotiations. 

Korea. Chinese troops launched an 
attack on a 70-mi. front. Pyongyang was 
taken by the North Koreans. 

United Nations. By 51 votes to 5 with 
3 abstentions the general assembly 
decided to discuss the question of Chinese 
intervention in Korea. 

7: Great Britain. In a statement to the 
House of Commons, E. Shinwell, minister 
of defence, said that Great Britain might 
have to prepare for still harder tidings 
but that there was no thought of with- 
drawal from Korea. 



8: Great Britain-United States. C. R. 

Attlee and President Truman ended their 
talks in Washington. A joint statement 
announced agreement on many matters. 
They were ready to negotiate on Korea 
but repudiated appeasement. 

Eastern Germany. The Supreme Court 
sentenced Leonhart Moog, a former 
finance minister in Thuringia, and three 
others to 15 years' imprisonment for 
inflicting " great damage on the national 
economy of the republic.'* 

Finland. Jan Sibelius celebrated his 
85th birthday. He was presented with 
the Grand Cross with Brilliants of the 
Order of the White Rose. 

Hungary. The National Assembly 
unanimously passed the Defence of Peace 
law. 

9: Korea. Half of ihe 20,000 U.S. and 
British troops fighting their way out of 
the Choshin area reached Hungnam. 

United States. General Marshall stated 
that the president was considering pro- 
claiming a national emergency. 

10: Danube. The third session of the 
Danube commission opened in Galatz, 
Rumania. 

India-Nepal. The talks in New Delhi 
ended. The communique^ said that the 
conversations were conducted in a 
friendly atmosphere. The two Nepalese 
representatives left New Delhi for Kath- 
mandu. 

Spain. General Franco called for 
44 fair play " over Gibraltar but said that 
the colony was " not worth a war." 

Nobel Prizes. Dr. R. Bunche was 
presented with the Peace prize in Oslo. 
The other prize winners received their 
awards from King Gustaf VI Adolf in 
Stockholm. 

11: Great Britain. Winston Churchill was 
created a freeman of Portsmouth. 

Singapore. Rioting broke out following 
the decision of the high court to adjourn 
hearings until Dec. 12, in the case of the 
Dutch girl, Maria (Bertha) Hertogh. 

12: Great Britain. C. R. Attlee returned to 
London from Washington and later 
reported on his talks to the House of 
Commons. 

New Zealand. Peter Fraser, prime 
minister from 1940 to 1949, died in 
Wellington. 

Suez Canal. The Danish government 
joined Great Britain and France in 
protesting to Egypt against restrictions 
on shipping passing through the canal. 

13: Great Britain. Hugh Gaitskell an- 
nounced that the British and United 
States governments had agreed to suspend 
aid under the E.R.P. to Great Britain on 
Jan. 1, 1951. 

Singapore. Rioting continued, but by 
dusk the situation was reported under 
control. 

Suez Canal. Norway also protested to 
Egypt against restrictions on shipping. 

United Nations. The general assembly 
called on South Africa to place South- 
West Africa under the supervision of the 
United Nations. The assembly again 
asked for further discussions on the con- 
trol of atomic energy and appointed a 
committee to consider the question of 
China's representation. 

14: Great Britain. In the House of Com- 
mons Ernest Bevin stated that Great 
Britain had opposed the latest drive by 
U.N. forces. 

Indo-China. French forces began a new 
drive against Communist positions north- 
east of Hanoi. 



16 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1950 



South Africa. It was announced that 
South African gold mines would supply 
uranium to Great Britain and the U.S. 

Switzerland. Eduard von Steiger was 
elected president of the Swiss confedera- 
tion. 

United Nations. The general assembly 
appointed a committee of three " to 
determine the basis on which a satisfac- 
tory cease-fire in Korea can be arranged/* 
15: Council of Foreign Ministers. The 
deputies again met in London to discuss 
the Austrian treaty. No progress was 
made. 

Eastern Germany. The parliament 
passed a school law which provided that 
all children must be educated in state 
schools and also a law safeguarding 
peace. 

India. Vallabhbhai Patel, deputy prime 
minister from 1947, died in Bombay. 

Soviet Union. The government sent 
notes to the British and U.S. governments 
calling for the trial as a war criminal of 
Emperor Hirohito. The government also 
sent notes to Britain and France again 
protesting at the decisions to remilitarize 
Germany. 

Broadcasting. The B.B.C. stated that 
more than 60% of its capital investment 
in the next three years would be spent on 
television. 

16; Indo-China. J. Let ourneau and General 
de Lattre de Tassigny, newly appointed 
high commissioner, arrived in Saigon. 

United Nations. General Wu, delegate 
froni Communist China, announced that 
China would call for the withdrawal of 
volunteers in Korea provided that all 
foreign troops were withdrawn and that 
Communist China was admitted to the 
United Nations. 

17: Italy. P. Togliatti, Italian Communist 
leader, left for recuperation in the Soviet 
Union. 

Korea. United Nations forces aban- 
doned the Yonpo airfield near Hungnam. 
1 8 : Great Britain. The Treasury announced 
an increase in the foreign tourist allow- 
ance from 50 to 100. 

Eastern Germany. A protocol was 
signed extending until March 1951 the 
Frankfurt agreement on intra-German 
trade. 

Indo-China. The garrison of the 
frontier post of Dinhlap withdrew to the 
south. 

Libya. Princess Elizabeth visited 
Tripoli where she inspected units of the 
Brigade of Guards. 

North Atlantic Treaty. The fifth 
meeting of the North Atlantic council 
opened in Brussels under the chairman- 
ship of Paul van Zeeland (Belgium). 
Agreement was reached on the appoint- 
ment of a supreme commander and on 
German participation in a European 
army. 

Poland-Eastern Germany. A German 
delegation, headed by Wilhelm Pieck, 
arrived in Warsaw. 

19: Indo-China. The retiring high com- 
missioner, Lon Pignon, left for France. 

North Atlantic Treaty. General 
Dwight D. Eisenhower (U.S.) was 
appointed supreme commander. It was 
also suggested that a European director 
of production should be appointed as a 
counterpart to the military command. 
The council ended its meetings. The 
foreign ministers of Great Britain, 
France and the United States later met 
together. 

Singapore. The governor, Sir Franklin 
Gimson, announced the setting up of an 
inquiry into the riots over Maria Hertogh. 



20: Belgium. The House of Representa- 
tives passed by 105 votes to 76 a bill 
fixing the strength of army. 

Chile. A naval expedition sailed from 
Valparaiso to set up a third military base 
in the Falkland Islands dependencies. 

Soviet Union. The presidium of the 
Supreme Soviet instituted Stalin inter- 
national prizes " for consolidation of 
peace among the nations.'* 

21: Czechoslovakia. The National Assem- 
bly passed a law to safeguard peace. 

Germany. Cardinal von Preysing, 
bishop of Berlin, died. 

India-Nepal. Jawaharlal Nehru gave 
details of the Indian proposals to Nepal. 
These included the setting up of a 
constituent assembly. The Nepalese 
reply was still awaited. 

Italy. The new central railway station 
in Rome was opened by President 
Einaudi. 

United Nations. The committee of 
three to arrange a cease-fire in Korea 
sent a further message to Peking. 

United States. Charles E. Wilson took 
office as director of defence mobilization. 

22: Great Britain. Sir Eustace Missenden, 
chairman of the Railway executive, 
resigned. 

China. Chou-En-lai, prime minister 
and foreign minister, rejected the United 
Nations appeal f r a cease-fire in Korea. 

Germany. The western powers replied 
to Soviet notes of Nov. 3 proposing 
four power talks on Germany. The 
western powers proposed that the 
permanent representatives at the United 
Nations should meet to prepare an 
agenda. 

23: Korea. Lieut. General W. Walker, 
commander of the United States 8th 
army, was killed in a road accident in 
Korea. 

Netherlands-Indonesia. The conference 
at The Hague on New Guinea was 
resumed after Mohammed Rum had 
returned with fresh proposals from 
Jakarta. 

Roiran Catholic Church. The Pope in 
his Christmas message confirmed that the 
tomb of St. Peter had been found under 
the Basilica of St. Peter, Rome. 

24: Indo-China. An agreement was signed 
in Saigon giving Vietnam greater powers 
over internal affairs. The U.S. ambassador 
signed an agreement giving military aid to 
France and to Vietnam, Laos and Cam- 
bodia. 

Korea. Syngman Rhee ordered the 
evacuation of civilians from Seoul. 

Roman Catholic Church. The Pope 
declared the 1950 Holy Year ended. 
More than 4 million pilgrims had visited 
Rome during the year. 

25: Great Britain. The King broadcast his 
Christmas message to the peoples of the 
Commonwealth from Sandringham. 

It was announced that the Coronation 
stone had been stolen from Westminster 
abbey. 

Bulgaria. The National Assembly 
passed the Defence of the Peace act. 

Korea. The withdrawal of U.N. 
troops from Hungnam was completed. 

Nepal. The two houses of parliament 
approved proposals for convening within 
three years a constituent assembly based 
on adult suffrage. A new cabinet of nine 
members was formed including repre- 
sentatives of the people. 

26: India. Jawaharlal Nehru held talks in 
New Delhi with R. G. Menzies. 



Chakravarti Rajagopalachari was ap- 
pointed minister of home affairs in 
succession to Sardar Patel. 

Korea. A unified military command 
was set up under General M. Ridgeway 
who arrived in Korea to succeed General 
Walker. 

The South Korean minister of justice 
announced that 84 Koreans sentenced to 
death had had their sentences altered to 
terms of imprisonment. 1,200 Koreans 
under sentence of imprisonment were 
released. 

New Zealand. The Canterbury cen- 
tenary games were opened by the gover- 
nor general. 

27: Commonwealth. D. S. Senanayake 
(Ceylon) and S. G. Holland (New Zealand 
left for the Commonwealth conference in 
London. 

Netherlands-Indonesia. The talks on 
New Guinea ended in a deadlock. 

Pakistan. R. G. Menzies arrived in 
Karachi for talks with Liaquat Ali 
Khan. 

United States-Spain. President Truman 
announced that he had nominated 
Stanton Griffis as the first ambassador to 
Spain since ambassadors were withdrawn 
in Dec. 1946. 

Cricket. Australia beat England in the 
second test match at Melbourne by 28 
runs. 

28: Benelux Countries. A conference of the 
prime ministers of Belgium, Luxembourg 
and the Netherlands opened at The Hague. 

Finland. Urho Kekkonen, prime 
minister, arrived in Rome " for health 
reasons." 

Soviet Union. The presidium of the 
Supreme Soviet decided to divide the 
Ministry of the Metallurgical Industry 
into separate ministries for ferrous and 
non-ferrous metals. 

Tibet. It became known that the Dalai 
Lama had reached Gyantse from Lhasa. 

United States-India. An agreement was 
signed in New Delhi under President 
Truman's " point four " programme. 

29: Great Britain. A petition to the King 
by persons who claimed to have stolen 
the Coronation stone, asking for the 
stone to be kept in Scotland, was left at 
a Glasgow newspaper office. 

France. The National Assembly 
approved the expenditure of Fr. 740,000 
million on armaments in 1951. Only the 
Communist; voted against the proposal. 

Gold Coast. A new constitution for the 
colony was published. It was announced 
that the first general election would be 
held in Feb. 8, 1951. 

Poland. The Diet passed a law for the 
defence of peace. 

Southern Rhodesia. Sir Godfrey 
Huggins left Salisbury for the Common- 
wealth conference in London. 

30: Pakistan. Liaquat Ali Khan announced 
the postponement of his departure to the 
Commonwealth conference because it was 
not proposed that the problem of 
Kashmir should be discussed. 

31: Austria. The president, Karl Renner, 
died in Vienna. 

France. The special rearmament 
budget, providing fr. 355,000 million for 
national defence was adopted by the 
National Assembly. 

India-Nepal. General Bijaya Bahadur 
Rana, foreign minister of Nepal, and 
Jawaharlal Nehru, held further talks in 
New Delhi. 

Yugoslavia. The government granted 
an amnesty for 11,327 prisoners. 



BOOK OF THE YEAR 



ABYSSINIA: see ETHIOPIA. 

ACCIDENTS. Road Safety. The Ministry of Transport 
continued its National Road Safety campaign in Great 
Britain, in which the Royal Society for the Prevention of 
Accidents assisted. The theme of the ministry's advertising 
was " Mind how you Go." 

The year 1950 was dedicated to child safety. A campaign 
was launched on Holy Innocents' day, Dec. 28, 1949. The 
ministries of Transport and Education urged local authorities 
to co-operate in a National Children's Safety week in March, 
during which an amazing amount of local ingenuity was 
shown. Though accident statistics during the week did not 
show a decrease, the following month had the lowest April 
total of child pedestrian fatalities since 1937. For the whole 
year, despite the increase in accidents which was bound to 
occur with the return of unrationed petrol, the increase in 
child accidents was much smaller than in the case of adults. 

Millions of posters, leaflets, bookmarks and magazines were 
distributed, several thousand films and exhibitions hired and 
many hundreds of lectures given. New films included 
Mr. Jones takes the Air (dealing with rural road safety), 
Calling all Children and The Cockney Kids' Adventure. 
The British rights of an Australian film, Death on the Road, 
were purchased. Four films were also made by the Crown 
Film unit: Report on Road Safety; a " flash " appealing to 
parents; and two trailers, The Golden Rule and Careless and 
Carefree. Five hundred thousand people visited static or 
mobile exhibitions of the society. The Ro.S.P.A.'s training 
centre was visited by 24,342 children, learner-drivers and 
others. A nation-wide poster competition was held for art 
students, designers and children. 

A quarter of a million commercial transport drivers were 
entered in the society's annual safe-driving competition, 
including drivers from most of the government and service 
departments; 121,595 awards of silver and gold medals 
and diplomas were presented. Eight hundred London 
Transport drivers qualified for awards for 20 years or more 
of safe driving, totalling between them 16,000 " safe " years 



and 3,111,000,000 miles in safety. The number of young 
cyclists who successfully passed the society's cycling profi- 
ciency test was 10,000. 

The society's annual National Safety congress held in 
October in London, was opened by the minister of transport, 
Alfred Barnes, and was attended by over 1,000 delegates. 
Proposals from accident-prevention federations all over the 
country were discussed. 

The House of Lords held a debate in July on road safety, 
initiated by the Ro.S.P.A.'s president, Lord Llewellin. 
Lord Lucas", parliamentary secretary to the Ministry of Trans- 
port, assured the house that the ministry had a firm policy 
and that plans existed for a complete road system. 

The minister of transport said that 156,516 persons were 
killed in road accidents from Jan. 1, 1926 to June 30, 1950; 
even if 1939-41, for which years figures were not available, 
were excluded 3,795,258 persons were injured. Reports on 
accidents included an analysis of the causes and circumstances 
of road accidents in 1949 by the commissioner of police for 
the metropolis, Sir Harold Scott. 

The Ministry of Transport issued the Traffic Signs (Size, 
Colour and Type) regulations, 1950, revoking previous 
regulations and bringing previous authorizations up to date. 
The " Halt at Major Road ahead " and " Slow Major 
Road ahead " signs were now legally authorized with the 
red triangle in the red circle resting either on its base or its 
apex. A select committee on estimates called for a survey 
into the effectiveness of road safety propaganda. 

Concern was expressed over the rise in motor-cycling 
accidents. *" The scheme of the R.A.C./A.C.U. for training 
motor-cyclists was extended. 

The Road Research laboratory, under the heading of 
traffic and safety, dealt with subjects such as the effect of 
fog; traffic behaviour on a three-lane road and a dual 
carriageway; the effects of a pedestrian crossing week and of 
zebra-marked crossings; and the relative risk to pedestrians 
on crossings and elsewhere. 

Toys. The National Home Safety committee recommended 
to the Inter-Departmental Committee on Home Accidents 






xx-^J^t^-- 




Cartoons from " Fire! Fire/" a 16-page booklet published in July 1950 by H. M. Stationery Office to help the public to avoid the dangers 

of fire in the home. 
B.B.Y. 3 17 



18 



ACHESON 



TABLE I. ACCIDENTAL DEATHS IN AND ABOUT THE HOME, ENGLAND 



AND WALES 



Falls and Crushing 

Drowning . 

Burns, Scalds and Conflagration* 

Suffocation . 

Others 

Total . 



1947 
4,001 
1,149 
904 
1,054 
1,482 
8,590 



1948 

3,498 

984 

651 

838 

1,315 

7,286 



TABLE II. ACCIDENTAL DEATHS AND INJURIES IN GREAT BRITAIN 



Killed 



1947 
447 

4,881 
618 
839 



1948 
367 

4,513 
468 
861 



1949 
321 

4,773 
460 

772 



Injured 
1947 


1948 


1949 


30,113 


30,050 


29,311 


161,318 


148,884 


172,006 


162,544 


2,391* 


2,180* 


202,397 


200,225 


192,210 



Railways 
Roads . 
Coal Mines 
Factories 



Railways 
Roads . 
Coal Mines . 
Factories 

* Serious injuries only. 



that the manufacture and importation of highly inflammable 
celluloid and plastic toys be prohibited or that, if this were 
not possible, such toys be marked ** highly inflammable." 

Industrial Safety. Two new volumes in the series '* I.C.J. 
Engineering Codes and Regulations (Safety Series) " were 
issued by the Ro.S.P.A. entitled Portable and TransportabL 
Plant and Equipment and Buildings and Structures (Design). 
A pamphlet on Stacking of Materials was prepared by the 
Industrial Safety Officers' section. 

Accident prevention and working conditions in iron 
foundries were discussed in the House of Commons in June. 
New requirements for seating in factories came into force 
on Oct. 1. Under these, all employees who have reasonable 
opportunities to sit without detriment to their work must 
be given facilities to do so: where they can do a substantial 
proportion of any work sitting, the employees must be given 
work seats and, where necessary, foot-rests. 

A campaign to reduce accidents in the furniture trade was 
initiated by the British Furniture Trade Joint Industrial 
council in conjunction with the Furniture Development 
council; the Ro.S.P.A. participated in a one-day conference 
held in London in April. The 16th International Congress 
of Ophthalmology and an exhibition of industrial eye- 
protection were held in London in July. A trade exhibition 
of safety devices, equipment and protective clothing was 
incorporated with the National Industrial Safety conference 
at Scarborough. 

In his annual report for 1948, published in 1950, the chief 
inspector of factories, G. P. Barnett, reported an increase 
in fatalities but a decrease in the total number of accidents. 
The number of accidents per 1,000 workers had also steadily 
declined, from 40 in 1944 to 28 in 1948. 

The British Electricity authority in its first report outlined 
the steps taken to develop a high standard of safety through- 
out the whole industry. (H. Su.) 

United States. Accidents caused 91,000 deaths in the 
United States in 1949. This total was exceeded only by 
deaths from heart disease, cancer and cerebral haemorrhage. 
Information available at the end of Oct. 1950 indicated that 
the 1950 accidental death total would probably drop slightly 
below that of 1949. In addition to the deaths, accidents in 
1950 also caused about 9 million non-fatal injuries. 

An industrial safety highlight of 1950 was the President's 
Conference on Industrial Safety, when 1,500 representatives 
of management, labour, government and the public met in 
Washington in June to consider committee reports and 
develop plans for the reduction of industrial accidents. 



It appeared, late in 1950, that the year's toll of occupational 
accident fatalities would be a little greater than the 1949 
toll of 15,000. 

As 1950 drew to a close, it appeared that the number of 
traffic accident deaths would be nearly 35,000 the largest 
annual total since 1941. This increase in deaths was appar- 
ently matched by the increase in miles travelled by motor 
vehicles. Key committee members of the President's Highway 
Safety Conference met in Chicago in May 1950 to appraise 
progress and plan goals for further achievement. 

Recognition of the seriousness of the farm accident prob- 
lem was indicated by the fact that 24 states had State Farm 
Safety committees in 1950, and 12 states had a full-time farm 
safety specialist, working through many public and private 
agencies to spread information on the ways and means of 
meeting the problem. The president of the United States, 
for the seventh successive year, proclaimed a National Farm 
Safety week in July 1950. More than a million pieces of 
educational material were distributed, and radio, newspaper 
and magazine support were outstanding. 

The 1949 toll of deaths in home accidents was 31,000, 
about the same as that for motor vehicles. Reports for the 
first ten months of 1950 indicated that home fatalities were 
less numerous than in 1949. It appeared that the year's 
total might be less than 30,000. 

During 1950 about 85 out of the several hundred local and 
state safety organizations throughout the country qualified 
for acceptance as chapters of the National Safety council, 
this relationship signifying that these organizations fully 
represented the National Safety council in the communities 
in which they operated, although at the same time retaining 
their own autonomy. The 38th National Safety congress 
was held in Chicago in Oct. 1950, with an attendance of 
approximately 12,000. In addition, about 30 regional safety 
conferences were held during the year. (R. L. Fo.) 

ACHESON, DEAN GOODERHAM, US states- 
man (b. Middletown, Connecticut, April 11, 1893), the son 
of an Englishman who became bishop of Connecticut, was 
educated at the Groton school, Connecticut, at Yale univer- 
sity and at the Harvard Law school. After serving in the 
navy in World War I he took up a legal career and in 1933 
was under secretary of the treasury. In 1941 he became 
assistant secretary of state and was under secretary of state 
from Aug. 16, 1945, to June 30, 1947. On Jan. 7, 1949, 
President Harry S. Truman appointed him secretary of state. 

During 1950 Acheson was perhaps the most controversial 
figure in U.S. public life and was the target of repeated attacks 
in congress, particularly by Senator Joseph McCarthy (</.v.), 
on the grounds that his far eastern policy had failed; President 
Truman repeatedly affirmed, however, that Acheson would 
not, as his critics were demanding, be asked to resign. On 
May 7 the secretary of state flew to Paris where he had 
discussions with the French foreign minister; two days later 
he went on to London for a ten-day visit during which he 
had extensive discussions with the British foreign minister 
and other Commonwealth and western European statesmen 
and was received by the King. He also presided over meetings 
of the Atlantic Treaty council. Among his social engage- 
ments during the stay were the Middle Temple Grand Day 
dinner on May 9 and a dinner given in his honour by the 
Pilgrims on May 10. In September he had further talks in 
New York with the British and French foreign ministers and 
attended further meetings of the Atlantic Treaty council. 
After the conferences between President Truman and Clement 
Attlee in Washington in December, the attacks on Acheson's 
foreign policy eased a little, when Thomas E. Dewey and 
other Republican leaders urged that the nation should unify 
in its stand against Communism. 

t 



ADEN ADULT EDUCATION 



19 




King Phumiphon Adundet of Thailand (left} in Aden in March 1950. 
On right is the governor, Sir Reginald Champion. 

ADEN. A British colony and protectorates and a free 
port on the southern coast of Arabia. 

Colony. Area: 80 sq.mi. (incl. Perim island [5 sq.mi.], 
the strait of Bab el Mandeb and the five Kuria Muria islands 
off the Dhufar coast of Oman). Pop. (1946 census): 80,876 
(Perim 360). Language: Arabic; Indian languages and Somali 
also spoken. Religion (1946): Moslem c. 90%, Jewish 5%. 
Administration: governor; executive council, ex officlo 
members (3) and nominated members (in 1948, 3); 
Legislative Council, established 1947, 4 ex officio members 
and up to 12 nominated members (up to 4 official and 
8 unofficial). 

Protectorates. Western and eastern, the latter including the 
Hadhramaut and Socotra island (150 mi. E. from Cape 
Guardafui, pop. c. 5,000). Total protectorate area, 112,000 
sq.mi.; total pop. (1947 est.) 650,000, almost entirely Moslem 
Arabs. Administration: indirect, by sultans with advice of 
political officers under the British agent. Premier chieftain 
(western), Fadl Abdul Karim, Sultan of Lahej; premier 
chieftain (eastern), Sir Salih bin Ghalib al Qu'aiti, Sultan of 
Shihr and Mukalla. Governor and c. in c. of the colony 
and governor of the protectorates, Sir Reginald S. Champion. 

History. Since the end of World War II there had been a 
steady increase in shipping using the port and in 1950 an 
average of 360 vessels a month called; the demand for oil 
bunkering rose to about 3 million tons a year. This led to 
considerable improvement in the port and pilotage services 
and to the construction of more oil tanks ashore. 

After recurrent border difficulties with the Yemeni a 
conference was held in London in September with Yemeni 
representatives. Agreed proposals were submitted by the 
delegates to their respective governments. 

Development plans made for the colony covered the 
extension of medical and educational services, including 
female education, an Aden college and a technical institute: 
the institute was opened towards the end of the year. Two- 
thirds of a scheme costing 250,000 to irrigate 60,000 ac. 
for rice growing in the Abyan district of the protectorates 
was completed. 



Trade. The principal local product exported is salt. The bulk of 
the trade is entrepdt with the interior of Arabia and neighbouring 
territories. Imports (1949) Rs. 328,953,002; exports (1949), incl. 
re-exports, Rs. 203,961,079. 

Finance. Budget estimates 1950-51 : revenue Rs. 128,036,859; expendi- 
ture Rs. 173,028,572. Currency: Indian rupee (Re. \- Is. 6d.). 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Doreen Ingrams, A Survey of Social and Economic 
Conditions in the Aden Protectorate (Asmara, 1950); The master of 
Belhaven, The Kingdom of Melchior (London, 1950). (K. G. B.) 



ADULT EDUCATION. In 1950 good progress in 
mass education campaigns was reported from many British 
colonies and dependencies, such as the Anglo-Egyptian 
Sudan, the Gold Coast, Nigeria, Togoland, Uganda, Fiji and 
Sarawak, and from countries in eastern Europe. 

Following up its 1949 international conference on adult 
education, held at Elsinore, Denmark, U.N.E.S.C.O. 
organized in July-August, at Mondsee, near Salzburg, 
Austria, a six weeks' international seminar which was 
attended by some 70 representatives of 22 nations. Four 
working groups studied respectively the organization and 
administration of adult education, the question of how the 
adult could be helped to think most effectively in today's 
complex world (with special reference to scientific develop- 
ments), the relation of adult education to social, economic 
and political problems, and the educational use of leisure, 
with special reference to the arts. 

In England, Birmingham's centre for continued studies, 
believed to be unique, reported a successful first year's work. 
The centre offered two types of short course : a general course 
at a higher intellectual level than most adult education; and 
specialist courses for university graduates. The courses 
attracted many oversea graduates studying in Britain. In 
October Ernest Green, a pioneer of the adult education 
movement, retired from the post of general secretary of the 
English Workers' Educational association. 

In August-September a committee appointed by the High 
Commission for the Federation of Malaya investigated the 
possibilities of extending adult education throughout the 
federated states. 

The first annual report of the New Zealand National 
Council of Adult Education, set up under the Adult Education 
act, 1947, stated that the four regional councils established 
by the act had already become the chief adult educational 
agencies in tho country. 

The annual report of the Transvaal Workers' Educational 
association reported successful Afrikaans classes for immi- 
grants and graded courses of general education in native 
townships. 

In August it was reported from Poland that in 85 towns 
and 5,000 villages illiteracy had been eliminated, and from 
Rumania that 700,000 persons had learned to write during 
the previous 12 months. Yugoslavia reported "impressive 
progress " in its anti-illiteracy campaign among its national 
minorities. For its Turkish minority Yugoslavia opened in 
July at Bitolj a " People's university." (A Yugoslav People's 
university aimed to give the general public information about 
the latest achievements in science and the arts). In the same 
month Poland launched a scheme of residential People's 
universities designed to teach fundamental knowledge about 
Poland and to train young persons for professional and 
social work. Conditions of entry were that candidates must 
be children of landworkers or small peasants, at least 18yr. 
old, and have completed seven years' elementary education. 

In September Poland reorganized its general education 
schools for adult workers on two levels, elementary and 
secondary, to give to all the opportunity of secondary 
education. Over 50 correspondence schools, to serve 30,000 
students, were established. In August, Yugoslavia reported 
that during the previous year over 7,000 shock workers and 



20 



ADVERTISING 




SOME OF GOAHS 3000 BY PRODUCTS 




other experts had attended its general education schools. 
These schools ranked as junior secondary schools; from 
them workers could progress to workers' training or profes- 
sional schools, and ultimately to universities. (H. C. D.) 

ADVERTISING. Although the two-year-old voluntary 
scheme for limiting advertising expenditure, agreed between 
the government and the Federation of British Industries, 
was allowed to lapse at the end of Feb. 1950, the year was 
one of disappointment and difficulty for British advertising. 
As paper became progressively dearer and, in the case of 
newspapers, more difficult to buy, publishers tried to recoup 
themselves by calling on advertisers to pay more for their 
space. 

The Statistical Review calculated that the sum of 
30,522,199 was spent on advertising in British newspapers, 
periodicals and magazines of all kinds during 1949, which 
was 40-15% above 1948. For the first six months of 1950 
the figure was given as 18,441,862, which suggests that the 
1950 total would exceed the 1949 peak. The Statistical 
Review estimated that the limit had been reached, however, 
and forecast that as newspapers were going back to a six- 
page basis in July, for a short period having produced alternate 
eight-page issues, " we shall no doubt encounter a sizeable 
fall in aggregate expenditure." The second half of 1950 was 
marked by a prolonged dispute in the London printing trade 
which interfered with the production of more than 100 
newspapers and periodicals. 

The advertising business continued to try to build up 
British sales abroad, particularly in the dollar areas. At the 
close of 1949 the government, through the Board of Trade's 
export guarantee department, had told exporters that where 
necessary they would be guaranteed against losses on market 
research and " extraordinary advertising and promotional 
expenses " incurred in the North American markets. Con- 
siderable changes were carried out within the British Export 
Trade Research organization, a non-profit-making body 
with predominately advertising connections set up by the 
industry in 1945 to assist British trade overseas. Roger Falk 
became B.E.T.R.O.'s first director general. One of his 
initial moves was to effect a strong link between B.E.T.R.O. 
and the Federation of British Industries whereby the former 
concentrated upon market research and at the same time 
shared F.B.I, facilities abroad. The arrangements resulted 
in savings for both bodies. 

The British code of standards in relation to the advertising 
of medicines and treatments was strengthened, in a second 
edition, issued in 1950, to the extent that advertisers of 
medicines and treatments could no longer claim that their 
products possessed power to slim the human body, or even 
to keep it slim. In October the Joint Advertisement com- 
mittee of the Newspaper Proprietors association and the 
Newspaper society issued a warning that no advertising 
would be accepted which claimed that a hair treatment was 
capable of preventing or eliminating baldness. Outdoor 
advertising continued to pass through a period of re-adjust- 
ment due to the operation of the Town and Country Planning 
acts. The trade's outdoor advertising committee contested 
an application by Winchester corporation, to have the whole 
of the Winchester area put under " special control." This 
would have empowered the Winchester authorities to ban 
advertising and signs from the streets at will. Following a 
public inquiry in Dec. 1949, the Ministry of Town and 
Country Planning issued a compromise ruling in June 1950 
which allowed " special control " to be applied only in 
certain parts of Winchester. 

A growing number of municipal transport undertakings 

Two posters issued in 1950 by the British Electricity authority and 
the National Coal board. 



ADVERTISING 



21 




took steps to permit the sale of advertising space on their 
vehicles, and several large contracts, notably in Glasgow, 
Aberdeen and Liverpool, were signed between the local 
authorities and advertisement contractors. Contemplating 
the large revenues (2,969,536 in 1949) earned by the British 
Transport commission through the letting of advertisement 
position on its vehicles and properties, some municipalities 
saw in advertising a means of offsetting mounting costs 
which might otherwise have to be met through increased 
fares or out of the rates. 

The Advertising association pressed on with its plans for 
staging the International Advertising conference (Britain) 
1951 to which it hoped to attract a large number of U.S., 
Commonwealth and European advertising representatives. 

Civil estimates published in March 1950 gave details of cuts 
in Central Office of Information expenditure to be carried out 
during the year ending March 31, 195 1 . The press advertising 
appropriation, which totalled 867,000 in 1949-50, was reduced 
to 763,000; some 253,000 was allocated for poster adver- 
tising, as against 574,000 in the previous 1 2 months. All told, 
the estimate of the total amount of money required for C.O.I. 
advertising and promotional activities in 1950-51 was put at 
3,038,310 compared with 3,934,739 in 1949-50 

Commonwealth. In the third quarter of 1950 an historic 
advertising campaign, that for the Festival of Britain 1951, 
was launched, making its first appearance in the Australian 
press. It was followed by a similar drive in South African 
newspapers and magazines. The campaign was afterwards 
extended elsewhere in the Commonwealth. 

In South Africa the government-operated South African 
Broadcasting corporation opened the first station in its 
" Springbok Radio " chain or " C " service. Like the 
British Broadcasting corporation the S.A.B.C. had not 
previously allowed air time on its two existing networks to 
be sold, but this new group of transmitters carried pro- 
grammes sponsored and paid for by advertisers. 

In Australia a plan to develop public goodwill towards 
advertising was initiated by the advertising agencies, adver- 
tisement media and advertisers working together. Purpose 
of the project was stated to be " to portray in simple terms 
what advertising does for the community and its benefits 
to the national economy." 

Europe. Advertising artists from all the European countries 
in receipt of Marshall aid, including Great Britain, took 
part in a contest sponsored by the Economic Co-operation 
administration for posters illustrating 4t inter-European 
co-operation." There were 2,584 entrants and the first 
prize went to Reijn Dirksen, a 25-year-old Dutch commercial 
artist. Two of the 16 finalists were British. An exhibition of 
posters from Switzerland, where the standard of outdoor 
advertising was highly rated, was arranged by the Advertising 
Creative circle and opened by the Swiss Minister in London 
on March 6. In Paris, on Dec. 3, 1949, an International 
Federation of Advertising Clubs was established, founder 
members being the Club de la Publicite, Paris; Club de la 
Publicite, Brussels; and the Club van Veertig, Amsterdam. 

Representatives of advertisers organizations from Belgium, 
Denmark, France and Sweden visited London in Oct. 1950, 
to attend the golden jubilee celebrations of the Incorporated 
Society of British Advertisers. The International Chamber 
of Commerce commission on advertising met in Paris on 
Oct. 20 when it was announced that 1 1 countries had adopted 
the I.C.C.'s code of standards governing advertising practise 
and that others were contemplating doing so. (A. J. HY.) 

United States. The .year's advertising in the U.S. was 
marked by higher total expenditures than in 1949, by the 

Two further examples of state advertising by the North Thames 
Gas board and the National Savings movement. 



22 



AFGHANISTAN 



spectacular growth of television as a medium and by the 
effects of the mobilization economy into which the country 
was entering. 

Total expenditure was approximately $5,700 million, an 
increase of $500 million over that of 1949, distributed among 
the various media as shown in the table. 



U.S. ADVERTISING EXPENDITURE* (millions of dollars) 
1950 
Newspapers ....... 2,059-0 1 


1949 
,905-0 
633-8 


Radio . .658-0 


Television 










161-6 


63-0 


Magazines 
Direct mail . 












517-0 
838-7 


492-5 
755-6 


Trade and business 
Outdoor 


papc 


rs 








248-0 
140-7 


248-1 
131-0 


Farm papers 
Miscellaneous 












22-1 
1 039-6 


20-5 
952-7 



Total 5,684-7 5,202-2 

* Mstimate by Robert Cohen, McCann Erickson, Inc. 

Television. In 1950 manufacturers made about 7-5 million 
television sets (as against 3 million in 1949), and at the end 
of the year there were nearly 10 million sets in operation in the 
U.S. (as against 3 '95 million at the end of 1949) and 107 
television stations operating in 65 markets. There were about 
2 million sets in metropolitan New York City alone, viewed 
by approximately 8 million persons. Advertisers in 1950 spent 
approximately $100 million on television time (about four 
times their expenditure in 1949) but were beset by soaring 
time and talent costs: television network charges were 
running well above radio network charges (e.g., $20,630 a 
half-hour as against $16,600), though their total available 
audience was only one-quarter of radio's; a major effort 
would cost about $1 -25 million. 

Radio. Total gross revenue of radio advertising in 1950 was 
approximately $448 million, an increase of 5 -4% over that of 

1949. Network time-sales declined 3-3%, but this loss was 
offset by gains in spot and local radio advertising. Radio 
manufacturers produced 14 million sets, the gross dollar 
volume of $1,700 million being the highest in peacetime 
history. There were 2,230 stations on the air at the end of 

1950, as against 2,087 at the end of 1949. 

The Korean war stimulated radio listening ajid led to 
determined efforts to improve programmes; and aggressive 
selling helped to improve the industry's position. The Asso- 
ciation of National Advertisers made a report on radio and 
television costs and called for substantial reductions in night 
radio rates because of the losses of that audience to television. 
Late in the year the National Broadcasting company asked 
its stations in television areas to make cuts of some 10% in 
their rates in view of the altered values. 

Newspapers. Newspapers in 1950 enjoyed record adver- 
tising volume and circulation. The Bureau of Advertising 
of the American Newspaper Publishers' association estimated 
that national advertising in 1950 would be larger than the 
$445 million of 1949 and would constitute the third successive 
record-breaking year in this respect. Media Records estimates 
for the first ten months of the year showed that national 
advertising (general and automotive) was 9 9 % greater than 
during the corresponding period of 1949. Circulation was 
stimulated by the Korean war news. Representative papers 
in large cities showed gains of from 6% to 15%. 

The line rate for advertising in daily newspapers increased 
50% in the period 1940-50, but the milline rate, or cost of 
reaching a reader, rose only slightly, according to a study by 
Kelly-Smith company: the average milline rate for all news- 
papers, Sunday papers excepted, was given as $3-32 in 1940 
and $3 '41 in 1950. There were general advertising-rate 
increases among newspapers, as among other printed media. 
The volume of rate increases by media was characterized by 
the Standard Rate and Data service as the heaviest in 25 years. 



Magazines. The Magazine Advertising bureau predicted a 
national advertising volume of between $470 million and 
$475 million for 1950, as against $445 million in 1949. The 
first half of 1950 showed a total circulation of 146,579,475 for 
all general and farm magazines reporting to the A.B.C., 
3 million more than the second half of 1949. 

The Committee on Advertising of the United States 
Chamber of Commerce, in a survey among advertising 
managers of 46 national publications, found that 67 % had 
raised advertising rates during the first three-quarters of the 
year by an average of 11 %; that advertising linage was up 
an average of 15% for 61% of the respondents, down an 
average of 8% for 39%; and that no inroads from television 
were observed by 60%, but that 40% had noted the effects of 
television competition in securing new advertising accounts. 
Practically all reported increased circulation. 

Other Media. A circulation of 18,000 million passengers 
was estimated for advertising in the 90,000 vehicles carrying 
car-cards. There were 80 transportation companies, about 
75 % of the business being done by a dozen of them. Greater 
use of fluorescent inks was noted in travelling displays on the 
outside of buses and trolley cars. 

The volume of national outdoor advertising was somewhat 
more than $80 million, according to Outdoor Advertising, 
Inc. ; that of local advertising was estimated at approximately 
a third of this figure. It was estimated that national adver- 
tising was divided as follows: automotive (automobiles, 
gasoline and oil, tyres and accessories) 38% of dollar volume; 
beverages (soft drinks, beer, wine, spirits) 29%; food 19%; 
other products (cigarettes, appliances, etc.) 14%. The dollar 
volume of direct mail advertising, according to estimates 
from the Direct Mail Advertising association, was $80,223,785 
in October, an increase of 9 % over September's volume and 
0-5% above March's, the previous record. For the first ten 
months of 1950 the dollar volume was $726,357,050. 

Industrial advertisers and agencies were thrown into some 
confusion by the Korean war. Many of them had just become 
organized for extensive advertising and selling campaigns 
following the mid-year recession in 1949, when the Korean 
crisis developed and with it a rush of orders for industrial 
goods. The National Industrial Advertisers association set in 
motion a project to evaluate inquiries and their proper 
follow-up and to make a thorough study of industrial cata- 
logues. The National Machine Tool Builders association set 
up an advertising committee to promote the desirability of 
machine replacements. 

Business publications raised advertising rates generally. 
A study of a group of 75 such increases showed that 12 were 
based upon gains in circulation, 31 upon higher publishing 
costs. (D. ST.; R. A. BN.) 

AFGHANISTAN. Independent kingdom in the centre 
of Asia bounded N. by the U.S.S.R., W. by Iran, S. and S.E. 
by Pakistan and E. by China (Sinkiang). Area: c. 270,000 
sq.mi. Pop. (no census ever taken, 1947 est.): 12 million. 
Races: Afghans or Pathans or Pashtuns 53%, Tajiks 36%, 
Uzbeks 6%, Hazarah 3%, others 2%. Language: Pashtu 
or Pakhtu, but Tajiks and Hazarah speak Persian. Religion: 
Moslem (Afghans are Sunni, others mainly Shia). Chief 
towns (pop. 1946 est.): Kabul (cap., 206,200); Kandahar 
(77,200); Herat (75,600); Mazar-i-Sharif (41,900). King, 
Mohammed Zahir Shah; prime minister (from May 1946), 
Shah Mahmud Khan, the king's uncle. 

History. The year 1950 began auspiciously by the signature 
on Jan. 4 at New Delhi of a treaty of friendship with India. 
The treaty provided that each signatory should be able to 
establish trade agencies in the other's territory. It would last 
for five years in the first instance, and at the end of that period 
it would be terminable at six months* notice. 



AGRICULTURE 



23 




Jawaharlal Nehru, prime minister of India (centre), and Sardar Najibullah Khan, Afghan a 

of friendship in New Delhi on Jan. 4, 1950. 



in New Delhi (right), signing a treaty 



Unhappily this friendship with India did not find reflection 
in Afghanistan's relations with the closer neighbour Pakistan. 
This, to some extent, may have been due to the acuteness of 
Indo-Pakistani tension over Kashmir and the devaluation 
issue. However that might be, both in Karachi and in Kabul 
there were at times sharp expressions of suspicion. Pakistan 
felt that Afghanistan was too tolerant of the so-called 
independent " Pashtunistan " movement, which had for its 
aim the creation of a Pashtu-speaking enclave and therefore 
a new state to be carved out of what was now Pakistani 
territory. As this movement was in a sense a legacy of the 
former political dominance in the North- West Frontier 
Province of the Congress supporters known as Red Shirts 
in the days of British rule, it had its dangers as a source of 
controversy between Afghanistan and Pakistan. Both 
countries had reason to be chary of pushing differences to 
extremes. On each side of the Durand line, which was the 
border between them, were turbulent tribesmen of first-class 
fighting qualities, whose economic condition made raiding an 
occupation secondary only to agriculture. If their overlords 
were not on good terms opportunities for mischief were 
obvious. The result was charges on one side or the other of 
violations of the frontier. A special example arose in Septem- 
ber, when disturbances were caused by an apparent invasion 
of Pakistan near the Bogra pass. The Afghan government 
promptly denied that the invaders had comprised Afghan 
troops. The prime minister of Pakistan, Liaquat AH Khan, in 
disclosing that a protest had been sent to Kabul on what he 
described as the culminating incident in a number of minor 
frontier violations, declared that Pakistan was willing to 
discuss economic and cultural questions of common concern 
to the two countries. He nevertheless deprecated any action 
which might disturb the peace of the strategic frontier area. 

With Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Persia, Afghanistan 
developed closer relations during the year, as was symbolized 
by state visits of King Zahir to Cairo, Riyadh and Tehran 
in March. Relations with the U.S.S.R. were naturally of 
much importance to Afghanistan. The conclusion in Moscow 
in July of a four-year trade agreement was taken as a 
favourable sign in that regard. As the guardians of the Hindu 
Kush and a potential Switzerland of Asia, Afghanistan might 
have to live dangerously, but its king and government 
appeared to preserve their equilibrium successfully. (E. HD.) 



Education. (1948) Schools: primary 400, secondary 25, higher 
(lyctes) 7; teachers' training colleges 2. University at Kabul with four 
faculties. 

Agriculture. Main food crops are wheat, barley, rice, maize and fruit. 
Production ('000 metric tons, 1949): cotton 13-6; sugar beet (1949-50) 
32; wool 8. Livestock ('000 head, Jan. 1948): cattle 3,000; sheep 
14,000; goats 6,000; camels 350; horses 700. 

Industry. Fuel and power: coal ('000 metric tons, 1949) 5-5. Raw 
materials (1949): chrome ore (metric tons) 907; salt (metric tons) 
5,443; skins and hides (number) 7,250,000. 

Foreign Trade. Principal imports (1949): textiles, china, petrol 
(4-5 million gal.) cement (18,100 metric tons), machinery, tea, coffee 
and cocoa. Principal exports (1949): opium, karakul skins ($22-6 
million in 1948-49; $8-7 million in 1949-50) and carpets. 

Communications. Roads (1949) 2,265 mi. Licensed motor vehicles 
(Dec. 1949): cars 630, commercial 3,650. Telephone subscribers 
(Jan. 1949) 3,899. 

Finance and Banking. Revenue est. at 220 million afghani. Note 
circulation (April 1950) 800 million afghanis. Monetary unit: afghani 
with an exchange rate (Nov. 1950) l=Af. 47-65. 

See Sir Kerr Fraser-Tytler, Afghanistan (London, 1950). 
* 

AGRICULTURE. In western Europe during 1950, 
agricultural policies continued to be determined largely by 
difficulties in balancing international payments. Devaluation 
of sterling and other currencies in Sept. 1949 helped to expand 
the market for western European manufactures in North 
America and in other ways to prevent further reduction of 
gold and dollar reserves, but the fundamental need to raise 
the productivity of western Europe remained. All countries 
planned that their farms as well as their mines and factories 
should continue to increase production. There were few 
changes in the agricultural programmes submitted to the 
Organization for European Economic Co-operation for the 
period to 1952-53. 

In North America during 1950, European balance-of- 
payment problems were more clearly recognized as limiting 
export outlets for farm produce, and fears of surpluses after 
the end of Marshall aid tended to grow. Producers of wheat, 
cotton, tobacco, fruit, tinned and dried milk and dried eggs 
were particularly liable to suffer. But the continuation of 
Marshall aid, the revival of industrial production during 
the first part of the year to the high levels of 1948, and later 
the Korean fighting and the rearmament programme to- 
gether allayed fears of serious price reductions. There 
remained, however, a strong underlying desire to free export 
outlets to Europe and elsewhere of the currency, quota 



24 



AGRICULTURE 



and tariff arrangements which restricted them. In the 
U.S. some farming groups had an even stronger desire to 
ensure that federal price policies and storage arrangements 
should maintain high prices and high incomes from farm- 
ing. Such arrangements for potatoes, dried eggs, dried milk 
and butter proved to be costly but general economic con- 
ditions were such that existing price supports were not fully 
tested. Thus, though there were many discussions of post- 
war agricultural trends in western Europe and North America, 
and some growing doubts and fears amongst certain farming 
groups, no important changes were made to basic policies. 

The year was more memorable for the changes it witnessed 
in attitudes to the agricultural development of Africa and 
Asia. The enthusiastic launching of the United Nations' 
Food and Agriculture organization, the east African ground- 
nut scheme, and plans for India and southeast Asia had given 
way during 1948 and 1949 to many doubts and substantial 
criticisms. In Asia, these were largely removed during 1950 
in consequence of the expansion of Communist-controlled 
areas and the growing menace to Indo-China, Siam and 
Burma, the major rice-exporting countries of the world. 

A Commonwealth conference at Colombo resulted in a 
realistic study of six-year development programmes for the 
countries of southern Asia but not including Burma or 
Indonesia. The conference arranged priorities within a 
programme that up to 1957 would cost some 1,900 million, 
of which the major portion would directly benefit agriculture. 
Part of this would be contributed from within Asian countries 
themselves by loans and tax revenues and part would , be 
loans from the World bank, the Export-Import Bank of 



Washington and the United States technical assistance pro- 
gramme originally known as President Truman's " Point 
Four " programme. In addition, loans, interest-free credits, 
and gifts from western governments, particularly from the 
U.S., would be sought. The general aim was to prevent the 
continuing upsurge of human populations from further 
undermining living standards and curtailing economic 
progress. 

In some parts of British tropical African territories the 
need for the rapid expansion of agricultural production was 
re-emphasized. Growing human populations, changing 
political ideas and demands for higher standards of living 
despite financial difficulties were the basic reasons. The costs 
and failures of the east African groundnut scheme also drew 
public attention to African problems. The postwar shortage 
of vegetable oils and the balance-of-payment problems of 
the sterling area were the initial reasons for this scheme, 
and at first it gained wide support. But the large capital 
investment required and the high overhead costs of producing 
in sparsely populated areas of Tanganyika with unreliable 
rainfall and many unsolved scientific problems soon became 
apparent. By Sept. 1950, a drastic curtailment and alteration 
of production plans had to be decided on. In place of the 
450,000 ac. of crops first projected at Kongwa, only 12,000 ac. 
were to be cropped in 1951, 1952 and 1953. The remaining 
80,000 ac. of the cleared area were to be used for cattle 
ranching. These changes and the public criticism that 
preceded them did not, however, prevent development in 
African agriculture elsewhere. Small trials of tractors and 
farm implements were begun in many areas. High prices for 




Stocked corn under water In afield in Perthshire following the flooding of the river Isla in Sept. 1950. 



AGRICULTURE 



25 



farm produce and shortages of labour due to mining and 
industrial developments encouraged innovations by those 
responsible for native agricultural progress. The Colonial 
advisory council on agriculture, animal health and forestry 
published a survey of the problems involved. 

In eastern Europe the principal development in agricultural 
policy was an acceleration of the collectivization of holdings 
in Poland and Czechoslovakia. Ambitious five-year plans 
were announced to increase livestock production by 66% 
in Poland and 86% in Czechoslovakia, the increase in Poland 
to make possible considerable exports. In the U.S.S.R. 
increases in the size of collective farms and further attempts 
to increase labour and machine efficiencies were planned. 
But in Yugoslavia, the resistance of peasant farmers brought 
a promise from Marshal Tito that they would no longer be 
placed under duress to join collective farms and that their 
needs would be as well attended to as were those of the 
existing collectives. 

In the southern dominions the most noteworthy develop- 
ment was towards substantial further expansion of meat 
production. In Australia meat production would have to 
increase 34% by 1970 to keep pace with the expected increase 
in the population and to maintain exports. Transport facilities 
costing 5-5 million were projected to help the flow of 
cattle from northern Australia and further trials were made 
of the air transport of fresh carcases from outlying areas. 
In New Zealand a rapid expansion of pork production, 
partly at the expense of bacon, was proposed and won the 
general support of the dairy and meat boards. South African 
plans were curtailed by a sharp reduction of the maize crop 
there from 32 million bags in 1949 to 25 million in 1950, 
owing to drought. 

Northern Hemisphere Harvests of 1949. Despite some 
reduction of wheat and rye acreages in favour of crops for 
feeding to livestock and despite severe drought in some 
areas, European production of wheat and rye was some 4 4 
million metric tons greater in 1949 than in 1948 (Table I). 
North American production of these grains was finally 
estimated as 5-7 million metric tons less than in 1949. 
Most of this reduction was in the U.S. The reduction in 
the world total exports of wheat and flour was equal to 4 1 
million metric tons but, taking into account the increase in 
domestic harvests, the net reduction in the total supplies of 
Europe was only some 1 -3 million metric tons (2%). This 
caused no difficulty, because stocks were adequate and 
because, with increasing supplies of milk, meat and eggs, the 
consumption of bread grains tended to decline. Thus flour 
consumption which averaged so much as 100,800 tons a 
week in the United Kingdom during 1948, fell to 92,000 tons 
a week by spring 1950 and was 88,200 tons a week during 
the month of October. The minister of food was able, 
on Aug. 27, 1950, to lower the rate of flour extraction from 
wheat from 85% to 80%. 

The 1949 European crop of coarse grains was also generally 
satisfactory as compared to the 1948 crop, though still 
5 million metric tons (9%) less than the prewar average. 
Some countries, notably France and Spain, had shortages 
of hay and roots caused by severe droughts in the spring 
and summer of 1949. But net imports of coarse grains into 
Europe were some 0-6 million metric tons greater during 
1949-50 than during 1948-49 (Table II). Total imports of 
feedingstuffs to the United Kingdom were greater during 
1948-49 by some 0-6 million metric tons of grain equivalent, 
which more than compensated for a reduction in supplies 
of home-grown feedingstuffs for livestock, largely owing to 
smaller crops of roots and potatoes. 

The North American coarse grain crop was, in all, some 
13 million metric tons (10%) lighter than the exceptionally 
heavy crop of 1948, most of the decline occurring in the U.S. 



TABLE I. PRODUCTION OF BREAD GRAINS AND COARSE GRAINS 

(million metric tons) 



Wheat and rye 

Europe . 

North America 

South America 

Asia 

Near East 

Africa 

Australasia 

Total* 

Barley, oats and mai/e 

Europe . 

North America 

South America 

Asia 

Near East 

Africa 

Australasia . . 
Total* 



Prewar 

61-4 

27-8 
8-9 

34-8 
8-5 
2-5 
4.4 

148-3 



1948 

53-7 
47-6 

8-3 
35-1 

9.4 

2-5 

5-4 

162 



1949 



58-1 

41-9 

8-4 

34-4 

6-8 

2-8 

6-0 

158-4 



54-8 48-5 49-7 

78-5 131-3 118-1 

19-8 18-5 15-8 

28-8 30-5 28-8 

7-0 7-3 6-5 

6-8 79 8-6 

0-8 1-1 1-3 

196-5 245-1 228-8 

Excluding U.S.S.R. 

SOURCE: F.A.O. Monthly Built tin of Statist lex, Aug. 1950. 

In Canada, the end-of-July stocks of barley and oats were 
reduced by only 0-5 million metric tons to 2- 1 million. 

Thus both in Europe as a whole, and in North America, 
supplies of cereals for livestock feeding during the winter of 
1949-50 were generally as adequate as those available during 
winter 1948-49, and despite difficulties in some countries 
owing to shortage of roughage feedingstuffs following 1949 
droughts, livestock production continued to expand. 

Livestock Production, 1949-50. Pig production responded 
rapidly. During the year ended in early summer 1950 the 
number of breeding sows and gilts was increased by 11% 
both in the United Kingdom and in Denmark, and by 10% 
in the Netherlands. These changes brought the numbers in 
the United Kingdom to 71 % of their prewar average, but the 
comparable percentage for Denmark was 203, and for the 
Netherlands 125. Competition in the United Kingdom 
market for bacon was therefore growing, and greater attention 
was devoted to improving quality. 

Egg production in Europe also increased, but only in the 
United Kingdom and Denmark was it estimated to be 
appreciably greater in 1950 than in prewar years. In North 
America and Australia by contrast egg production remained 
much greater than before the war, being 48% greater and 
still increasing slightly in Canada and 97% greater but 
declining in Australia. 

The yields of winter milk during 1949-50 were raised 
substantially in western Europe. Sales of milk in the United 
Kingdom during the first four months of the year were 13% 
larger in 1950 than in 1949. In the Netherlands the com- 
parable percentage was 15; in Denmark, about 19. The 
summer output of milk was greater in 1950 than in 1949 by 
some 5% in the United Kingdom, 9% in the Netherlands 
and 8% in Denmark. In Canada on the other hand, winter 
milk production was only slightly larger in 1949-50 than in 
1948-49 and summer production was slightly smaller in 1950 
than in 1949. In New Zealand, butter production in factories 
during the later part of the 1949-50 summer was reduced by 
12% below the previous summer's production, but in 
Australia production was sustained. 

Cattle numbers continued to increase in western Europe. 
In the United Kingdom, the number under one year old on 
June 4 was 4% greater in 1950 than in 1949 and 23% greater 
in 1950 than in 1939. Most of the increase since 1939 had 
been in cattle for milk production, but the output of fat 
cattle was rapidly increasing. During the year ended Nov. 
1950, it was (by weight of carcases) 22% greater than during 
the previous year, and 2% greater than the annual output 
of the late 1930s. The total world production of all meats 
in 1950 was estimated as somewhat greater than the 1949 
production, which had been slightly more than prewar 
production. But total supplies of meat per head of population 



26 



AGRICULTURE 




Cattle being paraded in the main ring at the Great Yorkshire show at Malt on, July 1950. 



were still about 5% below prewar supplies, with greater 
reductions in the United Kingdom and most European 
countries as against substantial increases in North America 
and the Argentine, and slight increases in Australia and 
New Zealand. 

Harvests in 1950. The area sown to bread grains in Europe 
was some 3% greater in 1950 than in 1949, but still some 7% 
smaller in 1950 than in the late 1930s. Yields were, on the 
whole, satisfactory and total production was 3% greater 
than in 1949; but it was also 3% smaller than in prewar 
years. France and Yugoslavia suffered substantial reductions 
as a result of weather conditions. The United Kingdom had 
a wheat crop estimated as 15% greater than that of 1949, 
and 48 % greater than the average prewar crop. But harvesting 
conditions were exceptionally difficult. In the republic of 
Ireland bread rationing had to be re-imposed. 

In Canada, the acreage was only slightly reduced and with 
favourable weather during most of the growing season, 
production was 34% greater than in 1949. At harvest the 
weather deteriorated badly, making the proportion of low 
quality grain exceptionally high. In Australia, the wheat 
crop was approximately equal to that of the late 1930s, 
but 19 % less than the large crop of 1949. The South American 
crop of wheat was some 4% larger than that of 1949 and 
some 3 % larger than the prewar average. 

The harvest of coarse grains in Europe as a whole was 
only slightly less than in 1949, but the United Kingdom 

TABLE II. NET EXPORTS () AND IMPORTS (4-) OF BREAD GRAINS AND 
COARSE GRAINS 

(million metric tons) 



Prewar 



Wheat and rye 

Europe . 

North America 

Latin America 

Far East . 

Near East 

Africa 

Australasia 
Barley, oats and maize 

Europe . 

North America 

Latin America 

Far East . 

Near East 

Africa 

Australasia 
SOURCE: F.A.U Monthly Bull ft in of Statistics. Aug. 1950. 



1948-49 1949-50 



4-9-5 


4-17-1 


-HI -4 


5-4 


19-8 


14-5 


1-8 


4-0-4 





-H-o 


4-5-1 


4-4-6 





4-M 


4-1-1 


-0-1 


4-0-7 


4-0-3 


2-7 


3-1 


2-9 


4-9-5 


4-5-9 


-1-6 -5 


0.2 


3-3 


3-1 


7-4 


2-2 


1-5 


0-7 


4-0-8 


4-0-8 


4-0-4 


-0-2 


+0-4 


-0-7 


0-6 


0-8 


0-1 


0-6 


0-4 



harvest was much damaged by continuous rain and official 
estimates suggested a reduction in out-turn by some 0-9 
million metric tons (19%). Shortages of feedingstuffs 
became serious in the west and southwest of the country. 
Hay was imported from Norway. Unfavourable weather 
reduced the coarse grain harvest of Danubian countries by 
fully 7%, including a very serious reduction in the Yugoslav 
maize crop, threatening famine conditions in some localities. 
Denmark and the Netherlands also had smaller coarse grain 
crops. 

The effects of these changes were aggravated by the shortage 
of Argentine maize as a result of the partial failure of the 
crop harvested in March and April 1950. Exports of maize 
from Argentina fell to a very low level. Fortunately, North 
American harvests of coarse grain were favourable and 
exportable supplies were adequate to meet, during the period 
to autumn 1951, any demand likely to be backed by the 
necessary dollars. Fortunately also, the effects of the wet 
summer on the grain harvest of the British Isles was in part 
offset by good yields from pastures, and root and green fodder 
crops. 

Agricultural Production and Marketing Plans. Some note- 
worthy alterations were made in administrative arrange- 
ments in prices and in supplies of requisites. In the United 
Kingdom the slogan for the last half of the five-year 
programme was " Plough for Plenty/' The tillage area, 
which was 8-8 million ac. in 1939 and 14-5 million ac. in 
1945, had fallen to 12-9 million ac. in 1947 and 12-6 million 
ac. in 1949. It was expanded to only 12-7 million ac. in 
1950 but the announced objective was 14-6 million ac. by 
1952. The annual review of agricultural prices in the United 
Kingdom was complicated by the withdrawal of the subsidies 
(43 million a year) on feedingstuffs and fertilizers, by the 
government's intention to reduce subsidies on foodstuffs 
from 440 million in the financial year to April 1950 to 
410 million, despite the underlying tendency of prices to 
rise, and by the high level of the net farm income during 
1949 (283 million against 258 million in 1948 and 60 
million in 1938). The agreed settlement was expected to 
reduce the net farm income to very nearly the minimum 
that the leaders of the farmers* unions stipulated was essential 
for achievement of the production programme. But this 
level was not published. Retail prices of food were raised 
3-4% between February and November. 



AGRICULTURE 



27 



In Ireland progress was made in the land reclamation 
project, the biggest of its kind in Europe. 

Steps needed to secure adequate feedingstuffs for livestock 
expansion programmes were much discussed in western 
Europe. In Denmark, the Agricultural Organization society 
published a comprehensive plan, entailing more capital for 
buildings and equipment and aiming at larger acreages of 
high yielding root crops, more silage, pasture improvement, 
better alfalfa, greater use of artificial fertilizers, fuller control 
of weeds and higher conversion efficiency in individual live- 
stock enterprises. If these changes were fully carried out, 
imports of feedingstuffs by 1952-53 would not need to be 
much more than one-fifth of what they were before World 
War II, despite a projected increase in livestock production 
by 10% 

Nitrogenous, phosphatic and potassic fertilizers were all 
available in greater quantity for 1950 crops, both in the 
British Isles and in continental Europe (Table III). India, 
Japan and Egypt markedly increased their use of nitrogenous 
types, and Japan had more phosphates. The progress of 
agricultural mechanization continued in most western 
countries under the stimulus of high prices for farm products 
and difficulties in securing sufficient labour, but international 
trade in tractors and farm machinery tended to decline. 
This was partly because of further revival of domestic 
production in western Europe. In France, 17,100 tractors 
were produced during 1949, against only 1,700 during 1938. 

Marketing of farm produce received greater attention in 
many countries. In the United Kingdom, under the agricul- 
tural marketing acts, schemes for wool and tomatoes and 
cucumbers were approved; and others for apples and pears, 
dried peas and horticultural seeds were in various stages of 
preparation. The Milk Marketing board urged restoration 
of its prewar powers of control over the utilization of milk 
but the Ministry of Food, with an eye to international 
balance-of-payment problems and food rations, continued to 
determine the proportions of supplies used for each type of 
manufactured product. 

The first year's operations under the International Wheat 
agreement ended in July. Prices in the free markets remained 
above the maximum agreed export prices throughout the 
period, because of the prevailing need of the importing 
countries to buy as much as possible in the soft currency 
areas and because the U.S. decided to sell only at the maxi- 
mum prices, though this resulted in less than the full U.S. 
quota being exported. Total transactions under the agree- 
ment were equivalent to 90% of the minimum agreed exports 
and imports and to 53 % of the total world trade in wheat and 
flour. 

Wool, rubber and coffee prices rose to new high levels, 
but no multilateral agreements for their control could be 
achieved. The International Federation of Agricultural 
Producers began to explore the possibilities of agreements to 
sustain prices of dairy products. 

In the field of agricultural education the Asian training 
centre for agricultural and allied development projects 
deserves mention. It was sponsored jointly by the govern- 
ment of Pakistan, the United Nations* Food and Agriculture 
organization, the International bank and the Economic 
Commission for Asia and the Far East. Men from many 
countries received four months' practical training. 

Research and Technical Development. Among the multitude 
of research studies being carried on in the natural sciences 
affecting agriculture, special interest attached to the follow- 
ing: the indirect and delayed effects of the herbicides and 
insecticides developed during and after the war, and their 
toxicity for man; the physiology of artificially induced 
polyploid plants; the conditioning of seeds and tubers for 
early maturity; responses of crops and stock to the correction 



TABLE III. 

[June-July] 
Year 


CONSUMPTION OF ARTIFICIAL FERTILIZERS 
(thousand metric tons) 
British Canada and 
Isles Europe* U.S.f India Japan 


OtherJ 


Nitrogen 












1948-49 . 


195 


,299 


947 


49 


300 


333 


1949-50 . 


204 


,421 


968 


114 


411 


428 


1950-51H . 


214 


,658 


994 


113 


406 


502 


Phosphoric acid 














1948-49 . 


420 


.855 


1,872 


5 


165 


736 


1949-50 . 


461 


,923 


1,845 


11 


221 


802 


1950-51 . 


486 2,114 


1,881 


16 


250 


901 


Potash 












1948-49 . 


210 1,813 


986 


1 


164 


107 


1949-50 . 


219 2,289 


958 


1 


116 


119 


1950-51H . 


231 2,421 


1,003 


1 


120 


135 



* Excluding British Isles, t Including U.S. possessions, J Excluding U.S.S.R. 
and China. Excluding rock phosphates. || Forecast. 

SOURCE: F.A.O. Commodity report: Fertiliztrs, No. 1. Aug. 1950. 

of deficiencies of "trace" elements; the possibilities of 
artificial pollination of fruit trees; control of the biennial 
bearing of fruit trees; the physiology of "letting down" 
milk. In agricultural economics the most interesting develop- 
ments were in studies of mechanization, and of the relations 
between agriculture and industry under conditions of full 
employment. (J. R. RA.) 

United States. Crop Production. The crops of the eight 
principal grains in 1949 produced a total tonnage of 158-4 
million. The record was 180-5 million short tons in 1948. 
Food grains constituted 33 5 million tons of the total, the 
smallest in seven years but larger than any total before 1944. 
The 1950 tonnage included the smallest buckwheat crop on 
record. The feed grain total of 125 million tons, which 
included the largest grain sorghum crop on record, was 
slightly less than in 1949 and showed a significant decline 
from the 138 million tons of 1948. A large hay crop, together 
with an average carry-over, provided the most abundant hay 
supply per animal on record. 

The oilseed crop of 1950, amounting to 14-7 million tons, 
was only 6% below the record of 1949. Soya beans, a record 
crop, made up well over half the total. There was a record 
sugar-beet tonnage. 

Corn was planted later than usual, as a result of a late cool 
wet spring in the main commercial area; largely because of 
official acreage allocation, the harvested acreage was the low- 
est since 1894. The late start, a cool summer, considerable 
but not extraordinary cornborer damage and local frosts as 
early as August resulted in a yield of 37-6 bu. per acre 
(38 8 in 1949) and in more being used for ensilage than usual. 

In accordance with official acreage allocations, the planted 
acreage of wheat was reduced by about 16% compared with 
1949; seeding conditions were generally favourable in the 
southern plains but later drought and green-bug damage led 
to the abandonment of more than nine million ac. in Texas 
53 % of the seeded acreage was not harvested. The cold wet 
spring of the northern plains was followed by nearly ideal 
conditions except for some early frost. As a result, storage 
was abundantly available for the crop. It was indicated that 
total domestic consumption of the crop and large carry-over 
would not be much more than 225 million bu. Exports, 
which in 1948-49 reached the unprecedented level of 503 
million bu., were expected to be about 265 million bu. Thus, 
the carry-over at the end of the crop year, July 1, 1951, was 
expected to be about 450 million bu. The preliminary survey 
in December of the 1951 winter wheat crop suggested that 
sown acreage was about 6% more than had been requested, 
and that the crop was in good condition except for need of 
surface moisture and snow cover, especially in the southern 
plains. 

The cotton crop of 9,884,000 bales was one of the smallest 
for 50 years grown on the smallest harvested acreage since 
1884. Allocation of about 21 million ac., as u>mpared with 



28 



AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURE 



27-23 million ac. harvested in 1949, together with unfavour- 
able weather and heavy boll- weevil damage, combined to 
relieve the Commodity Credit corporation of its large surplus 
stocks, push prices to new high levels and institute export 
controls and caused the government to remove all restrictions 
on cotton acreage in 1951. 

A crop of 439 - 5 million bu. of white or Irish potatoes was 
produced, compared with the record 454-7 million bu. in 
1948, even though the harvested acreage was the smallest 
since 1874 and the subsidized price was set at 60% of parity 
instead of 90% as in 1949. Nevertheless, the crop was about 
100 million bu. more than national requirements. The average 
yield of 237 9 bu. per acre was a new record, and Maine 
again had a new record yield of 475 bu. per ac. (see Table IV). 

Livestock Production. All cattle at the beginning of the year 
totalled 80,277,000 head, compared with 78,298,000 head a 
year earlier and 85-6 million head at the peak in 1945, but 
approximately 12 million head more than before World War 
II. Of that total, 24,625,000 head were milch cows, against 
24,416,000 a year before. Slaughter of a slightly larger 
number of beef animals at heavier weights than in 1949 
provided an estimated 10,873 million Ib. of beef and veal, 
compared with 10,770 million Ib. in 1949 and about 8,000 
million Ib. prewar. It was anticipated that the number of beef 
cattle slaughtered in 1951 would be somewhat larger even 
though fewer feeder cattle were placed in corn beef feed lots 
in the autumn of 1950 than in 1949. 

There were 60,424,000 pigs on U.S. farms at the beginning 
of the year, an increase from 57, 1 28,000 head in 1949 but much 
less than the 83-7 million head at the peak in 1944. The 
major spring pig crop was 59,997,000 head, much more than 
the 55,191 ,000 head of a year earlier, and the autumn pig crop 
was estimated at 40,657,000 head, as compared with 
37,175,000 head a year before. Slaughter during the year 
produced 10,939 million Ib. of pork, against 10,333 million 
Ib. in the previous year. At the end of the year it was 
estimated that pork production in 1951 might be about 
1 1 ,700 million Ib., a result of the increased autumn pig crop of 
1950 and an estimated expansion to 63-5 million head in the 
spring crop of 1951. 

Livestock prices in 1950 followed divergent trends. Pig 
prices were at least $2 or $3 per cwt. higher than In 1949 and 
ended the year at more than $20 per cwt. Fat beef cattle were 
generally lower in price than in 1949, whbreas feeder animals 
were considerably higher, thus narrowing 'the spread and 
increasing the risk to those farmers engaged in finishing high- 
grade beef. Late in the year the price of best grade of fat beef 
cattle was nearing $40 per cwt. Grain-fed lambs, late in the 
year, rose to a record price of just under $33 per cwt. Pig 
prices were not subsidized by the government after March. 
The 1950 chicken and turkey crop was not subsidized. 

Sheep on U.S. farms at the beginning of the year, 30,797,000 
head, were the smallest number in the period during which 
records had been kept, having declined from 31,654,000 head 
at the beginning of 1949 and more than 50 million head pre- 
war. Consequently, the lamb crop of 1950 was a record 
small one of 18,431,000 head; slaughter during 1950 provided 
only an estimated 608 million Ib. of lamb and mutton, about 
the same as in the previous year. It was anticipated that the 
decline in sheep numbers would probably halt in 1950. 

The 24,625,000 milch cows on U.S. farms at the beginning 
of 1950 represented an increase from 24,416,000 head in 1949 
and a further increase took place during 1950, although the 
total remained far short of the previous peak of 27,770,000 
head in Jan. 1945. As a result of very heavy feeding and the 
uncommonly fine pastures of 1950, milk production per cow 
reached record levels, and total production for the year was 
about 120,500 million Ib., as compared with 119,136 million 
Ib. in 1949. " 



TABLE IV. U.S. CROP PRODUCTION 

1950 1949 

Yield Production Yield Production 
per ac. ('000) per ac. ('000) 



Field Crops 










Corn, bu. 


37-6 


3,131,009 


38-8 


3,379,436 


Wheat, bu. 


16-6 


1,026,755 


14-9 


1,141,188 


Oats, bu.. 


34 9 


1,465,134 


32-9 


1,329,473 


Barley, bu. 


26-9 


301,009 


24-0 


236,737 


Rye, bu. . 


12-6 


22,977 


12-0 


18,739 


Flaxseed, bu. . 


10 1 


39,263 


18-6 


43,946 


Rice, bags (yield in Ib.) 


2,361-0 


37,971 


2,215-0 


40,747 


Hay, all, tons . 


1-41 


106,819 


1-36 


99,536 


Beans, bags (yield in Ib.) 


1,128-0 


16,843 


1,163-0 


21,377 


Soya beans, bu. 


21-6 


287,010 


22-7 


230,897 


Peanuts, Ib. 


881-0 


2,038,425 


804-0 


1,875,825 


Potatoes, bu. . 


237-9 


439,500 


215-2 


411,565 


Sweet potatoes, bu. . 


104 4 


58,729 


100-5 


55,368 


Tobacco, Ib. . 


1,277-0 


2,035,915 


1,209-0 


1,972,359 


Sugar beets, tons 


14-3 


13,383 


14-8 


10,197 


Cotton, bales (yield in 










Ib.) . 


265-4 


9,884 


284-0 


16,128 


Fruit Crops 










Apples, bu. 




120,499 




133,742 


Peaches, bu. . 




52,573 




74,818 


Pears, bu. 




31,263 




36,404 


Grapes, tons . 




2,641 




2,662 


Oranges, boxes 




1 1 1 ,290 




108,535 


Grapefruit, boxes 




48,520 




36,500 



Poultry output during 1950 was 180% of 1935-39, whereas 
1949 had been 169 %. At the beginning of the year there were 
481,190,000 hens, compared with 448,676,000 head a year 
before. Chickens raised in 1950 amounted to only 670 
million head, as compared with 744 million in the previous 
year. Commercial broilers (540 million head) were 10% more 
numerous than in 1949. Turkey production was at a record 
high level. 

The number of horses continued to decline. There were 
5,310,000 head on farms, against 5,898,000 head in 1949. 
Mules totalled 2,153,000 head, as compared with 2,348,000 
head in the previous year. 

Food Stocks and Exports. Food exports by the U.S. in 
1949-50, mostly to Economic Co-operation administration 
countries or occupied areas, amounted to only 34,863 million 
Ib., as compared with 49,072 million Ib. in 1948-49. This 
export accounted for 11-7% of the total U.S. food supply 
in 1949-50. Wheat in some form made up more than half the 
total. Other grains accounted for about a quarter. 

Farm Labour. There was an average of 10,676,000 workers 
in the period Jan.-Nov. 1950, as compared with 11,084,000 
in the previous year. The average farm worker received 
$102 a month with board and room or, if employed by the 
day, $4 50. (See also BEEKEEPING; COCOA; COFFEE; DAIRY 
FARMING; FERTILIZERS; FOOD SUPPLY OF THE WORLD; 
FORAGE CROPS; FRUIT; GRAIN CROPS; HOPS; LIVESTOCK; 
NUTS; POULTRY; ROOT CROPS; SOIL CONSERVATION; SPICES; 
SUGAR; TEA; VEGETABLE OILS AND ANIMAL FATS; VEGETABLES; 
WHEAT; WOOL.) (J. K. R.) 

AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURE. During 1950 Great 
Britain retained its lead in the field of jet propulsion, and a 
number of interesting new types made their appearance. 
Overseas sales were maintained at a satisfactory level: 
exports of aircraft and aviation material averaged slightly 
less than 3 million a month. 

At the annual display of the Society of British Aircraft 
Constructors in September, 28 of a total of 58 aircraft were 
powered by turbo-jet or turbo-prop engines; 35 were military 
types; and 30 aircraft were shown for the first time. Never- 
theless the keynote of the year was one of consolidation after 
the sensational strides of 1949. 

On the military side a new Hawker fighter, the P.1081, 
showed improved performance over the P. 1052 of 1949, 
which it resembled. It seemed probable that the Ncne with 



AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURE 



29 







Havilland 112 Venom fighter, powered by a D.H. Ghost jet engine. 



which it was powered would be only interim equipment 
during trial and that it would go into production with the 
Rolls-Royce Tay or Avon. Another experimental fighter, 
the Supermarine type 535, also powered by a Rolls-Royce 
Nene, made its first flight in August and was subsequently 
demonstrated at Farnborough in early September. Fitted 
with an after-burner, the 535 probably exceeded the speed 
of sound in level flight at altitude. 

The English Electric company's Canberra, the United 
Kingdom's first jet-engined bomber, demonstrated in 1949, 
was slightly modified and put into production for the R.A.F. 
in 1950. Though it was capable of carrying a satisfactory 
bomb-load, its speed and manoeuvrability fitted it potentially 
for a number of other roles, in much the same way as the 
Do Havilland Mosquito became the maid-of-all-work in 
the later stages of World War II. 

Another interesting development during the year was the 
appearance of no less than three anti-submarine aircraft, 
designed by different constructors but all powered by 
means of Armstrong-Siddeley Mamba turbo-prop engines. 
The two co-axial airscrews allowed the pilot to stop one 
for economical cruising and to start it up again immediately 
when full power was required. 

The Brabazon I continued experimental flying with its 
eight Bristol Centaurus engines: at London airport and at 
Farnborough, where it took off in 1,400yd. and landed in 
1,200yd., it demonstrated that it could be used much more 
widely c.uin had been originally supposed. The construction 
of the Brabazon II, powered by eight Bristol Proteus turbo- 
prop engines coupled in pairs, made good progress; and the 
aircraft was expected to fly in 1952. The Proteus engines 
were extensively flight-tested, using a Lincoln bomber as a 
flying test-bed. 

The De Havilland Comet demonstrated its capabilities 
during its first year by making record flights in Europe and 
Africa and by completing over 300 hr. of flying. The second 
prototype was flying by the middle of 1950; and it was hoped 
that the first of a production-order for British Overseas 
Airways corporation would be ready for flying in early 1951. 
The Vickers Viscount, which was to go into service with 
British European Airways, gained the distinction of being 
the first jet aircraft to operate on a regular airline: the 
prototype, with four Rolls-Royce Dart turbo-prop engines, 
flew during the summer on B.E.A.'s normal London-Paris 
and London-Edinburgh routes. 

The Armstrong-Siddeley Sapphire engine, believed to 
be the most powerful aero-engine in the world (giving 7,200 
Ib. static thrust), was demonstrated for the first time in 
September, two being mounted in a Gloster Meteor as a 
flying test-bed. 

The Korean war and the consequent decision on rearma- 
ment by the western nations emphasized the need for increased 
production of military types of aircraft. However, within the 
existing constructional caoacitv of the British aircraft 



industry, there was already a preponderance on the military 
side; and up to the end of 1950 there was no sign of any 
official restriction on the carrying-out of contracts for the 
supply of civil aircraft. 

United States. The value of a strong merchant air fleet as 
a military asset was emphasized by the action of the United 
States government early in the Korean war in requisitioning 
civil aircraft for use as transports. This was followed up by 
considerable military orders for transport aircraft (including 
a number of the lengthened Super-Constellations from the 
Lockheed Aircraft corporation, for naval use). 

The year 1950 saw some interesting developments in the 
field of military aircraft. The Thunderjet's successor, the 
YF-96 with swept-back wings, was powered by a new edition 
of the Allison J-35 turbo-jet engine which showed a 38 5 % 
improvement on the original J-35 which appeared in 1947. 
Another swept-back wing experimental aircraft, the Martin 
XB-51 ground-support bomber, had also great possibilities 
with its three General Electric J-47 jet engines. Westing- 
house's J-34, an 11-stage axial-flow turbo-jet, developing 
3,200 Ib. thrust at take-off, was certified for commercial 
use; and the Northrop Turbodyne XT-47, claimed to be the 
most powerful turbo-prop aero-engine in existence, was 
developed especially to power future military types of air- 
craft. Pratt and Whitney continued work on their new PT-2 
turbo-prop engine, which was installed in a Boeing B-17 
for air test; it was said that the PT-2 developed about 
6,000 h.p. In October it was announced that the Curtiss 
Wright corporation had purchased the licence to build the 
Armstrong-Siddeley Sapphire as well as the same firm's 
Python and Double Mamba airscrew turbine engines. 

The trend in civil aircraft construction was towards a 
stopgap programme to convert existing airline power plants 
from piston engines to jets, though some airlines took a 
conservative view and ordered some of the new Super- 
Constellations similar to those being turned out for the navy. 

Boeings announced provisional plans to replace the existing 
engines in the B-377 Stratocruiser and its military counter- 
part with turbo-prop engines. They were also said to be 
considering the addition of two auxiliary turbo-jets to the 
Pratt and Whitney R-4360s to increase the speed and take- 
off weight of the Stratocruiser. 

In the Super-Constellations, Eastern Airlines proposed in 
1950 to replace the piston engines, with which th;y would 
be originally equipped, with improved Allison T-38 turbo- 
prop engines after a year or two's operation. This was 
expected to increase the speed of the aircraft to 403 m.p.h. 

A similar re-equipment with Allison T-38 engines was 
being considered by the Douglas Aircraft company and 
Martin's for the DC-6 and the 4-0-4 respectively. 

Meanwhile Congress authorized the expenditure of $12-5 
million on the development of gas-turbine transport aircraft, 
including the testing of prototypes and the conduct of 
experimental transport operations. Most of the bie 



30 



AIR FORCES OF THE WORLD 



constructors were working on projects for jet airliners, 
but none appeared during 1950. 

Canada and Australia Late in the year the Canadian 
defence minister announced the increase of the order for 
North American F-86 sabre fighters to " several hundreds," 
to be built under licence in Montreal by Canadair. Mean- 
while, A. V. Roe (Canada) continued the tests of its Orenda 
direct-entry axial-flow turbine with good results; it was 
intended to power the Avro CF.100 fighter aircraft with it. 
Canadian Pacific Airlines ordered two De Havilland Comets 
for delivery in 1952-53 for their north Pacific route. Mean- 
while development of the Avro Jetliner went on satisfactorily. 

Teams of technicians from the Australian government 
factory and the Commonwealth Aircraft corporation visited 
the United Kingdom to draw up plans for the production 
of the Canberra jet bomber and the Hawker P. 1081 four- 
cannon fighter. In Australia the Commonwealth Aircraft 
corporation prepared to build the Rolls-Royce Avon axial- 
flow jet engine. The first production-models of the feeder- 
line three-engined D.H.A. Drover were delivered to the air 
lines during the autumn. 

Western Europe. In France the year 1950 did not see very 
much new progress, though development continued on the 
S.N.C.A.S.E. Armagnac four-engined transport and the 
S.N.C.A.S.O. twin-engined Bretagne. On the military side, 
the Dessault 450 Ouragan went into production, powered 
by Nene engines built under licence by Hispano-Suizr . 
But perhaps the most interesting French contribution was 
the O.10 Leduc aircraft powered by an " athodyd " or ram- 
jet engine. 

Both Fokker in the Netherlands and Fiat in Italy were 
working on designs for jet-engined trainers; and in France, 
Switzerland, Belgium, the Netherlands and Italy arrangements 
were made for the production of British jet fighter airframes 
and engines under licence. (See also JET PROPULSION AND 
GAS TURBINES.) (D. CR.) 

AIR FORCES OF THE WORLD. In 1950 the 
world's air forces, both eastern and western, continued with 
the intensive development of advanced types of aircraft. The 
events of the summer, however, tended to shift the emphasis 
in all countries toward production. The rate of expansion 
came under security restrictions on both sides of the " iron 
curtain.*' Little was made known by governments about 
quantities of aircraft or the results of advanced research, but 
aircraft with and without pilots were undoubtedly improving 
in performance, and guided missiles could be assumed to be a 
major field for research in the larger nations. There was a 
strong trend toward the modification of existing types of 
military aircraft for tactical uses. Standardization of types of 
aircraft for a United Nations air force, while by no means 
fully achieved, appeared to be on the way. 

Great Britain. Aircraft and engine production became a 
problem of first importance during 1950 as plans for the 
defence of the Commonwealth and the North Atlantic treaty 
nations took form. Production began to increase in July, and 
in November Clement Attlee, the prime minister, announced 
that orders for aircraft for the first two years of a three-year 
defence plan had been placed. 

Farnborough Display. The display at Farn borough of the 
Society of British Aircraft Constructors, held in Sept. 1950, 
again showed excellent results of intensive research and 
development on gas turbine-powered tactical, defence and 
transport aircraft. New bombers in the medium and heavy 
classes were again lacking, and heavy bombers above 150,000- 
Ib. loaded weight were not planned, though some projects in 
the 150,000-lb. medium class and lighter were reported to be 
progressing tqward the prototype stage. Vickers-Armstrongs, 
Ltd., were said to be leading in the medium jet bomber field, 




Three helicopters taking part in demonstration flights at the Royal 
Air Force display at Farnborough, Hampshire, June 1950. 

and others reported in progress were the Handley Page 
tail-less jet bomber and a Bristol light jet bomber. Delivery 
of new jet bombers by the middle of 1951 was expected at 
the end of 1950. 

Night fighters shown included the Gloster Meteor N.F.2, 
the English Electric Canberra 2 and the de Havilland Venom 
N.F.2, all of which had been ordered in quantity. The Venom 
N.F.2 was a carrier-borne fighter having a crew of two, 
designed for both all-weather and night-fighter duties. The 
Canberra 2, with its two Rolls-Royce Avon turbo-jets, 
impressed observers with its performance as its predecessor 
had in 1949, and was scheduled for light bombing and ground 
attack as well as night-fighter duty. In addition to English 
Electric, Handley Page, Short and Harland, and A. V. Roe 
were manufacturing this aeroplane. 

Transition of the Royal Navy to jet-powered equipment was 
well begun in 1950 with quantity orders for the Vickers 
Supermarine Attacker and the Hawker Sea Hawk jet fighters, 
and the Westland Wyvern turbine-propeller fighter. New 
anti-submarine types shown at Farnborough included the 
Blackburn and General Y.B.I and the Fairey 17, both 
powered by coupled Armstrong Siddeley Mamba turbine- 
propeller engines, and the Short and Harland SB. 3, powered 
by two Mambas. The SB. 3 was a version of the Sturgeon 
reconnaissance bomber and naval target tower, with an 
underslung nose for radar equipment. 

Experimental Aircraft. Experimental types at Farnborough 
included the Avro 707B delta-wing research plane, a second 
version of the 707 shown in 1949. Six 707Bs were reported 
to have been ordered. This was the first of a planned research 
series intended to investigate the delta wing at all speeds for 
its suitability as a bomber wing. The Nene-powered Boulton 
Paul P. Ill, not shown at Farnborough, was first flown in 
October. It was designed for transonic speeds. The third in 
this planned series would be the high-speed Fairey delta wing, 
possibly with a rocket engine. 

Other British experimental aircraft in various design stages, 



AIR FORCES OF THE WORLD 



31 



besides the jet bombers already mentioned, were Fairey and 
Gloster jets, a de Havilland twin-jet and the de Havilland 
Comet with axial jets. (See also AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURE; 
JET PROPULSION AND GAS TURBINES; ROYAL AIR FORCE.) 

Canada. The Canadian-designed front-line fighter, the all- 
weather Avro CF.100, was first flown in Jan. 1950, powered 
by two Rolls-Royce Avon turbo-jets. The Royal Canadian 
Air Force ordered ten of these in 1950, which would probably 
be powered with the successful Canadian Avro Orenda axial 
turbo-jet. Negotiations were reported under way for the 
manufacture of the Orenda in several European countries. 
The Avro C.I 02 jet liner attracted wide attention in its flights 
in 1950. 

Australia. A small jet research plane, designed and built 
entirely in Australia, was reported late in 1950. It was 
described as an ultimate guided missile for fighter and anti- 
aircraft training, capable of very high speed and rapid rate of 
climb to high altitudes. The Armstrong Siddeley Adder, the 
turbo-jet version of the Mamba, was used in the prototype, 
which was flown by a pilot. The pilotless radio-controlled 
version would be powered by the Viper, an expendable version 
of the Adder, delivering 1,500 Ib. thrust. The twin-jet long- 
range Australian fighter reported in 1949 to be under develop- 
ment was expected to reach the prototype stage late in 1950. 
It would have all swept-back surfaces. The Rolls-Royce Tay 
turbo-jet, which would be manufactured in Australia, was 
expected to furnish its power. Production was begun on the 
de Havilland Drover, designed as a light civil transport for 
Australian flying, but capable of use as a military freighter or 
an ambulance. 

United States. United States Air Force. Participation in 
the Korean war as a member of the United Nations air-land- 
sea team took precedence over other U.S. air force activities 
during 1950. During the first half of 1950 budgetary limita- 
tions had necessitated a downward readjustment from 
previously planned strength. In spite of loss of personnel, the 
closing of installations and the curtailment of numerous 
plans, the air force sought to increase its fighting capacity, 
and to this end advanced a programme of joint training with 
the other military services. When war broke out in Korea on 
June 25, the U.S.A.F. accomplished the evacuation of U.S. 
nationals from the area of conflict with troop carrier aircraft. 
F-80s and F-82s, based in Japan, protected the evacuation 
area and escorted the transport planes. As a result of 
President Truman's decision on June 27 to use U.S. air and 
naval forces to carry out the mandate of the United Nations 
Security council, the far east air force began active combat 
operations. 

F-51 (propeller-driven) and F-80 (jet) fighters helped to 
stop the mechanized advance of the Korean Communist 
army, while B-26 and B-29 bombers flew far behind the enemy 
ground force fighting lines to attack the invader's production, 
supply and distribution plants, and depots. After initial 
resistance by North Korean aircraft of Soviet manufacture, 
U.N. forces gradually achieved mastery of the air. 

Construction funds were made available during Dec. 1949 
for an Aircraft Control and Warning system, earlier autho- 
rized by congress, and in Oct. 1950 the air force announced a 
speed-up in the production of equipment and training of men 
to put the system into operation well before July 1951. The 
Lockheed F-94 (an adaptation from the F-80 day interceptor) 
was introduced into the continental air defence system as the 
first jet all-weather interceptor. The strategic air command 
was reorganized to give each of its three air forces its own 
reconnaissance and bombing capabilities, enabling each to 
work as a separate organization in launching an immediate 
counterstroke. The continental air command (Con.A.C.) 
was divided into three major commands, Con.A.C. retaining 
responsibility for the administration and training of the 



U.S.A.F. civilian components. The tactical air command had 
as its primary mission the development and training of tactical 
support aviation in conjunction with army field forces. The 
air defence command was to be responsible for air defence of 
the U.S. The air force special weapons command was estab- 
lished for the field development and testing of equipment and 
technique relating to atomic energy. The air research and 
development command was established to provide increased 
emphasis on the qualitative improvement of the air force. 
Largely as the result of the spring exercise in the supply of 
large-scale operations entirely by strategic air lift, the mission 
of the military air transport service was revised. 

As an immediate result of the Korean conflict, congress 
passed legislation authorizing a 70-group air force, suspended 
the personnel ceiling and made supplementary appropriations 
increasing the military budget for fiscal year 1951 from 
$13,000 million to $24,000 million. By the end of Sept. 1950, 
approximately 1,100 of the 2,800 rated officers previously 
removed from flying status were restored. Construction was 
expedited. There was a general acceleration of the programme 
to meet increased defence needs, but the air force, in the 
second half of 1950, continued to emphasize the long-range 
programme especially in the field of research and development. 

The XF-91 interceptor underwent performance tests 
during the year. The F-89 was the first jet aircraft accepted by 
the air force specifically designed as an all-weather interceptor. 
The F-86D was an all-weather interceptor version of the 
earlier F-86 day fighter. The jet YF-93, the XF-88 and the 
XF-90, three new penetration fighters, were evaluated. 
The F-84F was an improved version of previous F-84 models. 
The XB-51, a light bomber with crew of two, was the first 
postwar bomber specifically designed for ground support 
work. The XG-20 was a medium cargo assault glider, capable 
of being towed at a much higher speed than any operational 
gliders used in World War II. The XC-120 medium transport 
was a detachable compartment version of the C-119, unique 
in its possibilities. It was designed to test the feasibility of 
preloaded detachable cargo compartments. 

The C-124 heavy cargo transport represented a milestone 
in air transportation because of its capacity and adaptability. 
An operational flight of the year was especially significant. 
On Sept. 22, two U.S.A.F. pilots, each flying an F-84 Thunder- 
jet, took off from Manston, England, in a flight that made use 




The Avro Canada CF-100 jet fighter, first flown in Jan. 1950. 



32 



AIR FORCES OF THE WORLD 



of the drogue-probe refuelling system. Lieut. Colonel 
William D. Ritchie was forced to bail out over Labrador, but 
Colonel David C. Schilling completed the first non-stop 
transoceanic flight in a jet aircraft in 10 hr. 1 min. On Sept. 29 
Capt. Richard V. Wheeler established a new (but unofficial) 
high-altitude bail-out record in an experimental jump from 
an altitude of more than eight miles (42,449 ft.) in an auto- 
matic opening parachute. 

The air engineering development centre authorized by the 
congress in Oct. 1949 to provide the military service, private 
institutions and industry with facilities for exploring the 
aeronautical field beyond the sonic barrier, which was under 
construction at Tullahoma, Tennessee, was named the 
Arnold Air Engineering Development centre in honour of 
General Henry H. Arnold, who died on Jan. 15, 1950. 

By May 31,1 950, the total number of officers and airmen on 
duty in the U.S.A.F. had declined to 408,844. By the end of 
August, command strength had been rebuilt to approximately 
450,000 officers and airmen, with almost one-third of the 
total deployed overseas. At the same date, there were approxi- 
mately 12,000 U.S.A.F planes in active status (H. S. Vo.) 

United States Navy. For naval aviation, as for other U.S. 
forces, the year 1950 was clearly divided. The first six months 
emphasized the continued effort to reach what was expected 
to be a permanent peacetime establishment. Then late in 
June a rapidly deteriorating international situation and the 
necessity for supporting United Nations forces in Korea 
caused an abrupt reversal. By the end of the year a total ot 
four fleet carriers and two escort carriers had engaged in 
active operations in Korean waters. Naval pairol aircraft 
flying from land bases or supported by aircraft tenders, 
conducted daily reconnaissance flights and anti-submarine 
patrols. The first marine air wing also operated from shore 
bases in Korea and Japan. Transport squadrons of the navy 
and marine corps joined similar units of the air force in 
rushing men and equipment across the Pacific. 

New equipment and aircraft types, notably jets and new 
attack planes, received thorough test under combat conditions. 
Helicopters made their first appearance in combat with the 
marines carrying supplies to forward units and evacuating 
casualties. The navy continued to press the design qtf improved 
jet-propelled fighter aircraft for carrier use. The AJ-1, a 
high-speed attack plane, went into service \yith fleet squadrons. 
Test-flying was begun on a patrol plane (XP5Y) and a carrier 
plane (XA2D), both powered by turbo-propeller engines. 
Equipment was devised for refuelling airships at sea and thus 
extending their usefulness in anti-submarine operations. 
Experiments with guided missiles aboard submarines and on 
the specially equipped U.S.S. " Norton Sound " were 
continued, and congress authorized the conversion of a 
cruiser to a guided missiles ship. 

There were three large Midway-class carriers and six fleet 
carriers in the active fleet at the end of the year. About 3,400 
officers and 24,000 enlisted men were added to the aero- 
nautical organization of the navy and proportional increases 
occurred in marine corps aviation. Training of pilots was 
increased to produce about 1,500 yearly. At the end of the 
year, the navy had about 13,700 aircraft in its inventory, of 
which 7,200 were in operating status. (J. H. C.) 

U.S.S.R. Attention in the west was centred on the U.S.S. R. 
as the source of the war potential in the east. Aircraft and 
armament used by the Chinese Communists and the North 
Koreans were manufactured in the Soviet Union. The Soviet 
air force was placed under the army in the reorganization 
announced in Feb. 1950. The army air organization consisted 
of a large force for the support of ground troops, an air defence 
force, principally of fighters, and a long-range air arm. The 
navy was equal to the army, under the reorganization, and its 
aircraft were administered as integral parts of the navy. 



4 fy W& v f - ^ W ^ f" tF^ '^ 






; * j< ' *.'* 







The United States AD-3W Skyr aider powered by a 2,400 h.p. 
Wright R-3350 engine. 

The U.S.S.R. undoubtedly had more troops, aeroplanes 
and submarines in service than any other nation. Western 
estimates placed the number of Soviet first-line military 
aircraft in service at about 15,000. Aeroplane production was 
estimated to be 7,000 planes per year early in 1950, and the 
country's capacity to produce planes was variously estimated 
at 40,000 to 50,000 planes per year. The U.S.S.R. was 
believed to have continued production after 1945 without 
the drastic reductions made in the west, at the same time 
emphasizing research on jet types, guided missiles and the 
atomic bomb. At the annual parades in May each year new 
jet types were flown over Red square, Moscow, and the 
Korean war 'brought the MIG-15 fighter into action for 
Communist China. These fighters were also reported late in 
1950 in numbers over Berlin and other Soviet bases in Ger- 
many. 

The Mikoyan and Gurevich MIG-15 was a swept-wing 
fighter powered by a centrifugal turbo-jet. Its speed was 
reported by U.S. pilots in Korea to be very high, particularly 
during bursts when power boost was used. The two standard 
advanced fighters in production in 1950 were the MIG-15 and 
the Lavochkin LA- 17, both rated in the 685-m.p.h. class. 
With afterburning or other power boost, as in the case of the 
MIG-15 in Korea, they probably could travel at near-sonic 
speeds for short intervals. The Yakovlev YAK- 17 fighter, 
also reported to be in production, was a third fighter using a 
centrifugal jet engine. It was first flown in 1947, and resembled 
the U.S. F-84 Thunderjet. Earlier piston fighters such as the 
YAK-7 and YAK-9, used in Korea, the LA-7, LA-9 and 
LA- 11 and the twin-jet MIG-9, were still in service in large 
numbers in 1950. 

Bomber development in the U.S.S.R. was not emphasized 
up to about 1947. In World War II Soviet bombers were 
typified by such twin-engined models as the Tupolev TU-2, 
llyushin 1L-4 and the Petlyakov PE-2. Twin-jet prototypes 
were observed over Moscow in May 1950. The twin-jet TU-10 
was an axial turbine-powered light bomber of 70-ft. wing 
span, estimated to be in the 525-m.p.h. class. The IL-16 four- 
jet bomber, first seen in 1947, was of conventional design. 
The principal Soviet bomber in service was the TU-4, gener- 
ally considered to be a copy of the U.S. B-29. The IL-10 
piston-engined Shturmovik was the standard ground-support 
aircraft in all Soviet-controlled air forces. Its maximum 
speed was 280 m.p.h. It was seen in numbers in Germany. 

Rocket fighter development in the U.S.S.R. was based on 
the YAK-21 derived from the Messerschmitt Me- 163 of 
World War II. It was reported capable of a climbing rate of 
12,000 ft. a minute, and a top speed of 670 m.p.h., for a 
15-20 minute duration. 



AIRPORTS 



33 



Soviet Jet Engines. Soviet engine design showed in 1950 a 
trend toward more powerful axial-flow types, corresponding 
to the trend in the west. The axial-flow turbo-jet designs 
taken over by the U.S.S.R. from Germany in 1945 were 
developed slowly by Soviet and German engineers, without 
conspicuous success for the first several years after World 
War II. The best of the Soviet production fighters in 1950 
were using centrifugal turbo-jets based on the Rolls-Royce 
Nene and Denvent engines sold to the U.S.S.R. in 1947. 
Later aircraft going into production were reported to be 
equipped with axial-flow types. The German BMW-003 and 
BMW-018 and the Jumo-004 were the basic designs for the 
later Soviet turbo-jets. 

France. The best military aircraft made in France in 1950 
were the de Havilland Vampire and the Dassault M.D. 450 
Ouragan (Hurricane). One was a British fighter being built 
under licence, and the other was developed by a private 
aircraft company. The emphasis was upon defensive inter- 
ceptors. There was no large production of bombers, no 
flying delta-wing research planes and little activity in missiles. 
The Rolls-Royce Nene, built under licence, was the only 
production turbo-jet. Production on the more powerful 
Rolls-Royce Tay was scheduled for 1951. Apart from the 
Vampire, the French air forces and navy were equipped 
mostly with aircraft from World War II surplus, to which 
U.S. jet aircraft were added late in 1950. 




The British Cluster Meteor m>/ / / //. 

Italy. The importation of de Havilland Vampire fighters 
indicated how the Italian air force would replace some of its 
World War II surplus British and U.S. planes with new 
jet-powered equipment. Tooling was reported progressing 
late in 1 950 for the production under licence of Vampire and 
Venom aeroplanes and Ghost and Goblin turbo-jets. The 
Italian aircraft industry's activity in arranging for the licensed 
manufacture of aircraft and engines was accompanied by 
design and development work on transports, light planes, 
trainers and fighters. Breda and Savoia-Marchetti transports, 
Fiat and Abrosini trainers and ventures into jet propulsion 
by Caproni and Fiat were the principal developments up to 
the end of 1950. The Caproni Ca.195 attracted most attention 
in the west. It was described as a conventional modern 
fighter, having a slightly swept-back leading edge, powered 
by two axial-flow turbo-jets producing 2,000 Ib. thrust for a 
maximum speed of 565 m,p.h. at 20,000 ft. The Fiat G.80 
two-seat jet trainer would be powered by a de Havilland 
Ghost turbo-jet. 

Other Countries. According to the trend of 1950, air forces 
of the Atlantic pact nations and nations friendly to the west 
would be equipped largely with U.S. and British military 
aircraft, by purchase or by licensed manufacture. Soviet 
satellites would be largely supplied from the U.S.S.R. Con- 
struction of successful jet aircraft and engines was, however, 
in progress outside the U.S. and the United Kingdom. The 



Saab Aircraft company, supplier of numerous aircraft to the 
Swedish air force, was reported developing a successor to its 
J29 jet fighter of 1948. In the Netherlands, the Fokker 
Derwent-powered S.I 4 advanced trainer was reported nearing 
completion, and the S.I 3 twin-engined advanced trainer 
prototype was flown early in the year. This company was 
also manufacturing Gloster Meteor fighters for both the 
Netherlands and the Belgian air forces, and Hawker Sea Fury 
fighters for the Dutch navy. From the Argentine development 
was reported of the I.Ae.33 Fulqui II fighter, a swept-wing 
version of the first Argentine jet aeroplane of 1947. (See also 
AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURE; JET PROPULSION AND GAS TUR- 
BINES; ROYAL AIR FORCE.) (M. H. SM.; S. P. J.) 

AIRPORTS. Sir Robert Watson-Watt, the British 
radar scientist, commented during 1950 on the backward 
state of air traffic-control equipment as established at air- 
ports and on airways throughout the world: much of the 
existing radio and radar used in civil aviation was out-of- 
date as applied to conditions at that moment; and most 
of the control sets had been adapted from former military 
stock. 

This opinion was shared by those in official administration 
of airports and was particularly significant in view of the 
approaching era of jet airliners with operational speeds of 
500 m.p.h. Jet aircraft came into the civil picture in 1950, 
but for operating-economy had to fly at great heights. 
Any time spent in the air at low altitudes, such as was the 
practice for piston-cngined types in approach-procedures to 
airports, would have introduced costly and sometimes 
impractical conditions for the new class of high-speed air- 
liners. Consequently much of the progress in airport design 
and construction in 1950 was rather towards improving air 
traffic-control equipment, passenger- and freight-handling 
facilities and buildings than in the way of establishing new 
airports. In a number of instances this policy of improvement 
extended to the lengthening and strengthening of runways 
and other hard pavings so as to bring existing airports up to 
current international standards. This trend was especially 
noticeable in Europe, where for example a rejuvenated 
Ciampino airport near Rome carried the greatly increased 
air traffic for the Holy Year celebrations. 

Great Britain. Probably of great importance to the air- 
traffic-control systems of the future was the installation of 
long-range radar search -equipment at London airport. 
By this means controllers were able to direct approaching 
and departing aircraft on scheduled flights within their area 
by reference to a radar picture showing the whole sky in 
azimuth up to a maximum of 150 mi. 

A decision moreover was reached on Stage 3 development 
of London airport. The original duplicate " triangular " 
runway scheme north of the Bath road was abandoned in 
favour of a new plan on that site to construct two runways 
placed end to end and running east-west but slightly divergent 
from one another. The object of this off-set arrangement was 
to provide lateral separation for aircraft making simultaneous 
landing and take-off. 

Africa. A new airport of considerable potentiality was 
opened to traffic on Aug. 12 by Lord Pakenham, British 
minister of civil aviation, at Livingstone, Northern Rhodesia. 
This airport, classed as C.2 under the specifications of the 
International Civil Aviation organization, was thought to 
have possibilities as a cross-roads of air routes in central 
and southern Africa; and its proximity to the Victoria falls 
on the Zambezi river was judged to be a great tourist 
attraction. 

Similarly the new main Egyptian air terminal established 
at Farouk airport near Cairo was said to ha\c possibilities 
as the cross-roads for north Africa and the middle east. 



34 



AIRPORTS 















The largest airport in Northern Rhodesia at Livingstone, c/s seen from the air. The airport was opened in Aug. 1950 by the British minister 

of civil aviation, Lord Pakenham. 



India, Pakistan and Australia. Little progress was reported 
towards the implementing of plans to extend and improve 
the international airports in these countries. Admittedly the 
physical problems were great: notably the surrounding 
foothills at Santa Cruz (Bombay), the swampy site of Dum 
Dum (Calcutta), the need for the reclamation of part of 
Botany bay for runway extension at Kingsford Smith 
(Mascot, Sydney) and constructional difficulties f or a dupli- 
cate main runway at Drigh Road (Karachi). 

Argentina. The new airport near Buenos Aires at Ezeiza 
became fully operational during 1950, with three runways 
capable of taking the largest and heaviest airliners and with 
adequate means for passenger- and freight-handling. 

United States. With initial operational problems settled, the 
new international airport of Idlewild, Jamaica bay, controlled 
by the Port of New York authority, was handling greatly 
increased traffic in 1950. On the constructional side, some 
alleviation of the %k dust bowl " nuisance was gained by 
the planting of sea-grass and more hangars of the unobstruc- 
ted arch type were erected. 

As regards New York's " internal " services, La Guardia 
airport reached almost saturation-point in aircraft move- 
ments: on one day alone some 630 were logged in and out. 
Newark airport, New Jersey was being developed, obviously 
to take much of that congested traffic; accordingly a very 
advanced design of terminal building was planned, and 
" pre-positioned " services for fuelling, lubricating, electrical 
charging etc. were being laid ** on tap " to supersede the 
almost universal practice at airports of servicing aircraft 
by mobile tender. (C. F. As.) 

The 1947 National Airport plan and the 1948 and 1949 
revisions were based on a three-year forecast of the needs of 
civil aviation in the United States. The 1950 National Airport 
plan, accordingly, was assembled as revision and refinement 
of the preceding plans and showed a projected three-year 
forecast of aviation needs. It reflected an up-to-date appraisal 



of the way airports were serving the nation and what was 
required to round out safely and effectively the National 
Airport system. 

The fiscal summary of the 1947-50 federal airport pro- 
gramme indicated that the federal government had expended 
or committed the sum of $130,731,802 for airport develop- 
ment and that the sponsors' contribution (state or territory) 
amounted to $140,741,656 for a total programme of 
$271,473,458. 

Civil airports in Jan. 1950 numbered 6,484 and were 
classified as follows: class 1 and below (length from less than 
1,800 ft. to 2,700 ft.) 4,100; class 2 (from 2,700 ft. to 3,700 ft.) 
1,027; class 3 (from 3,700ft. to 4,700ft.) 576; class 4 (from 
4,500 ft. to 5,500 ft.) 445; class 5 (from 5,500 ft. to 6,500 ft.) 
1 85 ; classes 6, 7, 8 and (from 6,500 ft. by thousands to 9,500 ft. 
and more) 149. (Lengths were increased for elevations 
above sea level; classes 1, 2 and 3 had lengths decreased by 
200ft. if paved; classes 4-9 had to have at least one paved 
runway of a specified length.) Of these airports 2,585 were 
commercial, 2,200 municipal, 139 Civil Aeronautics adminis- 
tration landing fields and 350 military, with 1,210 of other 
types. 

Airports for scheduled air service were assigned service 
types as defined in the Civil Aeronautics administration's 
technical standard order N6a as follows: feeder type (up 
to 3,500ft.), for feeder-type service; trunk type (3,500 to 
4,200ft.), to serve on air-line trunk routes; express type 
(4,200 to 5,000 ft.), at large cities or important junctions on 
trunk routes; continental type (5,000 to 5,900ft.), serving 
long non-stop continental flights; intercontinental type 
(5,900 to 7,000 ft.), serving long intercontinental or trans- 
oceanic flights; intercontinental express type (7,000 to 
8,400ft.), serving transoceanic flights of largest types of 
aircraft. Lengths were increased for elevation, temperature 
and gradient. 

A three-year study of what was required to develop a 



AIR RACES AND RECORDS ALASKA 



35 



high-efficiency air freight terminal had reached a stage 
late in 1950 where specifications for the terminal and related 
components were nearly complete. In devising a terminal 
for efficient freight flow, a basic functioning part of the plan 
for an air freight depot was found to be a flexible, portable 
ramp device designed to eliminate, by bridging the aeroplane 
door to a terminal dock, the high hoist that makes aeroplane 
cargo loading a time-consuming and expensive operation. 
(See also AVIATION, CIVIL.) (E. M. E.) 

AIR RACES AND RECORDS. The classic events 

of British air racing in 1950 were again dispersed to a number 
of provincial centres. Although the circuits necessarily varied, 
each race was flown as a handicap over a number of short 
laps based on the home aerodrome thus enabling some 
competitors to attempt speed records over the 100-km. 
closed circuit within weight categories laid down by the 
Federation Ae>onautique Internationale. 

The King's cup, flown on June 17 over a three-lap course 
centred on Wolverhampton, was won by E. Day, flying a 
Miles Hawk trainer. F. Dunkerley, in his Miles Gemini 
(representing the Lancashire Aero club), was again successful 
in the Siddeley trophy, held on Sept. 2, and in the Kemsley 
trophy contest. Five world class records over the 100-km. 
closed circuit were set up during the King's cup race, among 
them Miss R. M. Sharpens 322 -5 m.p.h. in a wartime Spit- 
fire; this was also a British women's record. 

The two-lap Air League Challenge cup race (won by 
W. I. Lashbrook, Percival Proctor) and the Society of British 
Aircraft Constructors* Challenge cup contest for jet-powered 
aircraft were flown over the same course at Sherburn-in- 
Elmet, Leeds, on July 22. The S.B.A.C. race was won at an 
average speed of 533 m.p.h. by M. J. Lithgow, piloting a 
Vickers-Supermarine Attacker. Another 100-km. world 






Two light aircraft taking part in the Bournemouth to Herne Bay 
air race in Sept. 1950 



record was achieved L. R. Colquhoun's 209-46 m.p.h. with 
a Vickers-Supermarine Seagull a new record for amphibians. 

An entirely new race was organized by the Daily Express 
along the south coast of England from Hum, Hampshire, 
to Herne Bay, Kent, on Sept. 16. This attracted an entry of 
67 aircraft and was won in a Proctor by N. W. Charlton, 
who had started 48th. 

An important world record was captured for Great Britain 
on May 12 by J. R. Cooksey, flying a Gloster Meteor 8, 
This was the 1,000-km. closed circuit at 511 m.p.h. (822 25 
km.p.h.). 

From July 1, aircraft using rocket-assisted take-off were 
eligible for F.A.I, speed record attempts. Other important 
changes in the rules were provision for speed records over a 
15-25 km. course at unlimited altitudes (instead of over 3 km. 
at a height of below 200 m.), and the introduction of rate-of- 
climb records. In addition, the F.A.h divided certain world 
records into two main categories: piston-powered and jet* 
propelled. 

A number of international course records (hitherto known 
as point-to-point records) were set up during the year, notably 
seven by the prototype de Havilland Comet, piloted by J. 
Cunningham; three of these were later exceeded. (G. D. H. L.) 

ALASKA, including the Aleutian Islands, the northern- 
most territory of the United States is separated from Siberian 
U.S.S.R. by the Bering strait. The boundary line runs 
between the Big Diomede Island (Soviet) and the Little Dio- 
mede Island (U.S.). Area: 586,400 sq.mi. Pop.: (1940 
census) 72,524; (1950 census) 128,643, excluding U.S. mili- 
tary, naval or coastguard personnel. Chief towns (pop. 
1950): Juneau (cap., 5,818); Anchorage (11,060); Fairbanks 
(5,625); Ketchikan (5,202); Petersburg (2,291). Governor 
since 1939, Ernest Grueninc. 

History. An epidemic of infantile paralysis broke out in 
Alaska during 1950 and at the end of the year 70 cases were 
reported in the territory, the majority of them in the interior 
area around Fairbanks. Advances were made in improving 
the hospital system. A new 400-bcd sanatorium was com- 
pleted at Anchorage ; a 40-bed wing was added to St. Joseph's 
hospital; a new 34-bed hospital was finished at Nome and 
125 beds Were added at Mt. Edgecumbe sanatorium near 
Sitka. The latter institution previously had 200 beds. 

Millions of dollars went into the building up of the defences 
in Alaska in 1950. The army and navy were spending more 
than $120 million for construction, and more than $4 million 
more was earmarked for improving the Alaska communica- 
tion system, a branch of the army. Another $1,500,000 was 
being spent to repair the Alaska railroad, a government- 
owned line which operates through interior Alaska from 
Seward to Fairbanks and to Whitticr, a port, like Seward, 
on the southwest coast. 

Education. Alaska in 1950 had 32 high schools with 2,169 pupils 
and 182 teachers; 94 elementary schools with 10,727 pupils and 471 
teachers. For native children, the Alaska native service, a division 
of the U.S. Department of the Interior, maintained 85 day schools and 

3 boarding schools, with 5,000 pupils. 

Fisheries. Alaska's salmon pack, considered the largest in the world, 
totalled 3,177,003 cases in 1950 with a value of $85 million. The 
halibut, shrimp, crab and cod fishery brought the total value of the 
sea-food pack of the territory up to more than $100 million for the 
year. 

Mining. Total value of mineral production for 1950 was slightly 
more than $15 million, gold accounting for $8 million while the balance 
represented coal, silver, copper, lead, zinc and platinum. The gold 
strike of 1949 in the Yukon river area northeast of Fairbanks failed to 
develop in 1950. The few claims which revealed possible bonanza 
production could show no colour worthy of production on large-scale 
operation. 

Banking and Finance. Net cash balance (end of 1950): $2,728,117. 
Alaska has no bonded indebtedness and operates on a cash basis. 
Funds of the territory were deposited in the 17 territorial banks and 

4 national banks situated in Alaska. > (L. M. W.) 



36 



ALBANIA ALGERIA 



ALBANIA. People's republic in the western part of the 
Balkan peninsula bounded N. and E. by Yugoslavia and S. 
by Greece, with an Adriatic coastline of 200 mi. Area: 
10,629 sq.mi. Pop.: (1930 census) 1,003,097; (mid-1950 
est.) 1,300,000. Language: literary Albanian and two 
spoken dialects, the Gheg north of the river Shkumbi and the 
Task in the south. Religion (1949 est.): Moslem 820,000; 
Greek Orthodox 250,000; Roman Catholic 115,000. Chief 
towns (1949 est.): Tirana (cap., 40,000); Scutari or Shkoder 
(30,000); Koritsa or Korce (28,000); Elbasan (18,000). 
Chairman of the presidium of the People's Assembly, Dr. 
Omer Nishani; prime minister, minister of foreign affairs and 
of national defence, General Enver Hoxha. 

History. The Communist government remained subservient 
to Soviet policy and there was no change in the hostile 
attitude towards Greece and Yugoslavia. Hunger, approaching 
famine in winter, and widespread disease were the results of a 
year of political and economic isolation. This situation was 
only partially relieved at the end of the year by shipments of 
consumer goods and light industrial equipment from the 
Soviet Union and its satellites. Repeated government claims 
of success in industry through the employment of " stakhano- 
vi te " methods and in agriculture by the development of the 
Soviet collective system, were exaggerated. A realistic 
picture of the situation was given on March 9 when four 
senior government officials, including the minister of industry, 
Abedin Shehu, were expelled from the central committee of 
the Communist party for what was termed ** serious errors 
and mistakes in state and party work." One month later, 
on April 10, Enver Hoxha, addressing tho second national 
conference of the party at Tirana, stated that more than 5,000 
" enemies of the people " had been chased by the defence 
corps over the border into Yugoslavia. The prime minister 
also condemned the minister of industry for the failure of 
the economic plan. 

Two espionage trials, at which six Albanians were accused 
of spying on behalf of the western powers, preceded the 
general election on May 28. Full publicity given to the death 
sentences provided a resentful electorate with a timely 
reminder of their expected loyalty to the regime. There were 
the usual single lists of Communist candidates in 121 constitu- 
encies, each with an electorate of about lO.CKXt. Official 
results claimed an outstanding victory. Out of 99-43% of 
the electorate who voted 98 99 % votes * were cast for the 
[Democratic front (Communist) candidates. 

On May 30 Yugoslavia closed its legation in Tirana after 
protesting against numerous frontier incidents and mal- 
treatment of its diplomatic officials. During the year western 
diplomatic representation remained restricted to the French 
and Italian legations. Great Britain's attempts to obtain 
compensation, awarded by the International Court of 
Justice, for the damage caused to its two destroyers by mines 
in the Corfu channel in 1947 were unsuccessful. 

The United Nations Special Committee on the Balkans 
established that the government had actively interfered in 
Greek affairs by providing both the arms and the means for 
Greek Communists to return to Greece after they had received 
a period of political and sabotage training in Poland under 
Soviet instruction. It was learned that the majority of Greek 
guerrillas who had escaped to Albania in 1948 had been 
removed by ship to Rumania and Poland. 

In September there was a Soviet month of culture and a 
Korean friendship week, during which funds were collected 
for the North Koreans. Delegations of technicians, workers, 
Orthodox and Moslem clergy and peasants visited the 
U.S.S.R. to learn Soviet methods. A Soviet mission, com- 
posed of more than 3,000 technicians, directed the construc- 
tion of a railway line from Durazzo (Durres) to Tirana and 
the erection of port installations at Valona (Vlore). Despite the 



faithful allegiance of the government to Moscow, Albania 
was not granted membership of the Cominform nor was 
she brought into the network of mutual aid treaties, which 
bind all the other satellites to the Soviet Union. 

The Free Albania committee, composed of anti-Communist 
leaders in exile, continued its activity in Rome. Hasan 
Dosti was appointed chairman and Ihsan Toptani became 
the Albanian representative on the eastern section of the 
European movement. (S. E. Ws.) 

Education. Schools (1949): elementary I t 910, pupils 162,000; higher 
elementary 145, secondary 20, total pupils 19,140. A teachers' college 
was opened at Tirana in 1946. 

Agriculture. Main crops ('000 metric tons): maize (1947) 140; wheat 
(1947) 54; tobacco (1945) 1 -5; olives (prewar) 17; grapes (prewar) 14. 
Livestock ('000 head): cattle and buffaloes (1945-46) 371; sheep (1946) 
1,700; horses (1946 est.) 50; pigs (1946 est.) 35; goats (1946 est.) 854; 
asses (1946 est.) 40; mules (1946 est.) 10; chickens (1938) 2,000. 

Industry. Crude oil production ('000 metric tons, 1949; 1950, six 
months, in brackets): 325 (165). 

Foreign Trade. Before 1939, main imports were cotton yarns and 
manufactures, petrol, wheat and maize. Main exports were crude 
petroleum, skins and hides, foodstuffs. 

Transport and Communications. Roads (1949): 1,766 mi. Licensed 
motor vehicles (Dec. 1949): cars 500; commercial 1,200. Railways 
(1949): 26 mi. Shipping (1949): number of merchant vessels 6. Post 
and telegraph offices 53. Radio receiving sets (1949) 40,000. 

Finance. Monetary unit: lek, until mid- 1948 at par with the Yugoslav 
dinar, with an official exchange rate 139 lek to the pound and 49-6 
lek to the U.S. dollar. 

See " Isolation of Albania," The Times, London, Feb. 1, 1950; 
Vandeleur Robinson, ** Albania : a Balkan Bridgehead," The World 
Today, London, Feb., 1950. 

ALDER, KURT, German chemist (b. July 10, 1902), 
obtained the degree of doctor of philosophy from the Uni- 
versity of Kiel, where he was a pupil of Otto Diels (^.v.). He 
was appointed extraordinary professor of chemistry at Kiel 
in 1934 but later went to occupy the chair of chemistry and 
chemical technology at Cologne. In 1950 the Nobel prize for 
chemistry was awarded jointly to Diels and Alder for their 
work on dienc synthesis (the Diels-Aldcr reaction). Diene 
synthesis is concerned with the formation of complex organic 
compounds such as plastics and is of great practical as well as 
theoretical importance. The discovery was an outstanding 
achievement of organic chemistry, such as would establish the 
names of Diels and Alder permanently in the annals of their 
science. Their first paper on the reaction was published in 
1928. Alder, who was still working on the diene synthesis in 
1950, made important contributions to the stereochemistry 
and the energetics of the process. (W. J. BP.) 

ALGERIA. French territory of north Africa, situated 
between Morocco (west) and Tunisia (east), with a status 
of government general of the French Union. Total area: 
851,078 sq.mi., administered in two parts: Northern Algeria 
(80,919 sq.mi.), comprising the overseas departements of 
Algiers, Oran and Constantine, and the four territories of 
Southern Algeria (770,159 sq.mi.). Pop.: (1936 census) 
7,234,684; (1948 census) 8,676,016 including 816,993 (9-4%) 
in the southern territories. Arabs and Berbers constitute 
86-7% of the population; they are Moslem and speak 
Arabic, though the countryfolk of Kabylia still use the Berber 
tongue. In 1936 there were 987,252 Europeans in Algeria 
(predominantly Roman Catholic), including 853,209 French 
citizens (many of Spanish or Italian descent). There was a 
flourishing Jewish community estimated in 1949 at 130,000. 
The Algerian Assembly, which has the representative nature 
of a parliament, consists of 120 members elected by two 
colleges. In the first college there are all citizens of French 
status and Moslems distinguished by military, university, 
administrative or judicial qualifications; in the second college 
are grouped all other Moslem citizens. It is the task of the 
Assembly to manage Algerian affairs in agreement with the 



ALIENS 



37 



governor general. It passes the budget and possesses statutory 
powers in fields which in metropolitan France are objects of 
legislation. It may propose to the French parliament the 
extension of a law to Algeria; or it is, at the least, called upon 
for advice. The governor general has wide powers. Chief 
towns (1948 census): Algiers (cap., 315,210); Gran (256,661); 
Constantine (118,774); Bone (102,823); Tlemcen (69,668). 
Governor general (appointed in 1948), Marcel-Edmond 
Naegelen. 

History. Despite constant bitter attacks by the Nationalist 
Democratic Union of the Algerian Manifesto (U.D.M.A. or 
Union D6mocratique du Manifeste Algerien, led by Ferhat 
Abbas) in its organ La Rtpublique Algerienne, and notwith- 
standing violent pan-Arab opposition by the Movement for 
the Triumph of Democratic Liberties (M.T.L.D. or Mouve- 
ment pour le Triomphe des Libertes Democratiques, led by 
Messali Haj), conditions remained calm. Public opinion 
appeared little disturbed by the plot engineered by the 
paramilitary organization of the M.T.L.D., which in May led 
to many arrests. Of greater importance was the action taken 
by the ulemas to ensure the independence of the Moslem 
faith in relation to the state and to develop the teaching of 
Arabic. The president and vice president of their association 
in December visited Paris to petition the government for full 
religious liberty. Under the education scheme 500 new 
classes with capacity of 25,000 pupils were opened for 
instruction in French. The extension by special enactment of 
the term of office of the governor general Naegelen, which 
by the statute of the National Assembly (of which he is a 
member) was due to expire in August, gave rise to discussion. 

The country depends mainly on agriculture the total 
production in which amounted in 1949 to Fr. 128,200 million. 
Wine, figs and dates failed to reach the estimated export 
targets. The index number of mining production rose from 
100 in 1945 to 223 in 1949. Prospects for the development of 
the manufacture of paper from alfalfa grass, and of cement 
seemed promising. During the first half of 1950 the adverse 
balance of trade showed no signs of improvement. 

Agriculture. Main crops (1949, '000 metric tons): wheat 946-4; 
barley 890-4; oats 142-3; citrus fruits 223; olives 125; figs 80; dates 
105; tobacco 20; vegetables 544; wine ('000 hi.) 14,467. Livestock 
(1949, *000 head): cattle 747; sheep 3,839; goats 2,596; pigs 160; horses 
204; asses 255; mules 230; camels 138. 

Industry. Mineral production (1949, '000 metric tons); phosphate 
rock 644-8; coal 258; iron ore 2,536-9; zinc ore 17-4. Industrial 
production (1949, metric tons): pig iron 6,418; steel 893; copper 3,721 ; 
cement 128,000; superphosphates 87,888; telephonic cables 4,193; 
matches 128 million boxes. 

Foreign Trade. (Million francs, 1949; 1950, six months, in brackets) 
imports 127,521 (72,492); exports 88,709 (50,636). 

Transport and Communications. Railways (1947): 4,338 km. Metalled 
roads (1947): northern Algeria 52,519 km., southern Algeria 282 km.; 
non-metalled roads 15,046km.; tracks 20,575km. Motor vehicles 
licensed (Jan. 1948): cars 26,165, coaches 1,003, taxis 1,387, lorries 
19,895. Ships entered (1949): Algiers 3,041, Oran 2,437; cargo unloaded 
(in all ports, '000 metric tons): 2,910-2, loaded 5,811-8. Air transport 
(1949): aircraft landed 10,916; passengers flown: arrivals 118,700, 
departures 147,000; freight carried (metric tons) 19,324, mail 860. 
Telephone subscribers (1949): 56,000. 

Finance. Budget (1950-51 est., the fiscal year beginning April 1): 
revenue Fr. 72,530 1 million, expenditure Fr. 72,508 -9 million. Algerian 
franc=metropolitanfranc;l-Fr.980; U.S. $ = Fr.350. (C. A. J.) 



ALIENS. Great Britain. The number of aliens over 16 
years of age registered in the United Kingdom on Oct. 1, 
1950, was 426,437 (males 261,915; females 164,522), of whom 
139,994 were living in the metropolitan police district (Lon- 
don). The figure on Jan. 1 was 430,058. The principal 
nationalities represented and the numbers of each compared 
with similar figures at the same date in 1949 were: Austrian 
10,037 (11,034); Belgian 5,520 (6,467); Chinese 9,725 (9,367); 
Czechoslovak 6,017 (7,207); Dutch 9,117 (9,158); Estonian 
5,599 (5,816); French 14,901 (14,087); German 47,762 



(44,249); Hungarian 4,996 (5,536); Italian 21,672 (18,667); 
Latvian 13,794(13,855); Lithuanian 6,860 (7, 165); Norwegian 
5,966 (5,868); Polish 145,524 (150,378); Russian 38,172 
(40,785); Swiss 12,878 (13,107); U.S. 18,283 (16,656). The 
figures included 11,000 aliens to whom no nationality could 
be attributed. 

Among aliens not required to register and therefore not 
included in these figures were members of the diplomatic 
and consular services of foreign governments, certain officials 
of international organizations, members of Allied forces on 
duty, British protected persons and tourists and other 
visitors who spent less than two months in the U.K. 

The flow of foreign passenger traffic through United King- 
dom ports continued to be heavy, and the number of incoming 
travellers remained at nearly 650,000. In July 1950, 1 14,738 
foreigners landed at United Kingdom ports, and 97,062 
embarked. Similar figures in July 1949 were 101,768, and 
84,076. Further steps were taken to reduce formalities at 
ports of arrival and to facilitate the passage of tourists 
through the necessary controls. 

As a result of individual visa agreements, nationals of the 
following countries were not required to obtain visas for 
travel to the United Kingdom: Belgium, Denmark, France, 
Iceland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, the 
Netherlands, Norway, San Marino, Sweden, Switzerland and 
the United States. 

By Oct. 1, 1950, some 77,000 aliens, mostly of Polish or 
Baltic origin, who had been temporarily accommodated in 
displaced persons camps on the continent, had been admitted 
for employment in the United Kingdom with a view to 
settlement. With them came nearly 4,000 dependants. These 
foreigners were restricted * to employment in undermanned 
industries but from Jan. 1, 1951, those with three years resi- 
dence would be free to take any work they could obtain. 

Out of the 174,000 Polish servicemen brought to the 
United Kingdom after mid- 1945, some 61 ,500 were repatriated 
and 17,000 assisted to emigrate. The remainder settled in 
civilian life in Great Britain, and 31,000 persons dependent 
on them were brought from abroad to join them. During 
1950 about 2,000 further Polish refugees were admitted 
from the I ebanon and east Africa. 

The number of foreigners admitted after the end of World 
War II under compassionate schemes introduced to allow 
relatives in the United Kingdom to offer homes to aliens in 
isolated and distressed circumstances abroad, or the victims 
of political persecution, rose to over 7,000. During 1950 
the government agreed to admit 2,000 displaced persons in 
the care of the International Refugee organization in Germany 
or Austria, provided their accommodation and maintenance 
were guaranteed by individuals or organizations in the United 
Kingdom. About 2,000 foreigners were allowed to remain 
in the United Kingdom after marriage to British subjects. 

In 1950 about 36,000 permits were issued for non-resident 
foreigners to come and work in the United Kingdom for 
periods of varying length. This maintained the average of 
previous years. The majority of permits were for domestic 
employment in hospitals, institutions and private households. 

Between Jan. 1 and Oct. 1, 1950, 5,702 new applications for 
naturalization were lodged, compared with a yearly average 
of 1,708 before World War 11, and 5,610 for the same period 
in 1949. Certificates granted during the same period numbered 
5,197, an annual rate of approximately 6,950 as compared 
with 9,066 in 1949. The number of applications received 
immediately after World War II was abnormally high and the 
time taken in dealing with individual applications was 
necessarily slower. The decrease in the number of certificates 
granted in 1950 indicated that the bulk of the postwar 
applications had been disposed of and that numbers had 
returned to a normal level. (T. G. W.) 



38 



ALIMENTARY SYSTEM 



1950 


1949 


1948 


1947 


12,697 


13,284 


12,361 


20,328 


5,882 


5,347 


3,860 


* 


6,065 


5,777 


7,486 


10,703 


8,743 


8,301 


9,452 


11,516 


3,793 


4,371 


5,136 


6,495 


2,122 


2,752 


3,143 


3,562 


3,257 


3,478 


5,768 


10,764 


23,787 


23,284 


22,944 


30,536 


66,346 


66,594 


70,150 


93,904 



United States. It is estimated that there were approximately 
3 million resident aliens in the continental United States on 
June 30, 1946. This estimate does not take into account 
persons there temporarily, that is, non-immigrants, border 
crossers and imported labourers. 

Naturalizations. During the year ended June 30, 1950, 
66,346 petitions for naturalization were granted to non- 
citizens and during 1950 2,276 petitions were denied. 

In addition to those persons whose U.S. citizenship was 
revoked, 5,792 persons expatriated themselves by affirmative 
action: 1,693 by voting in foreign political elections; 1,096 
through naturalization in a foreign state; 1,424 by taking up 
residence in a foreign state; 721 by serving in foreign armed 
forces; 109 by leaving the U.S. to avoid military service and 
for other reasons. 

NoN-Cm/nNs NATURALIZED IN IHK U.S., 1947-50 

(Years ended June 30) 
Former nationality 
British 
Canadian 
German 
Italian 
Polish 
Russian 
Filipino 
Other 
Total 

* Included with British. 

New Legislation. On April 20, 1950, S.3455 an orinibus 
bill having as its objective the complete revision of immigra- 
tion and nationality laws was introduced in the Senate. 
One of the more important legislative enactments of the 
year affecting the work of the immigration and naturalization 
service was public law No. 555, approved June 16, 1950, 
which amended the Displaced Persons act of 1948. Under 
the amending act the number of refugees and displaced persons 
who might be admitted to the U.S. was increased to 415,744. 
Additional safeguards were provided against the entry of 
those whose admission to the U.S. would be against the 
national interest. The Department of State was given author- 
ity to determine eligibility for certain groups outside Germany 
and Austria. The date for issuance of visas under the Dis- 
placed Persons act generally was extended to June 30, 1951, 
although in some instances (such as applicants who were 
orphans or had been expelled from Germany), visas might be 
issued until June 30, 1952. 

Public law 587, approved June 30, made 250 special quota 
immigration visas available to certain alien sheep-herders 
for a period of one year. (See also IMMIGRATION AND EMI- 
GRATION.) (A. R. MACK.) 

ALIMENTARY SYSTEM. Oesophagus. The import- 
ance of the psychomatic factor in irritable colon, cardio- 
spasm, pylorospasm, anorexia nervosa and possibly peptic 
ulcer and chronic ulcerative colitis was generally conceded. 
Stewart Wolf, T. P. Almy and Catherine R. Lee reported 
experimental observations on cardiospasm in 14 human 
subjects. Their studies indicated that the dilated, elongated 
and obstructed oesophagus of cardiospasm may be the end- 
stage of a process which in early stages is reversible and 
never entirely static. In all patients episodes of sympto- 
matic exacerbation and remission could be correlated with 
variations in life-situation, feeling-state and attitude. 

Stomach and Duodenum. Works on peptic ulcer continued 
to dominate gastro-enterotogic literature in 1950. Interest 
was displayed in aetiology in differentiating small ulcerating 
gastric carcinoma from benign gastric ulcer and also in 
more effective methods of medical treatment. A. C. Ivy, 
M. I. Grossman and W. H. Bachrach revealed the multi- 
plicity and interdependence of factors in the production of 
experimental ulcer in the rabbit and dog and the super- 



imposition of one factor on another and looked forward to 
the day when mutilating operations for ulcer would be 
unnecessary (Peptic Ulcer, pp. 766, 1088, Philadelphia, 1950). 
The parasympatholytic chemical agent, banthine, was found 
to be usually effective in the treatment of uncomplicated 
ulcer, especially if the drug was well tolerated. The results 
of vagotomy after a five-year follow-up of thousands of 
cases were almost identical with those of gastro-enterostomy. 

Prolonged and excessive intake of milk (containing large 
amounts of calcium and phosphorus) and alkali in the treat- 
ment of peptic ulcer may cause damage to the kidneys, 
tendency to fixation in urinary calcium secretion, excessive 
calcium in the blood, tendency to supersaturation with 
calcium phosphate and deposition of calcium salts in body 
tissues, according to the observations of C. H. Burnett, 
R. R. Commons, Fuller Albright and J. E. Howard. Clinical 
improvement followed intake low in milk and alkali. 

To ascertain whether gastric juice is hypersecreted before 
the development of ulcer and of duodenal ulcer in particular, 
R. Doll, F. A. Jones and N. F. Maclagan undertook a 
follow-up study on 100 normal medical students who had 
been subjected to histaminc test meals 15 years earlier. 
Subsequent medical histories were obtained in 85 of the 
original group. The results indicated that hypersecretion is a 
cause rather than an effect of ulcer. 

R. C. Batterman and I. Ehrenfeld concluded after investi- 
gation that tobacco-smoking is detrimental to the peptic 
ulcer patient: of 108 patients observed 39 were non-smokers 
and 26 discontinued smoking on first seeking treatment. 

Hepatohiliary and Pancreatic Systems. Experiences in 
differential diagnosis of jaundice by needle biopsy of the 
liver were reported by F. G, Weisbrod, L. Schiff, E. A. Gall, 
F. P. Cleveland and J. R. Berman (Gastroenterology, 14: 
56-72, Jan. 1950). From 157 patients with jaundice 181 
adequate liver biopsies were obtained. Diagnosis based on 
biopsy was shown to be more reliable than that based on the 
combined results of certain tests of liver function, namely 
cephalin flocculation, thymol turbidity and serum alkaline 
phosphatase determinations in the various forms of jaundice 
studied. Errors in differentiating virus hepatitis from 
obstructive jaundice on the basis of needle biopsy under 
certain circumstances were pointed out. 

The detection of chronic pancreatitis in its earlier stages 
had been exceedingly difficult, and an advance in diagnosis 
apparently depended on results of tests of pancreatic function. 
Norms were established for total secretory volume, con- 
centration of bicarbonate and total bicarbonate and amylase 
responses to a standard commercially available preparation 
of secretin. A study of the data by D. A. Dreiling and 
Franklin Hollander yielded evidence making necessary the 
use of an 80-min. collection period and the inclusion of 
enzyme determinations in the clinical application of the 
procedure. Body-weight adjustment of the values for total 
volume of secretion and total quantity of amylase resulted in a 
marked decrease in a scatter of the data and therefore a 
narrowing of the range of normalcy; volume and enzyme 
data should therefore be reduced to a per kilogram 
basis. 

Intestines. Sulphonamides reduce the carrier rate following 
the acute phase of bacillary dysentery, but reports were 
contradictory as to their efficacy in other respects during this 
phase. Streptomycin is uniformly effective in relieving the 
symptoms of tuberculous enteritis. H. H. Anderson and 
his associates found the thioarsenates highly effective and 
superior to all other arsenical amoebacides. Aureomycin 
in the treatment of refractory amoebiasis was followed by 
encouraging results. The potency of chloroquine in the 
treatment of hepatic amoebiasis was amply confirmed. 

(G. B. EN.) 



AMBASSADORS AND ENVOYS 



3< 



AMBASSADORS AND 

Britain, Dec. 31, 1950. 

To Great Britain 

*Shah Wali Khan 

*Carlos Alberto Hogan . 

Lothar Wimmer .... 

*Vicomte Obert dc Thieusics . 

* Napoleon Solares Arias 

*J. J. Moniz de Aragao 

Naiden K. Nikolov 

*Manuel Bianchi .... 



* Rafael Sanchez Amaya . 
tGmllermo Padilla Castro . 
*Roberto Gonzalez de Mendoza y de la Torre , 

*Rudolf Bystricky 

'Count Eduard Reventlow . 

Julio Vega Batlle 

*Gonzalo Zaldumbide 

*Abd-el-Fattah Amr Pasha . 

Ato Abbebe Retta 

Eero Aarne Wuori 

"Rene Massigli 

^{Hans Schlangc-Schocningen. 

*Leon Victor Melas 

Francisco Linares Aranda . 

Frederic Duvigneaud 

Tiburcio Carius 

Elek BolgAr 

Stefan Thorvardsson 

*Subandrio 

*Emir Zeid ibn al-Hussein . 

'Frederick H. Boland 

Eliahu Elath 

*Tommaso Gallarati-Scotti . 

Emir Abdul-Majid Haidar . 

Tchi Chang Yun 

Victor Khouri 

Baron Robert Aernout de Lynden . 

Andre Clasen 

*Fedcrico Jimenez O'Farrill . 
*Shanker Shumshere Jung Bahadur Rana 
*Jonkhecr E. Michiels van Verduynen 



ENVOYS. The following is a list of ambassadors and envoys to and from Grea 



*Per Preben Prebensen . 
Bernardino Gonzalez Ruiz 
Augusto Saldivar . 
*AH Soheily 

*Ricardo Rivera Schreiber 
Jose E. Romero . 
*Jerzy Michalowski 
*Ruy Enncs Ulrich 
Nicolac Cioroiu . 
J. Arturo Castcllanos . 
*Sheikh Hafiz Wahba . 
jDuke of San Lucar la Mayor 
*Bo Gunnar R. Hagglof 
Henry de Torrent^ 
Edmond Homsy . 
*Phra Bahiddha Nukara 
*Cevat Acikalin . 
*Ghcorghy N. Zarubin . 
Walter Sherman Gifford 
*Enrique E. Buero 
||Archbishop William Godfrey 
"Carlos Sosa-Rodriquez 
Tran Van Don (designate) 

*Joze Brilej .... 



Country 
Afghanistan . 

Argentina 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Bulgaria ..... 
Burma ..... 

Chile 

China 

Colombia 

Costa Rica .... 

Cuba 

Czechoslovakia .... 
Denmark ..... 
Dominican Republic . 
Ecuador 

Egypt 

Ethiopia ..... 

Finland 

France 

Germany 

Greece 

Guatemala 

Haiti 

Honduras 

Hungary 

Iceland 

Indonesia ..... 

Iraq 

Ireland, Republic of 

Israel 

Italy 

Japan ..... 

Jordan 

Korea 

Lebanon ..... 

Liberia 

Luxembourg .... 

Mexico 

Nepal . . . . t . 
Netherlands . . . 
Nicaragua ..... 

Norway 

Panama * 

Paraguay ..... 
Persia (Iran) .... 

Peru 

Philippines ..... 

Poland 

Portugal 

Rumania ..... 
Salvador, El .... 
Saudi Arabia .... 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland .... 
Syria ..... 

Thailand (Siam) .... 

Turkey 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
United States of America 
Uruguay ..... 

Vatican 

Venezuela "..... 
Vietnam 

Yugoslavia .... 

United Nations .... 



From Great Britain 
*Sir Alfred John Gardiner 
*Sir John Balfour 
J Sir Harold Anthony Caccia 
*Sir John Helier Le Rougetel 
"John Garnett Lomax 
*Sir Ncvile Montagu Butler 
Paul Mason 

* Richard Langford Speight 
*Sir Cecil Bertrand Jerram 
|John Colville Hutchison 
Gilbert MacKereth 
Bernard Ponsonby Sullivan 
*Adrian Holman 
*Philip Mainwaring Broadmead 
*Sir Alec Randall 
Stanley Herbert Gudgeon 
*John Eric Maclean Carvcll 
*Sir Ralph Clarmont Skrine Stevenson 
Daniel William Lascelles 
Oswald Arthur Scott 
*Sir Oliver Charles Harvey 
ffSir Ivone Augustine Kirkpatrick 
*Sir Clifford Norton 
Wilfred Hansford Gallienne 
David Jarvis Mill Irving 
Gerald Ernest Stockley 
Geoffrey Wallingcr 
John Dee Green way 
*Derwent William Kermode 
*Sir Henry Mack 
*Sir Gilbert Laithwaite 
Sir Alexander Knox Helm 
*Sir Victor Mallet 
Sir Alvary Gascoignc 
Sir Alec Kirkbride 
Vyvyan Holt (taken prisoner by North 

Koreans, July 1950) 
Sir William Evelyn Houston-Boswall 
John Gilroy Baillie 
Geoffrey Allchin 
"John William Taylor 
*Sir George Falconer 
*Sir Philip Nichols 
Nigel Oliver Willoughby Steward 

* Michael Robert Wright 
Eric Arthur Cleugh 

Ian Henderson 

*Sir Francis Michie Shepherd 

*Sir James Leishman Dodds 

Linton Harry Foulds 

*Sir Charles Harold Batcman 

*Sir Nigel Ronald 

Walter St. Clair Howland Roberts 

Ralph Henry Tottenham-Smith 

*Alan Charle$ Trott 

t Douglas Frederick Howard 

*Sir Harold Lister Farquhar 

Patrick Stratford Scrivener 

William Horace Montagu-Pollock 

*Sir Geoffrey Thompson 

*Sir Noel Charles 

*Sir David Kelly 

*Sir Oliver Franks 

* Douglas Frederick Howard 
Sir J. V. T. W. T. Pcrowne 
*Sir John Hall Magowan 

Frank Stannard Gibbs (also accredited to 

Cambodia and Laos) 
*Sir Charles Peake 
**Sir Hubert Miles Gladwyn Jebb 



* Ambassador Unstarred, Minister. t Charg6 d'Aflaires. t Also United Kingdom High Commissioner in Austria. 5 Political Representative. 

H Apostolic Delegate. H Consul General. * Permanent U.K. representative to the United Nations. tt High Commissioner to West German federal 

government. i 



40 



AMERICAN LITERATURE 




Sir Ralph Stevenson (centre), British ambassador to Egypt, seen 
after presenting his credentials to King Farouk, June 1950. 

The following is a list of high commissioners within the 
Commonwealth of Nations, Dec. 31, 1950. 

From Australia to 
Canada .... 
Ceylon .... 
Great Britain 

India 

New Zealand 

Pakistan .... 

South Africa 

From Canada to 

Australia . . . , 

Great Britain 

India 

New Zealand 

Pakistan .... 

South Africa 

From Ceylon to 

Australia .... 

Great Britain 

India 

Pakistan .... 
From Great Britain to 
Australia .... 
Canada .... 
Ceylon .... 

India 

New Zealand 

Pakistan .... 

South Africa. 

Southern Rhodesia 



Francis Michael Forde 
Charles William Frost 
*Eric John Harrison 
Herbert Roy Gollan 
Arthur Roden Cutler 
John Egfton Oldham 
(vacant) 

Uo-Richer LaFteche 
L. Dana Andrews 
Warwick Fielding Chipman 
Alfred Rive 
David Moflfat Johnson 
T. W. L. MacDermot 

J. Aubrey Mairtensz 
Sir Oliver Goonctilleke 
C. Coomaraswamy 
T. B. Jayah 



Edward John Willhms 

Sir Alexander Clutterbuck 

Sir Walter Crossfield Hankinson 

Sir ArchiSald Nye 

Sir Charles Roy Price 

Sir Laurence Graflftey-Smith 

Sir Evelyn Baring 

Ian M. R. MacLennan 




From India to 

Australia . 

Canada .... 

Ceylon . 

Great Britain 

Pakistan . 

From New Zealand to 

Australia . . . 

Canada .... 

Great Britain 

From Pakistan to 

Australia . . . . 

Canada . 

Great Britain 

India 

From South Africa to 
Australia .... 
Canada .... 
Great Britain 
Southern Rhodesia 
From Southern Rhodesia to 
Great Britain 
South Africa 

* Resident Minister in London. 



Prince M. S. Duleepsinhji 

(vacant) 

(vacant) 

V. K. Krishna Menon 

(vacant) 

G. E. L. Alderton 

Thomas Charles Atkinson Hislop 

William Joseph Jordan 

Yusaf A. Haroon 
Mohammad Ali 
Habib Ibrahim Rahimtoola 
Mohammad Ismail 

Philippus Rudolph Viljoen 
Alfred Adrian Roberts 
Albertus Lourens Geyer 
Terence Henry Eustace 

Kenneth M. Goodcnough 
Anthony Drinkwater Chataway 
(designate) 



The state landau carrying the Indonesian ambassador, Subandrio, 

from his embassy to present his letters of credence to the King, 

March 23 t 1950. This was the first time an ambassador had been 

driven in a landau since before World War II. 



AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOUR: 

see TRADE UNIONS. 

AMERICAN LITERATURE. The confusion and 
uncertainty in the United States in 1950 shaped the writing 
of the year. It was also a year of looking backward: there 
were a remarkable number of books devoted to scholarship 
in American history and novels which re-created historic 
figures or eras. 

The reading public, however, responded to the new tensions 
by turning in great numbers to three controversial books. 
Gayelord Hauser's Look Younger, Live Longer promised peace 
of soul through yeast, yoghurt and hormones. L. R. Hubbard 
propounded a new science of mental health through special 
techniques of self-psychoanalysis in his Dianetics. Immanuel 
Velikovsky's Worlds In Collision, an explanation of ancient 
historic events in terms of two series of cosmic catastrophes, 
roused such a storm over its veracity and sincerity that its 
original publishers handed over the rights to another pub- 
lishing house. 

At the outbreak of war in Korea, many books on Asiatic 
politics and history appeared. Among them were George 
McCune's Korea Today and Owen Lattimore's Pivot of Asia, 
a study of the frontiers of China and Russia. Two other 
books on Asia were Foster Bowman Hailey's Half of One 
World and Bruno Lasker's Human Bondage in Southeast Asia. 

The stream of books about World War II continued. 
They included Frank Howley's Berlin Command and Lucius 
Clay's Decision in Germany. Mark Clark told the inside story 
of the Italian campaign in Calculated Risk, Robert L. Eichel- 
berger that of the ground war in the Pacific in Our Jungle Road 
to Tokyo. Admiral William D. Leahy, in / Was There, 
reported on his personal observations at the Cairo, Tehran, 
Yalta and Potsdam meetings. 

A flood of books documented the country's confusion with 
regard to loyalty* security and freedom of speech. Walter 
Gellhorn's Security, Loyalty, and Science analysed the dangers 
to scientific workers of the screening process. Carey 
McWilliams, in Witch Hunt, related the present purges to 
similar episodes in history. Nathaniel Weyl wrote Treason, a 
survey of disloyalty and betrayal in American history up to 
the Hiss case. Two books dealt with the Hiss trial: Ralph 
de Toledano and Victor Lasky, in Seeds of Treason, defended 
the proposition that Hiss had betrayed his country; Alistair 
Cooke, a British reporter who covered the trial, wrote A 
Generation on Trial as an objective study of the facts and issues. 
Haywood Patterson's Scottsboro Boy told the story of an 
earlier trial and prison terrors. 



ANAEMIA 



41 



Two collections of Roosevelt documents appeared: 
F.D.R.: His Personal Letters, 1929-1945, edited by Elliott 
Roosevelt, and The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. 
Roosevelt, compiled by Samuel I. Roseman. John Gunther's 
popular Roosevelt in Retrospect attempted an appraisal of 
the president. 

Five volumes appeared in the series Chronicles of America, 
edited by Allan Nevins: The Era of Franklin D. Roosevelt, by 
Denis William Brogan; From Versailles to the New Deaf, by 
Harold Underwood Faulkner; The New Deal and World 
Affairs (1933-1945), by Allan Nevins; The United States in a 
Chaotic World (1918-1933), by Allan Nevins; and War for 
the World, by Fletcher Pratt. 

Other historical works for the general reader included: 
Carl Van Doren's Jane Mecom, a biography of Benjamin 
Franklin's sister; Catherine Drinker Bowen's John Adams and 
the American Revolution; Irving Brant's James Madison, 
Father of the Constitution, 1787-1800, the third volume of a 
series, and Margaret L. Coil's John C. Calhoun, American 
Portrait, excellent for its picture of the times. 

A large group of books appeared on psychoanalysis. 
Erich Fromm's Psychoanalysis and Religion advanced the 
belief that both can work together for the saving of man's 
soul. Karen Horney's Neurosis and Human Growth presented 
her positive approach to psychoanalytic therapy. There were 
also Psychosomatic Medicine by Franz Alexander and 
Psychoanalysis: Evolution and Development by Clara Thomp- 
son and Patrick Mullahy. 

Fiction. Although some good new novels appeared in 1950, 
there were no striking developments in fiction and the quality 
of lesser novels was undistinguished. Ernest Hemingway's 
Across the River and Into the Trees, the story of an ageing 
colonel, his loves, memories, opinions and manner of dying, 
was immoderately praised and damned; the condemnation 
arose not so much from the book itself as from the critics' 
conception of Hemingway's personality and prejudices. Many 
other novels portrayed characters involved in special settings 
or with special problems, the most distinguished being John 
Hersey's The Wall, about the Warsaw ghetto under Nazi 
persecution. James Aldridge, in The Diplomat, wrote the 
story of the political awakening of a young man attached to a 
distinguished empire-building British diplomat. William L. 
Shirer, turning for the first time to fiction, used his knowledge 
of Germany in The Traitor, a character study of a renegade. 
Ned Calmer 's The Strange Land was one of the few novels 
directly using the war. Henry Morton Robinson's The 
Cardinal, a best-seller, the story of a Catholic priest, showed 
the workings of the church. Arthur Gordon's Reprisal was a 
story of a Georgia lynching. Michael Amrine, in Secret, 
portrayed a physicist with a conscience about the atom bomb. 
Two writers who chose a background of South American 
politics, plots and revolutions were Robert Pick with his 
Guests of Don Lorenzo and Gore Vidal with his Dark Green, 
Bright Red. Upton Sinclair wrote Another Pamela; or Virtue 
Still Rewarded, a review of contemporary social history. 
Budd Schulberg's The Disenchanted ranked among the top 
books of the year. Based partly on the life of F. Scott Fitz- 
gerald, it was a solid, mature treatment of a man's struggle 
with and for success. 

The number of historical romances was slightly smaller 
than usual this year. Thomas B. Costain's Son of a Hundred 
Kings, a novel of the 1890s in Canada, was a best-seller. 
Samuel Shellabarger used a 16th-century French setting for 
The King's Cavalier. Nancy Hale's The Sign of Jonah was 
one of the better panoramic historical novels. 

The psychiatric novel and the novel of character, still 
important, were exemplified in Brendan Gill's The Trouble of 
One House, Nancy Wilson Ross's /, My Ancestor, Susan 
Yorke's The Widow and Laura Z. Hobson's The Other Father. 



The playwright Tennessee Williams ventured into the field 
of fiction with The Roman Spring of Mrs. Stone. Erskine 
Caldwell published Episode in Palmetto. 

Short stories gave a much richer relative yield than novels. 
The Collected Stories of William Faulkner (q.v.) headed the 
list. Faulkner's long-held position as an eminent American 
writer was confirmed by the award to him of the 1949 Nobel 
prize for literature. The stories in Paul Bowies' The Delicate 
Prey were of violence and death in an African setting. Mary 
McCarthy collected her sharply satirical pieces in Cast a 
Cold Eye. Walter Van Tilburg Clark's Western stories, The 
Watchful God and Other Stones, were too often marred by 
heavy symbolism. Irwin Shaw's Mixed Company was a 
group of neatly told stories often concerned with the impact 
of World War 11. The stories in William Carlos Williams 
Make Light of It were sketches of character. Other volumes 
of stories were James T. Farrell's occasionally sharp group 
on An American Dream Girl, Charles Jackson's The Sunnier 
Side and Jesse Stuart's Kentucky stories, Clearing in the Sky. 

Belles Lcttres. Perhaps the most original contribution of 
the year was Henry Nash Smith's Virgin IMHC!, a study of the 
West as myth and symbol in American history and literature. 
Henry Steele Commager in The American Mind (1880-1950) 
contributed on the whole the best survey of American thought 
since the classic work of Parrington. Lionel Trilling, in 
The Liberal imagination, collected his influential essays on 
literature and society. 

Of the studies of classical figures, several were about Herman 
Melville. Most important was Newton Arvin's addition to 
the American Men of Letters Series, Herman Melville, the best 
critical survey of his work. Another was M. O. Perceval's 
A Reading of Moby Dick. Another title in the distinguished 
new American Men of Letters was John Bcrryman's Stephen 
Crane. Two books on Mark Twain appeared: Kenneth R. 
Andrews' Nook Farm: Mark Twain" s Hartford Circle and 
Gladys C. Bellamy's Mark Twain as a Literary Artist. Other 
biographies were Lloyd Morris' William James and Louise 
Hall Tharp's highly readable The Peabody Sisters of Salem. 

Some of the critical works on contemporary Writers were 
William Carlos Williams by Vivienne Koch, The Shaping 
Spirit: A Sntdy of Wallace Stevens by William Van O'Connor 
and The An ofT. S. Eliot by Helen Gardner. Edgar Kemler's 
sympathetic biography, The Irreverent Mr. Mencken, reviewed 
the era as well as me subject. 

A volume of great historical value and of interest in view 
of the controversy about the 1949 Bollingen prize was The 
Letters of Ezra Pound 1907-1941, edited by D. D. Paige. 
Kenneth Burke, the most philosophical of the new critics, 
wrote A Rhetoric of Motives; and Edmund Wilson collected 
in Classics and Commercials his often brilliant critical essays. 

Poetry. The year 1950 saw the deaths of several disting- 
uished literary figures: F. O. Mathiessen; John Gould 
Fletcher; William Rose Benet; Carl Van Doren; Edna St. 
Vincent Millay; and Edgar Lee Masters (for the last two 
see OBITUARIES). 

Mathiessen's new edition of the Oxford Book of American 
Verse appeared, in general an excellent selection. Carl 
Sandburg, with the publication of Complete Poems, announced 
the end of his career as a poet. Conrad Aiken revised his 
44 symphonic poems " and published them in The Divine 
Pilgrim. William Carlos Williams gathered together The 
Collected Later Poems. Wallace Stevens wrote The Auroras 
of Autumn and received the Bollingen Award. E. E. Cummings 
wrote XA1PE, 71 new poems, and also won the Academy 
of American Poets' fellowship. (See also LITERARY PRIZES.) 

(H. M. H.) 

ANAEMIA. The treatment of special anaemias due to 
changes in red blood cells received much attention during 



42 



ANAESTHESIOLOGY ANDORRA 



1950 and the effectiveness of vitamin B 12 was the subject of 
many reports. One microgram a day of vitamin B 12 to patients 
with pernicious anaemia was confirmed as valuable. Vitamin 
B 12b was also useful. These substances were of especial 
value in patients sensitive to liver extract, and in those with 
neurological involvement. The medication was most effective 
when given by injection, but oral administration could be 
enhanced by potentiators such as stomach or duodenal 
mucosa, folic acid or gastric juice from normal people. The 
blood-producing effect of gastric juice concentrate or beef 
muscle extract was found to be proportional to their vitamin 
B 12 content. Folic acid and vitamin B 12 were found to be 
synthesized in relatively large amounts in the large intestine, 
even in patients with pernicious anaemia. The vitamin was 
not effective in the treatment of large cell anaemia of 
pregnancy in ordinary doses although folic acid or large 
doses of vitamin B 12 caused an adequate improvement. 
There appeared to be a relation between folic acid, folinic 
acid and the Lcuconostoc citrovorum factor, and the possibility 
was suggested that folic acid, liver extract and vitamin B 12 
were essential to the formation of nucleic acid and nucleo- 
protein through a chemical chain reaction. 

Monkeys deficient in folic acid failed to become anaemic 
when they were supplied with sufficient quantities of ascorbic 
acid, but folic acid deficiency anaemia responded only to folic 
acid. This substance while producing an improvement in the 
blood in pernicious anaemia did not check or prevent the 
neurological symptoms. Vitamin B 12 , however, was effective 
in reversing these complications. Folic acM was not harmful 
to the central nervous system when used in the treatment of 
other types of anaemia. 

Patients with pernicious anaemia had a special predis- 
position to cancer of the stomach, the rate being three times 
that expected of a corresponding age group and more than 
six times as frequent as in a group showing achlorhydria or 
hypochlorhydria. 

A heat-labile haemolytic factor, resembling serum coagula- 
tion accelerator, was present in the plasma of patients with 
paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria as an inert precursor 
which could be activated by thrombin. The haemolysis was 
inhibited by dicumarol. 

The relationship of sensitization of Rh-negative women 
received much attention. Besides tfye development of 
erythroblastotic infants who were Rh-positive in mothers 
sensitized from the infant, examples of the development of 
antibodies were described after blood transfusion and 
subcutaneous hacmotherapy. The occurrence of erythroblas- 
tosis in one of a set of twins was reported. 

Erythroblastosis foctalis was treated by replacement trans- 
fusions, counter-sensitization with bacterial vaccines and with 
hapten (extract of Rh-positive red blood cells). While results 
were sometimes encouraging in individual patients, the 
effects were, as a whole, poor. Erythroblastosis was pre- 
vented in some patients by the treatment of the mother with 
vitamin K. and a nhydro-hydroxy -progesterone. Good results 
were noted in one series of cases after the transfusion of 50 to 
60 c.c. of scdimented red blood cells. The results of treatment 
with exchange transfusions varied; some workers reported 
cures whereas others had a high death rate. 

The concentration of anti-A and anti-B substances in the 
blood of group O (universal) donors was reduced to safe 
levels for use in treating anaemia by the addition of substances 
isolated from animal stomach linings. Otherwise severe 
haemolytic anaemia developed in some patients. Some 
reactions were prevented by the use of washed red blood 
cells instead of whole blood. At high altitude during an 
aeroplane trip sudden enlargement of the spleen, with heart 
complications, was noted in a patient with sicklaemia. 
Anaemia was noted in 14 % of the people in middle Tennessee. 



BIBLIOORAHPY. C. C. Unglcy, ** Use of Vitamin B lf Therapy in 
Pernicious Anaemia,'* Brit. Med. /., 2, 1370, Dec. 17, 1949; W. H. 
Crosby and W. Dameshek, " Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria. 
The Mechanism of Hemolysis and Its Relation to the Coagulation 
Mechanism," Blood, J. of Hematology, 5, 822 (Sept. 1950); E. B. Brown, 
C. V. Moore, C. Reynafarje and D, E. Smith, " Intravenously Admini- 
strated Saccharated Iron Oxide in the Treatment of Hypochromic 
Anaemia. Therapeutic Results, Potential Dangers and Indications/' 
/. Am. Med. A., 144, 1084, Nov. 25, 1950; B. H. Sullivan, " Danger 
of Airplane Flight to Persons with Sicklemia," Ann. Int. Med., 32, 338, 
Feb. 1950. (R. I S .) 

ANAESTHESIOLOGY. During 1950 it became 
apparent that certain specially prepared synthetic salts, such 
as methyl iodide and methyl chloride of curare, had no 
apparent advantages over the standard </-tubocurarine that 
had become almost a standard agent in a solution of 3 mg. 
per c.c. Curare possessed an advantage over decamethonium 
bromide, or C-10, with the trade name of Syncurine, in that 
an antidote for curare was available, whereas there was 
none for Syncurine. Previously, prostigmine had been fairly 
effective as an antidote for curare, but by the middle of 1950 
an agent, an analogue of prostigmine (HofTmann-LaRoche, 
Inc.) was found to be very effective in increasing the volume 
of respiration when undesired depression had developed 
from the use of curare. In the field of shock therapy dextran, 
gelatin and periston showed themselves to be valuable. 

The so-called pain clinics in the U.S increased in number; 
each clinic showed an increase during the year in the number 
of patients treated. Refinement in technique was achieved, 
so that the use of roentgenograms which showed that the 
needles had been properly placed had become almost essential 
in most instances of nerve block. Measurements of skin 
temperature and skin resistance to electric current proved to 
be very informative as to the effectiveness of blocks that were 
done and of subsequent operations in which nerves had been 
sectioned. 

Albert Faulconer, Jr., invented a device which enabled 
the intermittent intravenous administration of solution of 
pentothal sodium solution to be automatically controlled 
by measuring the minute volume of respiration. The meter 
of the device became useful in the measurement of respiratory 
depression caused by curare and the effect of the various 
antidotes used to abate such depression. It was found to be 
useful in the post-anaesthesia observation room in helping 
to estimate the patient's condition as anaesthesia became 
light or disappeared. (See also SURGERY; ELECTRONICS.) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Curt P. Richter," Instructions for Using the Cutaneous 
Resistance Recorder, or * Dermomcter ' on Peripheral Nerve Injuries, 
Sympathectomies and Paravertebral Blocks," J. Neurosurg., 3, 181-191, 
Springfield, Illinois, May 1946; Raymond F. Courtin, Reginald 
G. Bickford and Albert Faulconer, Jr., " Electro-encephalography 
During Surgical Anesthesia A New Aid for the Control of 
Anesthesia," J.A.M.A., 139, 1195, Chicago, April 23, 1949; Reginald 
G. Bickford, Albert Faulconer, Jr., Donald E. Soltero and Charles 
W, Mayo, ** Automatic Encephalographic Control of Anesthesia," ibid, 
143, 285, Chicago, May 20, 1950; John S. Lundy, Howard K. Gray and 
Winchell McK. Craig, " Dextran in Supportive Therapy, with Comments 
on Periston and Gelatin," Arch. Surg., 61, 55-61, Chicago, July 1950. 

(J. S. L.) 

ANDORRA. A' small autonomous principality between 
France and Spain, bounded on the N. by the dtpartements 
of Ari&ge and Pyrenees Orientates, and on the S. by the 
Spanish province of Lerida. Area: 191 sq. mi. Pop. (1950 
est.): 5,400. Language: Catalan. Religion: Roman Catholic. 
Capital: Andorra-la- Vieja (pop., 1950 est, 980). Co-princes: 
the president of the French republic and the bishop of Urgel, 
Spam, respectively represented in 1950 by Andr6 Bertrand 
and Jaime Sansa Nequi, their viguiers. An elected General 
Council of 24 members appoints one of its members as the 
syndic gtniral des valltes (from 1946, Franciscp Cayrat). 

The event of the year was the reduction from 100 to 60 



ANGLICAN COMMUNION 



43 



of the French gardes mobiles which were stationed from 
autumn 1944 on Andorran territory for the purpose of 
maintaining order. 

On Feb. 2 the Paris Tribunal des Conflits declared null 
and void the order of a Paris court given on March 8, 1949, 
to the Radiodiffusion Francaise to cease jamming the broad- 
casts of Radio Andorra. However, the Andorran broadcasts 
were not jammed during the year. 

ANGLICAN COMMUNION. The Church of South 
India was the leading topic of discussion and negotiation 
within the Anglican communion in 1950. In January the 
Church of India, Burma and Ceylon urged that the doctrinal 
position of the Church of South India should be clarified in 
accordance with the resolutions of the Lambeth conference 
(1948). In the meantime former Anglican clergy now belong- 
ing to the Church of South India might function only in 
Anglican churches when visiting North India. Lay people 
from South India were to receive communion in North 
India, with the permission of the bishop, only if their con- 
firmation had been adequate; other communicants of the 
Church of South India might receive communion on the 
principle of " economy." 

The report of the joint committee of the convocations of 
Canterbury and York on relations with the Church of South 
India was issued. Though fully satisfied with the credal 
orthodoxy of the Church of South India and with its 
sacraments, confirmation service and synodal procedure, 
it expressed the hope that all its ministers would have 
been episcopally ordained at the end of 30 years: till 
this had been accomplished full inter-communion could 
not take place, but the question of the recognition of 
the South Indian ministry was to be reconsidered in live 
years' time. Suggestions were made for the reception 
of bishops, clergy and laity of the Church of South India 
when in England and of members of the Church of England 
when in South India. Celebration of the Holy Communion 
by bishops of the Church of South India, when in England, 
was left to the discretion of the diocesan bishops. 

The Church of South India published an interim reply to 
the six questions raised by the Lambeth conference (1948) 
and a reply to questions on faith and order raised by the 
joint committee of the convocations of Canterbury and York. 
The Church of India, Burma and Ceylon agreed to appoint 
a bishop as commissary of the metropolitan for the Anglicans 
in Nandyal who were standing out of the Church of South 
India. 

The endowment funds of the bishoprics of Tinnevelly and 
Dornakal, supplied by the S.P.C.K. and S.P.G., were returned 
to those societies, under the judgment of Mr. Justice Vaisey 
(Dec. 1949); and a scheme was arranged whereby similar 
funds, supplied by the Colonial Bishoprics fund, were made 
available for bishoprics in North India. Bishop Aurobindo 
Nath Mukerji of Delhi was elected metropolitan of India 
and bishop of Calcutta in succession to the Right Rev. G. C. 
Hubback who had retired. Canon John Richardson was 
consecrated first bishop of the Nicobar Islands. 

The South African Church continued its opposition to 
the colour bar in South Africa, not only in church circles 
but as a principle to be observed generally by the British 
community in South Africa. Bishop Stephen Neill conducted 
a three months' tour of the churches in Africa. A 
conference of East African bishops proposed a new 
province for Central Africa consisting of the dioceses of 
Nyasaland, Northern Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia. 
The Rev. J. A. A. Maund, rector of Pretoria, was consecrated 
bishop of the new see of Basutoland. 

Early in the year the bishop of Chichester, the Right Rev. 
G. K. A. Bell, toured Australia, New Zealand and India on 




Dr. Geoffrey Fisher \ Archbishop of Canterbury, seen in Bixhopscourt, 

Ballarat, Victoria, during his visit to Australia in 1950. 
behalf of the World Council of Churches. A church at 
Matakohe, North Auckland, built by the New Zealand 
government, was dedicated in memory of J. G. Coates 
(prime minister, 1925-28). The archbishop of Canterbury 
(q.v.) (Dr. Geoffrey Fisher) at the end of the year toured 
Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand. Two centenaries 
were celebrated during this visit: that of the Australian Board 
of, Missions and that of the foundation of the Anglican 
Church at Canterbury, New Zealand. The diocese of Carpen- 
taria, Australia, celebrated its 50th anniversary. The erection 
of a new cathedral at Suva, Fiji, was begun. Bishop Yashira 
of Kobe toured the Anglican churches in the United States, 
Canada, Manila, the Philippines and Australia and testified 
to the cordial welcome given to him by people who had 
suffered at the hands of the Japanese in World War II. 

The bishop of Fulham, the Right Rev. G. E. Ingle, began 
a series of tours of the Anglican churches in northern and 
central Europe. In July he was in Moscow. He held a 
conference of European chaplains at Amsterdam attended 
by the bishop of London, the Right Rev. J. W. C. Wand. 
The archbishop of Wales, the Most Rev. John Morgan, 
was requested by the governing body of the Church in Wales 
to set up a commission for the reform of the Welsh 
prayer book. It was decided to use a sum of 30,000, 
bequeathed in order that a tower might be added to the 
cathedral at Bangor, for other purposes connected with the 
cathedral. The synod of the Church of Ireland inaugurated 
negotiations for inter-communion with the Old Catholic 
Church of the Netherlands. (See also CHURCH OF ENGLAND; 
MISSIONS, FOREIGN RELIGIOUS; THEOLOGY; WORLD COUNCIL 
OF CHURCHES,) (A. J. MAC.) 



44 



ANGLING ANTARCTICA 



ANGLING. Rough weather during much of the year 
handicapped sea anglers, tunny catches being especially 
affected; but although the total was well below that of 1949 
one angler opened the season remarkably well by getting 
five tunny in two trips, averaging over 600 Ib. apiece. In 
August a record brill of 16 Ib. was caught at St. Johns, 
Isle of Man. Among the coast-town festivals Looe was 
again prominent, notable captures there including skate of 
103 Ib., bass of 13 Ib. and pollack of 14 Ib., besides a number 
of blue sharks (of which two anglers took 1 1 in one day). 
The Dover club's annual camping week on the breakwater, 
with all-night fishing, produced a total of 754 fish weighing 
579 Ib., including several good bass. At Bournemouth two 
trigger-fish were caught rare visitors to British waters. 

Two new fresh-water records during the year were a 
grayling of 7 Ib. 2 oz. (R. Melgum) and a tench of 8 Ib. 
caught in the Leicester canal. The annual all-England con- 
test, fished at Peterborough in September, produced good 
weights, the local association winning with 62^ Ib. 

A proposal to introduce a large Indian species to British 
rivers was turned down in view of the risk to indigenous 
species. 

The Angler's Co-operative association, formed to combat 
pollution of rivers, added several more to its list of successful 
actions during the year. (D. F. KY.) 

ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN. Territory in north- 
east Africa under the joint sovereignty of Great Brite ; n and 
Egypt. Area: 967,500 sq.mi. Pop. (no census ever taken, 
1948 est.): 7,547,500. Language: English, Arabic, and various 
Nilotic and Negro tribal dialects in the south. Religion: 
Arabic minority is Moslem; the bulk of the Negro population 
is heathen; only c. 20% of population in the south is Christian. 
Chief towns (1948 est.): Khartoum (cap., 71,400); Omdurman 
(125,300); El Obeid (70,100); Wad Medani (57,300); Port 
Sudan (47,000). Governor general, Sir Robert George Howe; 
leader of the Legislative Assembly, Miralai Abdullah Bey 
Khalil. 

History. The differences between Great Britain and Egypt 
about the future of the Sudan remained unsolved and were 
the subject of renewed political excitement in Egypt towards 
the end of the year. This dispute continued to have its effect 
upon the internal political life of the country, yet it could be 
said that the year was one of progress towards the govern- 
ment's declared object the Sudanization and independence 
of the Sudan. In his report on local government, which had 
been called for in 1949, A. H. Marshall made proposals for 
drastic changes in policy, involving the creation of single 
local authorities for all purposes, financially independent 
and answerable to the local electors. The executive council 
accepted the proposals in principle and laid them before the 
Sudan Legislative Assembly, which thereon approved what 
amounted to the replacement of the Egyptian (and originally 
French) system by an English one. 

The ministers of health and agriculture announced five-year 
plans, but ihe most notable developments were in the field 
of education. The minister, Abdurrahman Ali Taha, stated 
that his department planned to extend elementary education 
to cover two-fifths of the children of school age in the northern 
Sudan within a decade. This would involve the opening of 
new centres for the training of teachers and the increasing of 
the number of boys' elementary schools in the area from 156 
to 356 and of girls' schools from 101 to 211. The third 
government secondary school, opened at El Obeid in January 
with accommodation for 480 boarders, was under the charge 
of the first Sudanese headmaster in history. Less happily, 
there were signs of the spread to the Sudan of student strikes, 
familiar in Egypt and elsewhere, although these were on a 
much smaller scale than in the preceding autumn. 



A potentially serious source of Sudanese disunity was the 
difference between the Moslem, Arabic-speaking and advanced 
north and the more backward and still largely pagan Negro 
south. The considerable activities of Christian European 
missionaries in the south led to assertions that Islam and 
Arabic were being handicapped. The minister of education 
announced that 18 northern officials were to be sent to 
further the spread of Arabic in the south, while southern 
requests for English programmes from the Omdurman radio 
station were not acceded to. 

National feeling showed itself in debates on the Sudan 
defence force, although it was made clear that Sudanization 
had progressed so far that there were in 1950 only 40 British 
officers, as against 69 in 1939. On June 30 the Sudan Planta- 
tions syndicate was wound up, and the Gezira scheme came 
under nationalized control. This was the occasion of what 
must be regarded as the most striking feature of the events 
of the year because, when a British member of the executive 
council was appointed to its management, he was replaced 
by a Sudanese, thereby giving rise to a Sudanese majority 
(7 Sudanese as against 5 British members) on that body. 
The Legislative Assembly debated the future of Gezira and 
important reforms in land registration were undertaken. In 
December considerable excitement was caused by a debate 
on a motion in the Legislative Assembly in favour of the 
immediate independence of the country, which was defeated 
by one vote. (H. S. D.) 

Education. (1949) Northern System. Government schools .-elementary 
249, pupils 35,613; sub-grade and Koran 544, pupils 38,550; inter- 
mediate 17, pupils 2,568; secondary 5, pupils 1,045; technical 2, pupils 
312; teachers* training colleges 5, teachers trained annually 245. 
Non-government schools 60, pupils 14,791. University education at 
Gordon Memorial college, higher education at Kitchener School of 
Medicine. Southern System. Schools: elementary 3, pupils 291 ; inter- 
mediate 1, pupils 150; secondary 2; pupils at mission schools 20,669. 

Agriculture. Main crops ('000 metric tons, 1948; 1949 in brackets): 
cotton seed 106 (110); cotton, ginned 56 (55); sesame seed (1947) 
141 -2; gum arabic (1947) 37; groundnuts (1947) 20; dates (1947) 46. 
Livestock ('000 head, Jan. 1948): cattle 3,500; sheep 5,500; camels 1,500. 

Foreign Trade. (E million, 1949; 1950, six months, in brackets) 
import 23-9 (13-9); export 27-4 (17-2). Main sources of imports 
(1949): U.K. 32%; Egypt 16%. Main destination of exports: U.K. 
65%; Egypt 10%. Main imports: cotton piece-goods 18%; sugar, 
coffee, tea 14%; coal, oil fuel and petrol 0-5%. Main exports: raw 
cotton 69%; livestock 10%; gum 0-6%. 

Transport and Communications. Railways (1949): 2,013 mi. Licensed 
motor vehicles (Dec. 1949): cars 2,600; commercial 3,300. Telephone 
subscribers (1949): 3,520. Wireless licences (1949): 3,227. 

Finance and Banking. (E million) budget (1949 actual) revenue 
18*7, expenditure 11 -6; (18 months 1950-51 est.) revenue 28 -7, expendi- 
ture 21 1. Total external debt (Dec. 1948) 12-8, of which 5-4 to Egypt 
for development. Monetary unit: Egyptian pound with an exchange 
rate of E 975 to the pound sterling and E - 348 to the U.S. dollar. 

ANGOLA : see PORTUGUESE COLONIAL EMPIRE. 
ANNAM : see INDO-CHINA. 

ANTARCTICA. The considerable activities of various 
countries in the Antarctic regions during recent years were 
maintained in 1950. 

Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey. The Falkland 
Islands Dependencies survey in its seventh consecutive year 
established a new base at Rytviken, South Georgia, and 
maintained its other bases with the exception of that on 
Stonington Island, Marguerite bay. In 1949 relief of the 
Stonington Island base proved impossible owing to the 
failure of the sea ice to break up. Dr. V. E. Fuchs with 10 
companions had therefore to remain in the south for an 
additional year. The final sledge journey of 1,080 mi. lasted 
90 days, the party returning to base shortly before recon- 
naissance flying began from the northern bases. With the 
first appearance of open water those men who had spent 
three consecutive winters in the south were flown out in a 



ANTARCTICA 



45 



Norseman seaplane. On Feb. 12 the survey's ship " John 
Biscoe " brought out the rest of the party together with their 
dogs, specimens, records and much equipment. The base 
remained closed for the time being. The new base at Rytviken 
would carry out a survey and study of the biology of the 
elephant seal population of South Georgia during 1951. 
This would be co-ordinated with the work already done in 
the South Orkneys. 

The International Norwegian-British-Swedish Expedition. 
This expedition met with considerable difficulty in effecting a 
landing on the Queen Maud Land coast, guarded as it is by a 
barrier of lOO-ft.-high ice cliffs. The expedition was accom- 
panied by two Auster float planes, operated by an R.A.F. 
party under Squadron Leader B. Walford. Reconnaissance 
by these planes finally located a single break in the barrier 
cliffs allowing access to the hinterland in the vicinity of 
Cape Norvegia (Lat. 7103'S.; Long. 1054'W.). There the 
expedition leader, Capt. J. Giaever, established his base well 
back from the ice cliffs, using " weasels " (light, tracked carriers) 
and trailers to transport huts, stores and equipment. The 
base which lay more than 100 mi. from the nearest rock 
outcrop had been named " Maudheim." At the end of the 
winter a sledge party using both dogs and " weasels " recon- 
noitred a route for nearly 200 mi. to the south. During the 
summer it was hoped to use this route for exploration of 
the ice-free mountain area first seen and photographed from 
the air by the German 4 * Schwabenland " expedition of 1938. 
The R.A.F. party and the aircraft returned to England on 
board the expedition's 700-ton vessel " Norsel." In Nov. 
1950 the ship again left Norway for the south carrying stores 
and equipment for the expedition which would remain in 
the field for another year. 

French Adtlie Land Expedition. Under the command of 
Andre Liotard, this expedition failed to penetrate the ice 



in 1949, but in 1950 succeeded in reaching the mainland on 
Jan. 18. A base was established on a low rocky point along 
the coast. This was the first French expedition to Ad61ie 
Land since Dumont d'Urville discovered that coast in 1840. 
The first party to land there was Douglas Mawson's 
Australian expedition in 1913. The present expedition's 
ship, ** Commandant Charcot," named after the great 
French explorer, departed on Feb. 3, after putting down two 
years' supplies. The main subjects of study were geography, 
geology, hydrography and meteorology. The expedition 
was equipped with a four-seater Stinson aircraft and two 
" weasels," with over 30 sledge dogs in addition. Ad&ie 
Land lies between 136 and 142E. longitude and extends 
from the Antarctic circle to the pole. 

Other Work in the Antarctic. The work of the Australian 
National Antarctic Research expedition on Heard and 
Macquarie Islands, having been in progress for three years, 
continued under the command of its leader, Phillip C. Law. 
In 1950 equipment was landed at Macquarie Island for 
cosmic ray work and for maintaining ionospheric, geo- 
magnetic and scismographic records. The Argentine and 
Chilean governments maintained the bases which they set 
up within the Falkland Islands Dependencies sector. It was 
reported that on Oct. 15 the Argentine supply ship, " Ernesto 
Tornquist," ran aground on Cape Constance, South Georgia. 
Some 250 persons on board were taken off by whale catchers 
from Grytviken. 

During the last season the pelagic whaling fleet and shore- 
based whalers of various nationalities continued operations 
with satisfactory results under the conditions laid down by 
the Washington convention of 1946. It was expected that the 
U.S.S.R. would again despatch a whale factory ship and 
catchers to the Antarctic in 1950. (See also EXPLORATION 
AND DISCOVERY.) (V. E. F.) 



!^'?cl|pl 




The Norwegian-British-Swedish antarctic expedition in Queen Maud 
Land, 1950. The winter quarters (7), the steamer ** Norsel" at anchor 
in Norse I bay (2) and members of the Royal Air Force unit with 
one of the Auster aircraft which had been specially fitted with skis 
to enable it to land on snow. 



46 



ANTHROPOLOGY 



ANTHROPOLOGY. The third session of the Inter- 
national Congress of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences 
met at ZUrich in August; its work was divided among six 
sections and 96 papers were read. An invitation to hold the 
fourth session in Spain in 1954 was accepted. The seventh 
International Congress for the History of Religions met in 
Amsterdam in September; the theme of the congress had been 
announced as the discussion of a myth and ritual pattern in 
civilization and in primitive society, but many other topics 
were included. Relations of the Congress with the United 
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural organization 
(U.N.E.S.C.O.) came under review and it was decided to 
establish an international organization to promote the study 
of the history of religion under the auspices of the Conscil 
International de la Philosophic et des Sciences Humaines (of 
U.N.E.S.C.O.). It was hoped that the eighth congress would 
meet in Rome in 1955 (see Man, 1950, London). 

The International Anatomical congress met at Oxford in 
July under the presidency of Professor W. E. Le Gros Clark, 
and was attended by over 500 members from 56 countries. 
Three sessions were devoted to physical anthropology and 
about 20 communications presented. Several papers were 
concerned with the fossil remains excavated in Africa; 
Professor S. Zuckerman (Birmingham) claimed that Australo- 
pithecinae could not be classified as more hominid than ape 
while Professor Le Gros Clark differed. L. S. B. Leakey 
(Nairobi), on whom Oxford university conferred the Degree 
of doctor of science honoris causa, described the environ- 
mental background associated with his finds of Early Miocene 
fossil primates. Later, in collaboration with Professor Le 
Gros Clark, he delivered an address to the Royal Anthro- 
pological institute on the Miocene apes of Kenya. Racial 
differentiation in modern man, climatic adaptation and human 
phylogeny, blood grouping and many other special studies 
were discussed (see report in Man, 1950, 237). 

Research into the antiquity of man was continued during 
the year, and a notable discovery of two large skulls, excavated 
by R. Broom in the Transvaal, was reported; a full description 
was expected. Professor D. A. E, Garrod (Cambridge) 
addressed the Royal Anthropological institute on the excava- 
tion of an early Magdalenian rock shelter at a Angles-sur- 
TAnglin, Vienne, France, and showed a representation of 
the life-size naturalistic portrait of an Qld Stone Age man 
discovered there (" Angles Man "). 

An important event in east Africa was the establishment 
at Makerere college, Uganda, of the East African Institute 
of Social Research with Audrey I. Richards, distinguished as 
an anthropologist, as the first director. The functions of the 
institute were announced as the establishment of a centre for 
the extension of knowledge of the cultures and languages of 
the peoples of east Africa and their reactions to modern 
conditions and policies; the conduct of field studies; co- 
operation with similar institutions; the organization of studies 
of administrative importance for government; the training 
of research workers; and the accumulation and publication 
of data. 

An Institute of the Desert (Institut Fouad ler du Desert) 
was established in Egypt at Heliopolis with a comprehensive 
programme providing for the study of all aspects, past and 
present, of the desert; a library and museum and field and 
experimental work in all sections were planned. 

A Norwegian traveller, Thor Heyerdahl, published a 
popular account, The Kon-Tiki Expedition by Raft across the 
Pacific (London, 1950), of his adventure in sailing a steerable 
raft of green balsa logs for 4,300 mi. from Peru to Tuamotu 
along the south equatorial current; he claimed that this was a 
line of migration to Polynesia about A.D. 500 and 1 100. The 
argument was, received with interest and the further publica- 
tion of scientific data was awaited. 



Race was the subject of a statement by U.N.E.S.C.O. 
summarizing the findings of a panel of scientists (see The 
Times, July 16, 1950). The panel was asked to define the 
concept of race and to summarize established scientific facts: 
the seven-point statement issued laid down that racial 
discrimination had no foundation in biological fact; that the 
range of mental capacities in all races was about the same, 
there being no evidence of innate qualitative differences; 
that there was no evidence that race hybridization produced 
biologically bad results, social difficulties being attributable 
to social and cultural factors; that race was less a biological 
fact than a social myth; that scientifically no modern national 
or religious group was a race, nor was a linguistic, geographic 
or cultural community a race; that tests had shown an essen- 
tial similarity in mental characters among racial groups; and, 
lastly, that all human beings possessed educability and adapta- 
bility. 

The British Association of the Advancement of Science 
held its annual meeting at Birmingham. Redcliffe N. Salaman, 
(president, section H, anthropology and archaeology) spoke 
on the influence of food plants on social structure; he used 
the potato as his example but called for investigation into 
the influence of other food plants. The concept of culture 
was discussed from several angles by Phyllis Kaberry (Lon- 
don), Glyn Daniel (Cambridge) and Professor M. Fortes 
(Cambridge). Advances were also reported in the knowledge 
of blood groups and their uses in anthropology; further 
reports were also made on the dating of fossil remains by 
fluorine tests. R. E. M. Wheeler reported the discovery of a 
platform for unloading grain at Mohenjodaro; silting along- 
side had reduced its value, and decline culminated in a 
massacre about 1500 B.C., the period usually assigned to the 
Vedic-Aryan invasions of India. In Southern Rhodesia a new 
site was found with resemblances to Zimbabwe, which, it was 
hoped, would throw light on the history of mediaeval south 
Africa. At Heliopolis a cemetery was opened up: four watch 
dogs buried at the edge were uncovered, then graves with 
offerings of small gazelles, then a row of burials of men about 
1 8 m. in height, probably immigrants, and lastly, a row of 
burials of small women, apparently indigenous; the cemetery 
was thought to be later than that excavated at Maadi, but 
both were considered earlier than the great cemetery of the 
1st and 2nd dynasty at Helwan. 

A scientific expedition from Oxford visited southern 
Tunisia during the summer; among its members was Julek 
Slaski, a social anthropologist, who studied Berber marriage 
customs and also the troglodyte settlements at Matmata. 

Professor J. H. Mutton was succeeded as William Wyse 
professor of social anthropology at Cambridge university by 
M. Fortes; S. F. Nadel left King's college Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne (Durham university) to become professor at the Aust- 
ralian National university at Canberra and R. O'R. Piddington 
left Edinburgh to become professor at Auckland University 
college, New Zealand; R. von Heine-Geldern returned to 
Austria on appointment to a chair in the University of 
Vienna. 

The annual Huxley Memorial lecture of the Royal Anthro- 
pological institute was delivered by Julian Huxley on " New 
Wine for New Bottles: Ideology and Scientific Knowledge "; 
the bi-annual Henry Myers lecture of the same institute was 
delivered by Professor E. O. James, on " Religion and 
Reality," and Professor E. E. Evans-Pritchard, president of 
the institute, delivered the Marett lecture at Oxford on 
" Social Anthropology: Past and Present." (S. F. SN.) 

New anthropological journals included UHomme: Cahiers 
d* ethnologic > de geographic et de linguistique, issued by the 
Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes of the Sorbonne and edited 
by Claude L6vi-Strauss, Emile Benveniste and Pierre Gourou; 
and Homo, Zeitschrift fur die vergleichende Forschung am 



ARABIA 



47 



Menschen, under the editorship of Egon von Eickstedt. 
The latter journal, which was to appear quarterly, would 
continue the tradition and international character of the 
earlier Zeitschrift fur Rassenkunde. 

United States. A survey by Erminie W. Voegelin published 
in the American Anthropologist showed that during the 
period 1900-50 the number of institutions offering anthro- 
pology courses in the United States and Canada had grown 
from 1 1 to 304, while the teaching staffs, originally numbering 
17, had increased to 604. In the United States, foreign area 
studies received further support from the Carnegie Corpora- 
tion of New York which allotted additional funds to the 
Social Science Research council for area training fellowships. 
Yale, Harvard and the Universities of Iowa, North Carolina, 
Oklahoma and Washington joined in an organization known 
as the Human Relations Area Files, formerly the Cross- 
Cultural survey, established by George P. Murdock at Yale. 
An important contribution was Julian H. Steward's Area 
Research: Theory and Practice. The University of California 
at Los Angeles collaborated with the Commonwealth Serum 
laboratory of Victoria, Australia, in inaugurating a long- 
term genetical survey of the human populations of the 
Pacific area. 

Problems of common interest to anthropology and genetics 
were discussed at a symposium on the Origin and Evolution 
of Man, held at the Biological laboratory, Cold Spring 
Harbor, N.Y. In Genetics and the Races of Man, William C. 
Boyd presented the first comprehensive statement of the 
role of genetics, and particularly the blood groups, in the 
variation and racial classification of man. It was pointed 
out by Chandler W. Rowe (" Genetics v. Physical Anthropology 
in Determining Racial Types," Southwestern Journal of 
Anthropology) that the genetical classification, no less than 
the anthropological, had its limitations and that the objectives 
of the two systems were not identical. A striking example of 
the importance of blood group studies for tracing population 
movements and relationships was an article in the American 
Journal of Physical Anthropology, " The ABO, MN, and Rh 
Blood Groups of the Basque People/' by J. N. Marshall 
Chambers, Elizabeth W. Ikin and A. E. Mourant. A 
comparison of the blood group gene frequencies of the Basques 
with those of other Europeans led the authors to the conclusion 
that the present population of western and central Europe 
arose from the mixing of people akin to the Basques with later 
invaders from Asia. In Races; a Study of the Problems of 
Race Formation in Man, Carleton S. Coon, Stanley M. Garn 
and Joseph B. Birdsell emphasized the importance of 
environmental conditions in the development of phenotypic 
features characteristic of the various races. 

The year 1950 brought new proof of the effectiveness of 
two recently discovered techniques for dating ancient skeletal 
and cultural materials the fluorine and carbon- 14 methods. 
The fluorine-dating method, described by Kenneth P. Oakley 
and C. Randall Hoskins in Nature (" New Evidence on the 
Antiquity of Man "), gave a decisive answer to the long 
disputed question of the age and faunal associations of 
Eoanthropus. Analysis of the fluorine content in these 
hominid and other mammalian fossils from the Piltdown 
gravel showed that all of the Eoanthropus specimens teeth, 
skull and jaw fragments were contemporaneous and that 
they belonged to the Upper or Middle instead of Lower 
Pleistocene, as formerly supposed. On the other hand the 
fluorine test confirmed the antiquity of the Swanscombe 
skull. The method of dating organic materials by means of 
radioactive carbon, which was developed during the past 
several years by W. F. Libby and J. R. Arnold of the Univer- 
sity of Chicago Institute for Nuclear Studies, yielded fruitful 
results in 1950, when the first carbon-14 dates were officially 
announced. Of particular significance for American anthro- 



pology was the dating of the last glaciation as about 12,000 
years ago and the demonstration that man was living in 
western North America at least as early as 8000 B.C. and 
at the southern tip of South America some 2,000 years later. 

Problems of Alaskan archaeology, physical anthropology 
and ethnology were discussed by anthropologists from the 
United States and Canada at the Alaskan Science conference, 
held in Washington, D.C., Nov 9 to 1 1 under the auspices of 
the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research 
Council. 

Columbia university inaugurated a programme for the 
study of contemporary cultures in the middle east and far 
east, beginning with a field project in India. Studies of the 
Chinese and Japanese segments of the population in Hawaii 
were made by Francis L. K. Hsu and Marvin K. Opler, 
respectively. Henry Field completed measurements of more 
than 2,000 individuals of different tribes in Iraq and Iran. 
Carleton S. Coon conducted archaeological and somatological 
work in Persia. Philip Drucker completed an ethnographic 
survey of the Marshall Islands for the U.S. naval adminis- 
tration. 

A number of field investigations were conducted in the 
American Arctic. L. L. Hammerick, professor of Germanic 
philology at the University of Copenhagen, made linguistic 
studies on Nunivak Island, Alaska. William S. Laughlin 
and Frederica de Laguna continued their research programme 
in the Aleutian Islands and in the Tlingit area of southeast 
Alaska, respectively. Viola Garfield collected data on 
northwest coast Indian art and Douglas Leechman worked 
among the Athabaskan Indians in the interior. J. L. Gid- 
dings, Jr., and Helge Larsen, joined by F. G. Rainey, con- 
tinued their investigation of pre-Eskimo remains on Seward 
peninsula and the Bering sea coast. On Cornwallis Island 
in the Canadian arctic H. B. Collins and W E. Taylor found 
evidence of three periods of occupation Dorset, early 
Thule and late Thule. 

Gordon R. Willey was appointed Bowdich professor of 
Mexican and Central American archaeology and ethnology 
at Harvard, and Alfred Metraux became head of the United 
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural organization's 
division for, the study of race relations. The Viking fund 
medalists for 1950 were George P. Murdock, general anthro- 
pology, William K^. Gregory, physical anthropology, and 
Hallam L. Mowus, archaeology. 

A second edition of the International Directory of Anthro- 
pologists, edited by Melville J. Herskovits, was issued by the 
Committee on International Relations in Anthropology of 
the National Research council. Important publications that 
appeared in 1950 included volume 6 of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology's Handbook of South American Indians, 
edited by Julian H. Steward; Man in the Primitive World: 
An Introduction to Anthropology, by E. Adamson Hoebel; 
An Introduction to Social Anthropology, by Ralph Piddington ; 
Anthropology, the Science of Human Society and Culture, by 
J. S. Slotkin. " (H. B. Cs.) 

ARABIA. Peninsula of southwestern Asia of approx- 
imately 1,027,300 sq.mi., with a total population estimated at 
9,500,000. It consists politically of two independent Arab 
states, Saudi Arabia and Yemen (a.v.), the independent 
sultanates of Oman and Masqat or Muscat; the autonomous 
sheikhdoms of Bahrein, Kuwait, Qatar and the Trucial 
sheikhdoms; and Aden colony and protectorates (<y.v.). 
Language: Arabic. Religion: overwhelmingly Moslem 
(Sunni). 

Saudi Arabia. Area: c. 597,000 sq.mi. (excluding the 
Rub al Khali desert covering approximately 193,000 sq.mi.). 
Pop. (no census ever taken, 1947 est.): 6,00p,000. Chief 
towns: Riyadh (cap., 60,000); Mecca (150,000); Medina 



48 



ARAB LEAGUE 



(45,000); Jedda (40,000); Hufuf (31,500). Ruler, King 
Abdulaziz Ibn Abdurrahman Ibn Faisal Ibn Sa'ud; viceroy 
of Nejd and commander in chief, Emir Sa'ud, crown prince; 
viceroy of Hejaz and minister of foreign affairs, Emir Faisal. 

History. During 1950 King Ibn Sa'ud celebrated the jubilee 
of his rule. During his reign he had expanded his territories 
from his original kingdom of Nejd so that his government 
extended over nine-tenths of the whole of the Arabian 
peninsula. In 1913 he captured from the Turks the province 
of Hasa, where two decades later was to be found one of 
the richest oilfields in the world. In 1920 he conquered the 
Hail emirate on the north of Nejd. In 1924 he completed the 
conquest of the Hejaz which placed him in possession of the 
two holy cities of Islam Mecca and Medina. In 1925 he 
captured the province of *Asir, south of the Hejaz. His 
jubilee focused the interest of the world on a great personality 
who had earned its respect and admiration. 

In the Arab league Saudi Arabia tended, in association with 
Egypt, Syria and the Lebanon, to oppose the expansionist 
policy of King Abdullah of Jordan. A new development, 
which showed the extent to which the " unchanging east " 
was modernizing itself, was the loan of $6 million which 
Saudi Arabia made to Syria in Feb. 1950 (see SYRIA). In 
return for the loan of which a portion was already paid, 
Syria undertook to supply Syrian goods for Saudi-Arabian 
consumption. The dollars were presumed to have come from 
American oil royalties. 

In August Saudi Arabia contracted a $15 millio** loan from 
the American Export-Import bank. An immediate payment 
of $4 million was to be devoted to the construction of airports, 
roads and seaports. The remainder was to be applied for the 
development of agriculture and for the improvement of 
health, sanitation and transport conditions. 

The report published in July of the Arab- American Oil 
company (Aramco), whose active concessions were \n the 
Saudi Arabian province of Hasa on the Persian gulf, 
announced the progress of the railway which was being 
constructed westwards from the oilfields by way of Kharj 
and Hufuf to Riyadh. Already 108 mi. of track had been 
laid and the line was expected to be open early in 1951. 

Another development from the oilfields during 1950 was 
the practical completion of the desert pipeline to pump the 
Aramco oil westwards across the desert thrpugh Saudi Arabia, 
Jordan, Syria and the Lebanon to the Mediterranean port of 
Sidon, south of Beirut. The company was negotiating 
44 passage rights " with the governments concerned and it was 
hoped that oil would be flowing early in 1951. 

Developments elsewhere in Saudi Arabia included the 
building of a new deep-water jetty and customs sheds at 
Jedda, the Red sea port of Mecca, which would greatly 
improve the conditions of pilgrim traffic arriving by sea from 
Africa and India and the far east. A new all-weather highway 
was also being constructed from Jedda to Medina. (O. Tw.) 

Education. Schools (1949): primary 30, secondary 5; prc-university 1. 

Agriculture. Dates form the main crop of the Arabian desert, and 
camels and horses the principal livestock. 

Industry. Crude oil production (*000 metric tons, 1949; 1950, six 
months, in brackets): 23,460 (11,937). Raw materials: copper (metric 
tons, 1948) 67; gold (troy ounces, 1949) 67,200; silver (troy ounces, 
1948) 67,819. 

Foreign Trade. Main imports: textiles, food products and vehicles. 
Main exports: oil, gold concentrates, hides and skins. 

Transport and Communications. Licensed motor vehicles (Dec. 1949) : 
cars, 6,000; commercial vehicles 7,700. Radio sets (1949) 9,000. 

Finance. Pilgrimage dues (1948 est., 10 million) and oil royalties 
(1948 est., over 20 million) are the main sources of revenue. Monetary 
unit: riyal nominally=R. 1 (Indian) with an exchange rate of 13-33 
riyals to the pound. 

Oman and Masqat. Area: c. 65,000 sq.mi. Pop. (1947 
est.): 830,000. Ruler (from 1932), Sultan Said bin Taimur, 
the 13th of rtjis dynasty. British consul, Major F. L, L. 
Chauncy. 



Bahrein. Area: 21 3 sq.mi. Pop. (1947 est.): 125,000. 
Ruler (from 1942): Sheikh Sulman bin Hamad al Khalifah. 
British political agent, C. J. Pelly. 

Kuwait. Area: c. 9,000 sq.mi. Pop. (1949 est.): 120,000. 
Ruler, Sheikh Abdullah bin Salim. British political agent, 
H. C. Jakins. The present ruler succeeded his uncle, Sheikh 
Ahmad al Jabir as Subah who died on Jan. 29, 1950. 

Qatar. Area: c. 4,000 sq.mi. Pop. (1947 est.): 25,000. 
Ruler (from 1949): Sheikh Ali bin Abdullah al Thani. In 
March the new oilfield was formally inaugurated at the new 
oil port of Umm Said by the ruling sheikh who, by the turn 
of a tap, started the flow of oil to a waiting tanker. 

Trucial Sheikhdoms. Area: c. 16,000 sq.mi. (including 
the sheikhdoms of Shargah, Ras al Khaimah, Umm al 
Qawain, Ajman, Debai, Abu Dhabi and Kalba). Pop. 
(1947 est.): 115,000. 

See Gerald de Gaury, Arabian Journey and Other Desert Travels 
(London, 1950). 

ARAB LEAGUE. The League of Arab States came 
into being on March 22, 1945, when its covenant was signed 
in Cairo by the representatives of Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, 
Saudi Arabia, Syria, Transjordan and Yemen. The council 
of the league, on which each member has one vote, has its 
seat in Cairo. The main object of the League was stated to 
be to co-ordinate the political action and safeguard the 
independence and sovereignty of the Arab states. Secretary 
general, Abdurrahman Azzam Pasha. 

During 1950 no progress was made towards the conclusion 
of peace treaties between the member states of the league 
and Israel; and on July 10 the Palestine Conciliation commis- 
sion issued a communiqu6 in Geneva that its mediation 
efforts over the past six months had failed and that it was 
transferring its activities to Palestine to resume contact with 
the interested governments. 

But though they could not agree on peace terms with 
Israel, the members of Arab league in April did agree unani- 
mously among themselves against the making of a separate 
peace with Israel by member states, and for the banning 
of supplies for ships going to Israel; for the blacklisting of 
ships suspected of working for Israel; and for the refusing of 
visas to those with Israeli visas on their passports. 




Prince Faisal of Saudi Arabia (left} with Nahas Pasha* prime 
minister of Egypt, at a meeting of the Arab League in 1950. 



ARCHAEOLOGY 



49 



THE MIDDLE EAST 




E G 



S U 



The members of the Arab League are shown dotted. 

A week before, however, on April 16, Jordan had opposed 
the general approval, subject to reservations, by the political 
committee of the league of the United Nations' plan for 
Jerusalem; and on April 13 the Jordan delegate reaffirmed at a 
full meeting of the league that his government's policy was 
to annex Arab Palestine subject to the approval of the Jordan 
parliament for which elections, which covered both the former 
Transjordan and Arab Palestine, had been held on April 11. 
On April 24 the newly convened Jordan parliament approved 
King Abdullah's speech from the throne announcing the 
annexation of Arab Palestine. The league promptly called an 
extraordinary session (May 10-15) to discuss Jordan's action; 
but Egypt failed to carry its motion for the expulsion of Jordan 
who refused to modify its action or to accept a compromise. 
Egypt was supported by Syria, Saudi Arabia and the Lebanon; 
the Yemen and Iraq requested postponement to consult 
their governments. 

The council of the Arab league reassembled on June 12, 
but Jordan absented itself on the grounds that its attitude 
was irrevocable; whereupon Egypt, the Lebanon, Syria and 
Saudi Arabia revived their motion for Jordan's expulsion 
from the league. The outcome was a new resolution 
approved by all the states (except Jordan) that Jordan should 
treat the area of Arab Palestine as " trust property " until 
Palestine was " finally liberated." The meeting also considered 
the Arab states' collective security pact. It was eventually 
signed by Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Syria, the Lebanon and the 
Yemen. Of the remaining member states, Jordan was absent 
and Iraq abstained for " technical reasons." 

During the rest of the year this divergence of domestic 
policy persisted among the member states, although in their 
general policy there was unanimity in a reply to a declaration 
by the U.S., France and Great Britain about the middle east, 
affirming: first, that the league desired peace; secondly, that 
it refused to tolerate any act that attacked the sovereignty 
and independence of its members; lastly, that the members' 
rearmament programmes were for legitimate local defence and 
not, as alleged by Israel, for aggression. 

In its session on Nov. 3 the general assembly of the United 
Nations unanimously adopted a resolution to invite the Arab 
league to send an envoy to all the assembly's sessions. Israel 

S.I.Y. -5 



abstained from voting. All the member states of the Arab 
league, except the Yemen, sent delegates to the second meeting 
of the Pan-Islamic Economic conference which was held in 
Tehran in November. (See ISLAM.) (O. Tw.) 

ARCHAEOLOGY. The year 1950 was one of steady 
progress rather than of spectacular discovery. Particular 
mention, however, should be made of the discovery of a 
Roman fort in London; of the excavation of the Mithraic 
temple on Hadrian's wall; of the completion of work on the 
Odeion in the Agora at Athens; of the re-excavation of 
Nimrud in Iraq; of the first examination of the Lashkari- 
Bazar palaces in Afghanistan; and of the establishment of a 
state Department of Antiquities in Pakistan. 

Great Britain. R. J. A. Atkinson, S. Piggott and J. F. S. 
Stone examined some of the Aubrey holes at Stonehenge; 
i.e., the outermost circle of holes, a number of which were 
excavated in the period 1920-26, when they were taken to 
be the holes of posts (since decayed or destroyed) and to 
have been made during the early life of the monument, 
before the standing stones were dressed and erected. The 
new excavation produced no evidence that the holes had ever 
contained posts or stones, though it confirmed the early date 
assigned to them by the previous excavators. Burnt matter 
and cremated bones were, however, found in circumstances 
similar to those encountered on similar sites in recent years: 
they may have served some ritual purpose. 

In the Cripplegate area of London, in the northwest of 
the Roman city, where variation from the standard con- 
struction of the city wall was noted in 1949, a Rortian fort 
was located by the Roman and Mediaeval Excavation 
council, directed by W. F. Grimes. The area of the fort was 
about 11 ac., its date probably late in the 1st century A.D. 
The destruction of the city by Boadicea in A.D. 61 was thought 
to have shown the need for some military protection when the 
city came to be rebuilt: as the civil buildings gradually 
spread to the neighbourhood of the fort, the fort was, it 
seemed, eventually incorporated in the later city defences. 
Certain peculiarities of the outline and street plan of Roman 
London were thus now explained. 

On Hadrian's wall I. A. Richmond completely excavated 
the newly found Mithraeum outside Carrawburgh (Pro- 
colitia), a wall-fort 4 mi. E. of Housesteads and 6 mi. N.W. 
of Hexham, Northumberland. The temple, built just south 
of the well dedicated to the local goddess Coventina (found 
in the 19th century), had three periods, which corresponded 
with the 2nd-, 3rd- and early 4th-century occupations of the 
wall. The building, in its last phase, is one of the most 
complete ever found in Britain or Europe: it consisted of a 
main rectangular room with a vestibule, by which the building 
was entered; at the north, or sanctuary end, were three 
inscribed altars, one of which bore a painted relief of Mithras; 
along the side walls were substantial remains of post-and- 
wattle stall-work, in front of which were set a number of. 
small uninscribed altars; statues of the two dadophori stood 
near the entrance to the vestibule, which contained a recess 
for ritual burial or initiation in its floor. The building was 
placed under the care of the Ministry of Works. 

Apart from London, the main work on Roman towns was 
at Canterbury and Chichester. At Canterbury traces were 
found of a large public building of massive construction: 
it was thought to have been a theatre, but, if so, it was of 
classical rather than of Romano-Celtic type. At Chichester 
it was established that the embankment of the walls was 
raised late in the 1st century A.D. and heightened in the 2nd, 
and part of a house with a tesselated floor was found. Among 
a large number of other places excavated may be mentioned: 
Brockley hill, Middlesex (traces of industrial activity at the 
site of the town of Sulloniacae); Brough-by-Bambridge, 



50 



ARCHAEOLOGY 




Some of the jewels and ornaments found on April J4, 7950, in a 
2 \500~year-old tomb near At rib village, north of Cairo. 

Yorkshire (a fort); Great Casterton, Rutland (a town 
destroyed in the Pictish war of 369); Lullingstone, Kent 
(a villa); and Whittington, Gloucestershire (a villa with 
tesselated pavements). The Ordnance Survey discovered and 
traced a Roman road running northwards from Chichester. 
In the Scilly Isles excavations by the Ministry of Works 
showed the extent of Roman influence there: pottery of the 
Roman period was found on St. Martin's and St. Mary's in 
houses of native type similar to those in Cornwall. 

Europe. Austria. H. Vetters reported on work at 
Magdalensberg, 10 mi. N.W. of Klagenfurt. The town may 
have been the capital of Noricum, which was absorbed into 
the Roman empire in 15 B.C. Structural 'finds included a 
large hall, standing about 30 ft. to the wall plate and having 
traces of iron reinforcement, mosaics and wall paintings. 
Beneath the remains of the city were found remains of earlier 
occupations of the middle bronze age and later. An account 
of the border fortifications of the Roman provinces of 
Noricum and Pannonia was given by G. Pascher in Der 
Romische Limes in Oesterreich, vol. xix, Vienna, 1950: 
it contains a catalogue of sites and finds and a classification 
of the Roman roads. 

Greece. In Athens, the plan matured to restore the stoa 
built by Attalus II of Pcrgamum (159-138 B.C.) as a museum 
for the material excavated in the Agora. The work was to be 
carried out for the Greek government (the owner of the finds) 
by the American School of Classical Studies, with some 
financial help under the European Recovery programme. 
In 1949 traces were found in the northwest corner of the Agora 
of a mid-5th-century limestone building which was identified 
as the stoa poikile of Peisianax. Further work in the area 
was described in Hespena (Princeton) by Homer A. Thomp- 
son, who gave an account of the examination of the Odeion 
mentioned by Pausanias in his account of the Agora. This 
great theatre lay in a dominating position immediately north 
of the middle stoa (2nd century B.C.); built towards the end 
of the 1st certury, it was perhaps connected with Agrippa's 
visit to Athens in 16 or 14 B.C. The original structure com- 



prised a central complex of auditorium, dressing rooms and 
lobby, surrounded by a balcony, which was in effect an 
extension of the terrace of the middle stoa. The building 
is important in the development of ancient theatre design, 
not least for its combination of Greek and Roman features. 
The auditorium was square and of considerable extent, a 
factor which probably led to a collapse in A.D. 150. There- 
after the building was re-modelled and re-roofed, with the 
scena turned into a colonnade, the piers of which bore 
monumental figures of giants and tritons. The building was 
thenceforward devoted to rhetorical rather than to dramatic 
performances until its sack by the Heruli in 267. Some 
continuity of use may be associated with the use of the site 
as a gymnasium during the 5th century, after which it was 
abandoned and silted up. 

In Samothrace it was reported that excavations by the 
Institute of Fine Arts of New York university, conducted by 
K. Lehmann, had secured further evidence for the date and 
setting of the famous figure of the Winged Victory (now in 
the Louvre), together with a fragment of Parian marble 
which was thought to be part of the right hand. The fingers, 
except the third, were gone; but enough remained to suggest 
that the hand had held some light object; e.g., a golden fillet. 
Pottery evidence suggested a date c. 200 B.C. 

Italy. In a grotto on Levanza in the Egadi archipelago 
P. Graziosi investigated some latterly found neolithic cave- 
paintings. Further exploration revealed an inner cave, with 
figures described by Graziosi as of a naturalistic, palaeolithic 
style and including many representations of deer, some of 
bulls and of stylized human figures and one of a horse. 
G. Jacopi investigated Sybaris in Calabria, a city of Magna 
Graecia: founded late in the 8th century B.C. and destroyed 
by the citizens of Croton in 510, it rose again but was finally 
destroyed by the Bruttii in the middle of the 4th century B.C. 
Further researches in the plain of Foggia in northern 
Apulia were conducted by J. P. S. Bradford, whose work was 
based primarily on aerial surveys, though selected examples 
were tested by excavation. Discoveries included some 200 
ditched and enclosed neolithic settlements, of which those 
examined on the ground yielded large quantities of pottery, 
stone axes and bone implements. The survey also showed 
remarkable details of the Roman system of centuriation, 
with its associated farmsteads, especially in the neighbour- 
hood of the colonia of Lucera. Later earthworks and their 
associated field systems also were plotted, as well as what 
might have been the emperor Frederick ll's hunting palace at 
San Lorenzo. The further investigation of a chance wartime 
discovery at Castelseprio, 20 mi. N. of Milan, was reported. 
In the ancient church of Santa Maria there was found a 
well-preserved cycle of wall paintings of the Infancy of 
Christ of the highest quality, in treatment and subject not 
unlike the work on the ivory throne of Maximian at Ravenna. 
It was suggested that they might be the work of a 7th-century 
refugee artist from the Levant. (G. P. Bognetti, G. Chierici 
and A. dc C. d'Arzago, Santa Maria di Castelseprio, Milan). 
Near and Middle East. North Africa. A British expedition 
surveyed Syrtica and Cyrenaica for the Map of Roman 
Libya committee. Attention was mainly directed to the 
Roman road and frontier system; and the latter was found to 
be strongest towards the Syrtica region, the main direction 
of barbarian attack. 

Cyprus. C. F. A. SchaefTer, director of the French Centre 
of Scientific Research, Paris, described further work at the 
Mycenaean site of Enkomi near Famagusta: in addition to 
examining the lower Mycenaean levels, he was able to show 
that the upper levels were to be associated with the period of 
Philistine occupation. The work was expected to throw much 
light on the birth and growth of the iron age in the eastern 
Mediterranean. 



ARCHAEOLOGY 



51 



Turkey. Tahsin Ozguc reported on further excavations 
directed by him (for the Turkish Historical foundation) at 
the Karum; i.e., the Assyrian trade-enclave, near the great 
mound of Kultepe in central Anatolia. The settlement 
belonged to the early part of the 2nd millenium B.C. and came 
to a sudden end before the main Kultepe site. Of four 
occupation levels found, the second highest had ended in a 
disastrous fire so rapid in its effect that the inhabitants had 
been unable to salve their belongings, which now constituted 
an archaeological find of remarkable completeness. 

The British school at Athens continued work at Old 
Smyrna and encountered occupation levels contemporary 
with the reign of Croesus. They produced black and white 
pottery of Eastern Greek origin and some imported pieces 
from Attica. 

Syria. C. F. A. Schaeffer reported on his work on the 
Canaanite city of Ugarit (Ras Shamra), near Latakia. The 
massive fortifications, 50 ft. across, had been further defended 
by a great gate tower, masking the approach. The palace, 
near this entrance, was fronted by a portico with two rows of 
wooden columns on heavy stone bases; inside, Schaeffer 
discovered a large audience chamber and three royal tombs, 
long since robbed. Near the way into the palace, but not 
directly connected with it, were several rooms containing a 
large number of inscribed clay tablets, mostly relating to 
administrative matters. One of these rooms, thought to 
have been a schoolroom for scribes, contained a tablet (and 
a fragment of another) bearing an alphabet : a discovery which 
carries back to the 14th century B.C. the order of letters of 
our alphabet. The city was damaged in an earthquake of 1365 
and sacked about 1350; but some occupation continued for 
the next two centuries. 

Iraq. M. E. L. Mallowan directed, for the British School 
of Archaeology in Iraq and for the Department of Antiquities 
of Iraq, the excavation at Nimrud of the 9th century palace 
of Assur-nasir-pal II, the source of the famous Assyrian 
sculptures found by A. H. Layard in the 19th century and now 



in the British Museum. Nimrud, an Assyrian city and army 
centre, lies some 20 mi. S. of Mosul. Part of the area dug by 
Layard was re-examined; and some impressive sculptures, 
comparable to his finds, as well as some inscriptions, were 
discovered. Excavation of the south wing of the palace 
showed it to be a plain brick structure: it was assigned to 
officials, to the royal bodyguard and to servants and con- 
tained stores of arms and food. Three inscriptions were found 
there, recording the campaigns of Assur-nasir-pal. At a 
new site, in the east part of the great mound, a block of 
offices was discovered, including a repository for archives 
containing many 8th-century inscribed tablets. Among other 
buildings was a block of similar date, planned with a central 
courtyard surrounded with ranges of rooms and a group of 
barracks. The site was rich in finds of all classes, but probably 
most notable for its carvings, among which were an 8th- 
century chalcedony seal bearing a mythological scene, a 
magico-medical plaque and many small animals in ivory. 

D. E. McCown dug near the temple of Enlil, an early 
paramount god of Sumer. Beneath the remains of a Parthian 
fortress and Kassite temple was an occupation of the 3rd 
dynasty of Ur (early 2nd millenium B.C.). The latest excava- 
tion of the temple settlement and cemetery at Eridu, directed 
by Firad Safar, gave a remarkably complete picture of the 
pre-Sumerians of the 4th and 5th millenia B.C.: discoveries 
included evidence of a culture earlier than that of al-Ubaid, 
with pottery resembling that of Halap and Samarra in 
northern Iraq: many prehistoric temples which contribute to 
the typology of temple building; and an al-Ubaid cemetery of 
great size and richness. Tell Hamal continued to produce a 
flood of documents of the beginning of the 2nd millenium 
B.C., the latest being a mathematical text. 

Persia. The work of the French archaeological mission at 
Susa fell into two parts. In the " Royal Town," beneath two 
Islamic occupations and one 6th-century, was found a brick- 
built town, which had been inhabited by Christian Persians 
but was destroyed with its inhabitants by Shapur II in the 




Arab workers, under the supervision oj J. L. Keiso, oj Pittsburgh, U.S., clearing earth from the site of an ancient fortress fa the ruined city 

of Jericho, Palestine. 



52 



ARCHAEOLOGY 



middle of the 4th-century. West of the main site an extensive 
necropolis was excavated. The tombs took the form of deep 
vaulted burial chambers, approached by shafts or steps; 
dated by R. Ghirshman as belonging to the period 300 B.C.- 
A.D. 300, they contained clay sarcophagi with associated 
pottery and alabaster vessels and figurines of both Hellenistic 
and oriental styles. 

Afghanistan. M. D. Schlumberger reported on excavations 
at one of three Ghaznavid palaces of Lashkari-Bazar, first 
located in 1948, near the great Ghaznavid fortress and city 
of Bust, about 90 mi. W. of Kandahar. Of considerable 
importance in the study of Moslem secular architecture, the 
palace examined was probably built by Mahmud of Ghazni, 
who began the Moslem drive on India early in the llth 
century; covering about 35 ac. and rectangular in outline, 
it was symmetrically planned round a great central courtyard 
with a large open bay in the middle of each side. In addition 
to suites of private apartments, the discoveries included a 
large banqueting hall and an audience chamber decorated 
with human figures (contrary to orthodox Moslem tradition) 
and stucco medallions. 

Pakistan. The government of Pakistan established a 
national museum at Karachi. The new Department of 
Antiquities began work (under R. E. Mortimer Wheeler) on 
the great prehistoric city of Mohenjo-daro in Sind. The 
brick-built walls of the granary of the citadel,* standing to a 
considerable height, showed the use of timber reinforcement, a 
feature not hitherto encountered in buildings rf the Indus 
civilization. (R. E. Mortimer Wheeler, Five Thousand Years 
of Pakistan, Karachi, 1950.) (J. CHN.) 

North America. W. F. Libby and James Arnold of the 
University of Chicago, having completed the testing-phase of 
the radioactive carbon isotope, Carbon 14 , for securing dates 
of prehistoric organic materials, made available in 1950 a list 
of samples dated by this means within the previous two years. 
The dates were to be correlated with archaeological and 
geological evidence, and statements as to the probable validity 
of the results obtained were expected from the investigators 
who provided the samples. Two additional Carbon 14 dating 
laboratories were being prepared for operation at the Univer- 
sity of Michigan and Columbia university. 

The problems of early cultures in the New World, particu- 
larly in North America, received considerable attention. The 
apparent gap between the chronologies of the later Indian 
cultures that could be connected with the historic period and 
early remains such as Folsom and Yuma was being closed. 
New dating techniques indicated that archaeologists had been 
too conservative in estimating recent chronologies, while 
geologists had over-estimated the age of late Pleistocene 
phenomena. 

George F. Carter continued work at La Jolla, California, on 
problems of terraces, valley fill, soils and sea-level and their 
relations to evidences of human occupation. One grinding 
stone, a core tool and two flint flakes found beneath the soils 
of the Scripps cliff came from formations that suggested that 
they had been deposited during a period of high sea-level and 
that man might have been there in interglacial times. 

Near Port Arthur, Ontario, Richard MacNeish of the 
National Museum of Canada discovered a site which offered 
additional information on Palaeo-Indian culture. Plain view- 
type projectile points, large crude choppers and a variety of 
flint scrapers, some very delicately chipped, were found in an 
old beach deposit now 235 ft. above the level of Lake Superior. 

J. L. Gidaings of the University of Alaska continued work 
at the remarkable early site at lyatayet on Cape Denbigh in 
Norton sound. Additional artifacts from the sealed basal 
layer of the deposit further demonstrated the relationship of 
this microlithic complex to the Folsom and Yuma cultures of 
western Nortli America and to the Mesolithic of northern 



Europe and Asia. This site is extremely important in that it 
has given the first clear evidence relating early cultures of the 
Old and New Worlds. 

The cave in the Trail creek region of Seward peninsula 
discovered in 1949 was completely excavated and 1 1 additional 
caves discovered, one of which proved to contain cultural 
material. In the surface layers Eskimo artifacts were found; 
but beneath these, separated by a layer of accumulated rock 
dust, was discovered a complex of flint artifacts very similar 
to that found by Giddings at lyatayet. 

Large-scale excavation took place on outstanding sites 
discovered by surveys of areas destined to be covered by the 
waters of reservoirs. Nearly all the fieldwork was done in 
co-operation with the River Basin Surveys project of the 
Smithsonian institution:. Robert L. Stephenson excavated a 
variety of sites in the Whitney reservoir area on the Brazos 
river in Texas. Most interesting were some unexplained large 
pits 60 to 70 ft. in diameter discovered near Lavon. Jack 
Hughes and Alex Krieger surveyed the Falcon Reservoir area 
on the lower Rio Grande and discovered a number of sites 
both historic and prehistoric. 

The Wisconsin Archaeological survey worked primarily at 
the Aztalan site. Two houses were found and new data added 
on stockade features and burials. The University of Michigan 
began a five-year survey and excavation programme in the 
central Mississippi valley between the mouths of the Illinois 
and Ohio rivers under the direction of James B. Griffin. 
Excavations were made at the Cahokia mound-group in an 
effort to define more closely the two Mississippian cultural 
levels found there; and surface surveys were extended down 
the Missouri side of the Mississippi to Cape Girardeau, out- 
lining a sequence from Eastern Archaic to Mississippian. 
The Ohio state museum excavated an Archaic site near 
Oxford, Ohio, and found a series of trough-like refuse pits, 
heavy stemmed projectile points, scrapers, bone awls and 
needles. A post-mould pattern was worked out. 

The University of Kentucky partially excavated a large 
Adena-culture burial mound in Mason county. The summer 
field school of the University of Georgia under the direction of 
A. R. Kelly continued survey and salvage in the projected 
reservoir areas of the lower Flint and Chattahoochee. William 
Sears excavated a burial mound at the Kolomoki site and 
found ceramics and other artifacts of the Weeden Island 
period. Ripley Bullen of the Florida Park service excavated at 
the Madirs Bickel Mound state monument and worked out 
the chronology of the site. John Goggin conducted the 
summer field session of the University of Florida at the 
Zetrouer site (17th-century Spanish-Indian) and briefly 
investigated Fort Pupa (a slightly earlier Spanish fort) on the 
St. Johns river. A large collection of European and aborig- 
inal artifacts was secured. 

The University and the Museum of New Mexico co-oper- 
ated with the National Park service in excavating sites that 
were to be flooded by the Chamita reservoir on the Chama 
river. A pueblo dating c. A.D. 1300 with some unusual 
semi-subterranean structures was one of the sites investigated. 
Paul Martin and John Rinaldo of the Chicago Natural 
History museum continued their work in the Pine Lawn valley 
in southwestern New Mexico, this season's efforts being 
particularly directed to the excavation of several dry caves. 

Central America. Jorge Acosta excavated at Tula and some 
of the smaller surrounding sites in Mexico. Most of the work 
at Tula was concentrated on the Quetzalcoatl structure. The 
Museo Nacional of Mexico continued work at the remarkable 
site of Tlatilco. Numerous additional burials were found, 
adding considerably to the collection of Middle Culture and 
Olmec-like grave furnishings. 

From the Rio de La Pasi6n in Guatemala Barnum Brown 
reported the discovery of a fragment of fossil bone, possibly 



ARCHERY ARCHITECTURE 



53 



sloth, which has three V-shaped cuts that appear to have been 
made in fresh bone by man. This specimen, associated with 
other Upper Pleistocene faunal remains, gave the first direct 
suggestion of very early occupation of Guatemala. 

Linton Satterthwaite of the Museum of Pennsylvania began 
a programme of investigation of house mounds in British 
Honduras. At Caracoi he found a number of previously 
undiscovered monuments including stelae with dates. At 
Benque Viejo a part of a magnificent stucco facade was 
uncovered in very good condition. Stanley Boggs continued 
work at Tazumal for the government of Salvador (this was 
the tenth season of work at this complex site, and considerable 
information was gathered on the relations of the Tohil 
plumbate horizon to the local equivalents of Maya classic). 

South America. In Chile a party headed by Greta Mostny 
of the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural conducted an 
ethnographic survey in the region near the town of Peine in 
the Atacama desert: small protohistoric stone buildings with 
some cut stone at the corners and in door jambs were dis- 
covered, and the culture was related to the modern occupation. 

Wendell C. Bennett of Yale university made a survey of the 
Montaro basin in the central highlands of Peru and excavated 
at the extensive prehistoric site of Huari. This latter work 
suggests strongly that Huari was the highland centre from 
which the coastal Tiahuanaco culture spread. M. and Mme. 
Henry Reichlen of the Mus6e de I'Homme, Paris, completed 
their work in the Cajamarca region of the northern highlands 
and continued in Lima, working up the material. Richard 
Schaedel of the University of Trujillo, Peru, conducted a study 
of prehistoric architecture on the north coast between Casma 
and Leche valleys. (J. A. F.) 

ARCHERY. The 1950 world championships were held 
in Copenhagen in July. Hans Deutgen (Sweden) won the 
men's title for the fourth time with a score of 3,141. E. Tang 
Holbek (Denmark) was second with 2,878, Russ Reynolds 
(U.S.A.) third with 2,854 and Frantisek Hadas (Czecho- 
slovakia), the 1949 runner-up, fourth with 2,801. The men's 
team results were: Denmark first, Sweden second, Czecho- 
slovakia third. The ladies' title was won by Jean Lee (U.S.A.) 
with 3,254 points. Jean Richards (U.S.A.) was second with 
2,919, and R. Windahl (Sweden) third. The ladies' team 
results were: Finland first, Sweden second, England third. 

At Oxford in August the British National championship 
results were, ladies: first, Mrs. George Arthur (Edgware, 
Middlesex) with 1,336; second, Mrs. A. W. Burton (Ports- 
mouth) with 1,326; third, Mrs. T. H. Fisher (Portsmouth) 
with 1,191. The gentlemen's results were : first, Russell 
J. Beal (Portsmouth) with 1,376; second, B. McNaughton 
(Portsmouth), 1,256; third, George Brown (London), 1,232. 
Hampshire teams won both the ladies' and gentlemen's 
county championships. 

In the United States championships, at Lancaster, Pennsyl- 
vania, Jean Lee (Massachusetts) won with 3,812 points; 
Ann Weber (New Jersey) was second with 3,584 and Mrs. J. 
Richards (California) third with 3,556. The first three men 
were Stan Overby (California), 3,249, Russ Reynolds (Ohio), 
3,1 1 5, and William Sterner (New York), 3,027. (C. B. E.) 

ARCHITECTURE. The completion of the new House 
of Commons was without doubt the architectural event which 
attracted most attention during 1950. The " Tudor Domestic'* 
style of the new chamber inevitably aroused controversy. 
There were those who would have preferred a conjectured 
reconstruction of St. Stephen's chapel, the first permanent 
home of the House of Commons, those who had wanted a 
faithful reconstruction of Sir Charles Barry's Gothic-revival 
chamber, and those who believed that each age should have 
the courage of its own architectural convictions and could 



see no reason why the new chamber was not frankly contem- 
porary. In his planning it was generally agreed Sir Giles 
Gilbert Scott (q.v.) had exercised considerable ingenuity. 
With only a slight addition in total height three extra floors 
had been fitted in. Two were in the vertical space of 27 ft. 
below the floor of the old chamber, where its heating and 
ventilating apparatus had been housed; these provided space 
for committee and ministers' rooms, for secretaries and for 
interviewing. The third extra floor, for the clerk of the House 
and his staff, was over the top of the new House. Accom- 
modation in the chamber itself was increased from 802 to 
939, chiefly by replanning and extending the galleries. The 
new floor of the House was not made larger since it was 
thought important to retain that sense of intimacy in debate 
which is characteristic of the House of Commons. An 
elaborate and advanced system of air-conditioning was 
designed by Oscar Faber. In view of the varying conditions 
in different parts of the House at different times, eight separate 
air-conditioning plants were provided. The wood used for 
the roof and for the major part of the panelling was oak 
and the floor of Queensland maple. 

The main structural work was completed on two of the 
largest buildings on the South Bank site of the 1951 Festival 
of Britain. On the Dome of Discovery building, the last 
sheet of aluminium for the roof was laid in October. The 
building would incorporate three platforms, supported on a 
concrete podium. The dome was supported on eight cigar- 
shaped steel struts, consisting of 3-in. tubes. The installation 
of the internal equipment for the permanent concert building, 
to be known as the Royal Festival hall, was well under way 
by the end of the year and was to be completed in time for 
the opening on May 3, 1951. On Nov. 9 the King and 
Queen visited the site of the ^Festival of Britain's " Live 
Architecture " exhibit, a new neighbourhood to be known 
as Lansbury. The scheme would finally form part of the 
London County council's long-term scheme for the compre- 
hensive redevelopment of the Stepney-Poplar reconstruction 
area and would cover an area of 30 ac. It was planned in the 
town planning division of the department of the architect 
to the L.C.C., Robert H. Matthew, under the planning 
officer Arthur Ling. A number of private architects were 
invited to design the various buildings that would form the 
neighbourhood. . 

In the City oS Westminster the housing problem was still 
very acute and drastic measures were needed to deal with it. 
The Westminster City council decided to concentrate on 
alleviating the shortage in one large area rather than several 
small ones. In 1945-46 a competition had been held to 
provide designs for a large number of dwellings on a site 
which covered 30 ac. and stretched 600 yd. along the north 
bank of the Thames at Pimlico. The winners were the firm 
of Powell and Moya, and the first block of flats in the scheme 
was completed in Oct. 1950. Density would be at 200 persons 
an acre and, apart from the flats, there would be about 30 
shops, laundries, a mortuary, a restaurant, public lavatories 
and a service station with an underground garage for 200 
cars. The scheme was to be carried out in four sections, 
the first consisting of 495 flats and the second of 300 dwellings 
some of which would be three-storey houses. When all 
sections were finished there would be a total of approximately 
1,600 dwellings. Space heating and domestic hot water 
were provided by a district heating system utilizing waste 
heat from Battersea power station which faced the site 
across the river. It was estimated that the scheme would 
save 10,000 tons of coal each year. 

Commonwealth. Australia. Designs were published for 
the new National university at Canberra. The architect was 
Professor Brian B. Lewis, of the University qf Melbourne. 
His designs were based on a main axis which followed a 



54 



ARCHITECTURE 



well-defined ridge of ground. At one end, above a future 
lake, there would be an open-air auditorium and along the 
ridge, ranged at each side of a central lawn, the library 
administrative offices and public lecture rooms. University 
house, at the other end of the axis, would be the social focus 
of the university and provision was made for employing the 
best Australian artists and sculptors to decorate it. The 
Institute of Physical Sciences would be the first faculty 
building to be completed, and this would later be followed 
by those for the Medical institute, and for the social sciences 
and Pacific studies departments. A housing scheme, sited 
on a steep slope overlooking the lake, formed part of the 
layout. The house types were designed in collaboration with 
Roy Grounds. 

Canada. The most interesting new building in Canada 
during 1950 took place in British Columbia. Sharing, as it 
does, many similarities of climate and geography with 
California, it is not surprising that the influence of San 
Francisco's Bay Region architecture should have been so 
marked. Among the most noteworthy buildings were Ridge- 
view Elementary school, the Vocational institute and a 
public library, all at Vancouver and all designed by the 
firm of Sharp and Thompson, Berwick, Pratt. An air- 
conditioned Gospel hall, was built in Vancouver to the 
designs of Robert R. McKee for the Plymouth Brethren; 
it comprised an auditorium to seat 600 and an insulated 
cry-room for babies and a cafeteria. A house overlooking 
the sea, also by McKee, was constructed of six-foot module 
fir posts and beams, faced with glass and cedar board. It 
had a large " Indian " mural by thf* architect, depicting a 
whale, painted on a screen wall outside the front door. 

South Africa. The first three floors of a building in 
Johannesburg, designed by J. C. Cook and Cowen for the 
South African Blood Transfusion services, were completed. 
A further seven floors, containing flats and professional 
suites, would be added later. The building would have a 
reinforced concrete frame structure; panel infillings and 
facings would be of brick and terrazo. In order to provide 
accommodation for the rapidly growing population of 
Salisbury, the capital of Southern Rhodesia, the city council 
inaugurated a scheme for a block of flats which would be 
the highest building in Rhodesia. Designed by the firm of 
Ross Mackenzie, van Heerden and Hartford, it would 
comprise 108 one-room and 84 two-room flpts on 12 floors. 
The foundations would be a reinforced concrete rait and 
spreader beams and the main structure, a series of parallel 
spine walls, would be carried at ground floor level on piers 
similar to those of Le Corbusier's Unite d' Habitation near 
Marseilles. Windows would be continuous, and protected 
by hoods against the midday sun. Finishes would be of 
brick and fair-faced concrete, with aluminium cladding for 
the projecting fins of the spine walls and a polished stone 
veneer round the main entrances. The flat reinforced concrete 
roof would be surfaced with bitumen, screed and a light 
44 umbrella " of corrugated asbestos. Vertical expansion 
joints would divide the building into seven separate structures. 

Europe. Denmark. One of the best office buildings in 
Copenhagen was completed for the Shell company. Designed 
by Wilhelm Lauritzen (architect also of the excellent broad- 
casting building) it had a reinforced concrete frame and was 
faced with black slate, the outlines of the framework being 
in white plaster. At Klampenborg, north of Copenhagen, 
a terrace of houses was built to the designs of Arne Jacobsen. 
Built of yellow brick, the south facades were mostly of glass. 
The roofs were low-pitched and covered with asbestos 
tiles. 

France. The results were announced of an important 
competition launched in April 1949 by the French Ministry 
of Reconstruction and Town Planning. The aims of the 



competition, which was concerned with the design ar 
construction of flats and houses, were threefold: to stimula 
new ideas; to provide a means of assessing under comparab 
conditions various building methods old and new; to arrr 
at new solutions of the housing problem that were bo 
economically feasible and aesthetically pleasing. The cor 
petitors formed groups consisting of architects, engineers ar 
builders, and entered schemes for any one of the thr 
suggested sites: (1) nine- to twelve-storey flats at Villeneuv 
Saint-George; (2) two- to four-storey flats at Creil-Cori 
piegne; and (3) bungalows or two-storey houses at Chartre 
The three winning designs, which it was intended to execu 
were (1) by Marc and Leo Solotareflf, architects, and Lajoini 
builders; (2) by Gravereaux, architect, and Societe" Cogetravo 
builders; and (3) by Camelot, Sainsaulieu and Rivet, arch 
tects, and Societe* Nouvelle de Construction et de Travau 
builders. 

Germany. The building that temporarily housed the fir 
parliament of the German federal republic was inaugurate 
in 1950. Originally erected by the Prussian government i 
1930 as part of Bonn university, it occupied a fine site on tf 
banks of the Rhine. Alterations and additions were mac 
under the direction of Professor Hans Schwippert to pro vie 
a large hall for the Bundestag (lower house), a restaurant t 
seat all members of both houses and additional offices. , 
great deal of ingenuity was shown in the construction whic 
had to be completed in four months during which the existir 
building continued in use. The impersonal simplicity of tf 
earlier building was carried successfully through into the ne 
wings. 

Italy. In Rome the important extensions to the ne 
railway station were nearing completion. They were designe 
by two groups of architects who shared first prizes in 
competition held shortly after World War II. The first pa 
of the new station was completed just before the war, in tfc 
style popular under Mussolini, with facades resembling 
Roman aqueduct. The exceptionally elegant new extensior 
of glass and reinforced concrete provided a marked contra; 
with the original work. 

Switzerland. Two notable buildings were both in Genev; 
One was a block of flats, by Marc T. Saugey. The othe 
a Protestant church and assembly hall by W. M. Moser, < 
Haefeli, Moser and Steiger, with an exposed reinforce 
concrete frame, had walls of specially designed concrel 
blocks and circular sheets of glass. 

Eastern Europe. In both Hungary and Czechoslovakia 
number of good modern buildings were completed, apparent! 
still free from the stultifying grip of Stalinist aesthetic theor 
This could not be due to ignorance of the party line since th 
architectural magazines of both countries devoted a larj 
amount of space'in an attempt to elucidate it. In Hungai 
the most interesting buildings were the new school fc 
apprentices attached to the Matyas Rakosi metal foundr 
and the clinic at Ujpcst by Ferenc Kiss. In Czechoslovak!; 
a central post office at Bratislava was built by Krama 
The structural framework was of steel with a brick infillinj 
faced with Slovak sandstone. A 1 3-storey block of flats fc 
factory workers was completed at Horni Litvinov. Tt 
design, by E. Linhart and V. Hylsky, won first prize in 
competition held in 1947. The flats provided accommodatic 
for single people and families and included day nurseries, 
nursery school and a central kitchen with canteen. The stru< 
ture, of steel with brick infilling, was faced with prefabricate 
panels. (I. R. M. M.) 

United States. The general effect of the Korean war o 
the U.S. architectural profession had some immediate effec 
in 1950. Credit controls at once curtailed building i 
the small house field. The directive on credit controls wi 
followed by restrictive order M-4 of the National Productio 



ARCHITECTURE 



55 




MODERN HOUSING ami 
PUBLIC BUILDINGS 

A single- storey hou.se in 
Denmark by E. Hoff and 
B. Winding? (2) and flats in 
Geneva by Marc T. Saugey (4) 
arc examples of housing in 
1950. The Parliament building 
(l)al Bonn, Western Germany, 
which wax inaugurated in 1950. 
In Geneva, a new Protestant 
church by W. M. Moser (3) 
was completed, while in Rome 
progress was made on the new 
railway station (5) which was 
started before World War 11. 



56 



AREAS AND POPULATIONS 



authority. This banned amusement and recreational building. 
Its effect was immediate, especially as it was apparently the 
forerunner of further restrictive orders to come. 

The slight panic nevertheless quickly evaporated. The 
reluctance on the part of contractors to submit firm bids 
appeared to be lessening toward the end of the year. Curiously 
enough there arose an interesting stimulation of immediate 
planning in various non-military fields. This was the result 
of a desire to get planning work under way, and if possible 
construction also, before the country found itself in a serious 
predicament. As the year closed, the outlook for the pro- 
fession was more stable that it had been six months earlier. 

Residential. Considerable interest was focused in 1950 
upon the public housing programme. At the close of the 
year this programme was almost entirely in the planning 
stage, and the rise in prices was causing a drastic change in 
the planning phases. It was obvious that, under existing 
authorizations and appropriations, the programme could not 
be carried out as originally foreseen. The official remedy had 
been the cutting down of space allotments and the elimination 
of any superfluity in architectural design. 

In the private residential field there was in some areas a 
marked falling off in construction of'what are loosely termed 
** luxury houses.*' Houses well out of the low-cost range 
were being built in Texas, Nebraska and other places which 
hitherto had not been especially noteworthy in this field. 
An interesting manifestation was the building of fine homes 
for well-to-do farmers and ranchers in remote p^.rts of the 
middle west. Very often in these houses the architects had 
the opportunity to develop completely contemporary and 
up-to-date structures. 

Many interesting smaller modern houses were designed and 
built, and modern architecture seemed to be passing through 
its growing stages and arriving at maturity. In many of 
these houses the modernistic cliches had been eliminated 
except where the design of modern houses had fallen into 
less capable hands, or in some instances had fallen outside 
the hands of the profession completely. 

Techniques and Materials. There was an increasing con- 
centration on research, in which the American Institute of 
Architects was taking a leading role, as was the Building 
Research Advisory board, set up under the National Research 
council and supported entirely by the construction industry. 

The construction industry also established a project to 
explore and advocate modular co-ordination. This was 
being carried out under the immediate direction of the 
American Institute of Architects and was expected to have 
a profound effect on architectural design in general. Weather 
conditions which affected the design of buildings were also 
being studied. 

Commercial. The general tendency toward decentralization 
throughout the country gave the architect a chance to develop 
a new field of design, principally of the shopping centre and 
of the supermarket, a peculiarly American institution. 

Further studies were made in the field of indoor and out- 
door car-parking facilities, and new and ingenious develop- 
ments were being carried out in public garages. The open-air 
cimena which, in its initial development, seemed to offer 
little opportunity to the architect, had progressed to a point 
where architectural service was demanded, and some archi- 
tects had become experts in this field. No longer was the 
open-air cinema simply a screen set up on a piece of waste 
land: it had become an architecturally planned centre of 
amusement. 

In 1950 office building design was characterized by greater 
simplicity bordering on barrenness, except in the case of 
the U.N. building in New York city, which was a special- 
purpose building. The year saw a breaking-away from the 
skyscraper per se. There no longer appeared to be a striving 



for a building higher than its fellows for the sake of the 
owner's prestige. 

Governmental. In governmental architecture there was, 
too, a trend toward simplicity. Great attention was paid to 
functional suitability and to the lowering of maintenance 
cost. That these objectives could be achieved with a corres- 
ponding improvement in the architectural appearance of a 
building was shown in Louis Justement's courthouse, under 
construction in Washington. 

To sum up the architectural progress of 1950, there was an 
intelligent concentration on study and research, an adapta- 
bility to the national economic pattern and a steady advance, 
despite a momentary uncertainty brought about by the 
disturbed international situation. (See also BUILDING AND 
CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY; HOUSING; INTERIOR DECORATION; 
TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING.) (ED. R. P.) 

AREAS AND POPULATIONS OF THE 
COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD. The political entities 
of the world are listed here with their areas, populations and 
number of persons per square mile. The latest census or 
official estimates are given for each country. Areas in square 
miles are in accordance with the boundaries for the year of 
the population figure unless otherwise noted. 



Name of continent and state Area 


Population 


(sq.mi.) 


COOO) per sq.mi. 


WORLD TOTAL . . . 58,062,977 


2,388,939 45-9* 


AFRICA 11,611,409 


191,410 16-5 


Belgian colony and trusteeship . 925,094 


14,811 


British colonies, dependencies, etc. 3,046,063 


67,038 


Egypt 383,000 


20,045 52-3 


Ethiopia 350,000 


10,000 28-6 


French overseas territories . 4,270,896 


50,037 


Italian trusteeship and condominium 194,000 


955 4-9 


Liberia 43,000 


1,648 38-3 


Libya 679,183 


1,177 1'7 


Portuguese colonies . . . 794,959 


11,480 


South-West Africa (mandate of 




Union of South Africa) . . 317,725 


374 1-2 


Spanish colonies and protectorate . 134,763 


1,587 


Tangier, International Zone of . 232 


150 646-6 


Union of South Africa . . 472,494 


12,108 25-6 


ANTARCTICA .... 6,000,000 


Uninhabited 


ASIA (exclusive of U.S.S.R.) . 10,575,583 


1,274,211 120-5 


Afghanistan .... 270,000 


12,000 44-4 


Arabian desert .... 193,000 


Uninhabited 


Bhutan 18,000 


300 16-7 


British colonies, dependencies, etc. 245,932 


10,577 


Burma 261,749 


18,200 69-5 


Ceylon 25,332 


7,500 296-1 


China (including Formosa, Kwan- 




tung, Manchuria and Tibet) . 3,876,956 


475,000 122-5 


French overseas territories . 285,987 


27,777 


India . . . 1,220,099 


347,340 284-5 


Indonesia . 




583,479 


79,260 135-8 


Iraq . 




116,600 


4,990 42-8 


Israel 




7,800 


1,247 159-9 


Japan (1949) 




146,690 


83,074 566 3 


Jordan 




37,110 


400; 


Korea 




85,225 


29,291 343-2 


Kuwait 




9,000 


120 13-3 


Lebanon 




3,470 


1,238 356-8 


Mongolia . 




606,000 


2,000 3-3 


Nepal 




54,000 


6,910 128-0 


Netherlands New Guin< 


,a 


151,789 


1,000 6-6 


Oman and Masqat 
Pakistan 




65.000 
3371524 


830 12-8 
75,000 222-2 


Persia 




634,413 


18,387 29-0 


Philippines . 




115,600 


19,356 167-4 


Portuguese colonies 




8,876 


1,487 


Qatar 




4,000 


16 4-0 


Ryukyu Is. (U.S. occup 


ied tc 


rr.) - 935 


909 972-2 


Saudi Arabia 




597,000 


6,000 10-1 


Sikkim 




2,745 


122 444 


Syria 




72,560 


3,407 47-0 


Thailand (Siam) . 




198,272 


17,987 90-7 


Trucial Sheikhdoms 




16,000 


105 6-6 


Turkey 




296,185 


20,903 70-6 


Yemen 




31,000 


1,600 51-6 



ARGENTINA 



57 



Name of continent and state Area 


Population 


(sq.mi.) 


('000) (per sq.mi.) 


AUSTRALIA AND OCEANIA . . 3,304,507 


12,759 


3-9 


Australia 2,974,581 


8,179 


2-7 


Australian dependencies . . 183,553 


1,313 




British colonies, dependencies, etc. 24,700 


552 





French colonies ... 9,199 


109 





New Zealand 


103,416 


1,881 


18-2 


New Zealand dependencies 


1,656 


93 





United States possessions . 


7,402 


632 





EUROPE (exclusive of U.S.S.R.) 


1,903,369 


391,902 


205-9 


Albania .... 


10,629 


1,300 


122-3 


Andorra .... 


191 


5 


26-2 


Austria .... 


32,375 


7,090 


218-9 


Belgium .... 


11,783 


8,614 


731-1 


British colonies and dependencies 


124 


337 





Bulgaria .... 


42,796 


7,160 


167-3 


Czechoslovakia (1950) . 


49,330 


12,463 


252-6 


Denmark (excl. Greenland, incl 








Faeroe Islands) 


17,109 


4,261 


249-1 


Estonia .... 


18,357 


854 


46-5 


Finland (including Aland islands) 


130,159 


4,015 


30-8 


France .... 


213,010 


42,000 


197-2 


Germany (1950, including Saar) 


138,017 


69,382 


505-2 


Greece (including Dodecanese) 


51,182 


7,960 


155-5 


Hungary .... 


35,893 


9,201 


256-3 


Iceland .... 


39,768 


140 


3-5 


Ireland .... 


26,602 


2,991 


112-4 


Italy (1950) 


116,224 


46,001 


395-8 


Latvia .... 


25,395 


1,650 


65-0 


Liechtenstein 


61 


13 


213-1 


Lithuania .... 


25,173 


2,353 


93-5 


Luxembourg 


1,010 


295 


292-1 


Monaco .... 


0-6 


23 


. 


Netherlands 


12,868 


9,955 


773-6 


Norway (including Spitsbergen) 


149,161 


3,237 


21-7 


Poland (1950) . 


120,359 


25,036 


208-0 


Portugal (incl. Azores and Madeira 


35,413 


8,491 


239-8 


Rumania .... 


91,654 


15,873 


173-2 


San Marino 


38 


13 


342-1 


Spain (including Canary Islands) 


194,945 


28,023 


143-7 


Sweden .... 


173,390 


6,986 


40-3 


Switzerland 


15,940 


4,696 


294-6 


Trieste, Free Territory of 


293 


381 





United Kingdom 


94,205 


49,919 


529-9 


Vatican City 


0-5 


1 





Yugoslavia (after Sept. 15, 1947) . 98,826 


16,040 


162-3 


U.S.S.R. (1950 area, 1946 pop. est.) 8,436,188 


193,000 


22-9 


NORTH AMERICA . . . 9,375,934 


217,192 


23-2 


British colonies and dependencies . 2 1 ,060 


2,751 





Canada 3,843,144 


13,845 


3-6 


Costa Rica 19,238 


851 


44-2 


Cuba 44,217 


5,400 


122-1 


Danish colony (Greenland) . . 840,000 


23 





Dominican Republic . . . 19,129 


2,400 


125-5 


French territory and departments . 1 ,206 


553 





Guatemala . ... 45,452 


3,784 


83-3 


Haiti . ... 10,748 


3,750 


348-9 


Honduras . ... 59,160 


1,534 


25-9 


Mexico . ... 760,373 


25,368 


33-4 


Netherlands Anti Ics . . . 403 


165 


409-4 


Nicaragua . . . . 57,145 


1,503 


26-3 


Panama . ... 28,575 


764 


26-7 


Salvador, El . . . 13,176 


2, 150 


163-2 


United States . . . 3,022,387 


150,697 


50-6 


United States possessions . . 590,521 


2,418 


._ 


SOUTH AMERICA . . . 6,856,054 


108,465 


15-8 


Argentina 1,079,965 


17,098 


15-8 


Bolivia 416,040 


3,990 


9-6 


Brazil 3,286,170 


50,000 


15-2 


British colonies and dependencies . 90,68 1 


410 





Chile 286,323 


5,761 


20-1 


Colombia 439,714 


11,015 


25-1 


Ecuador 104,510 


3.404 


32-6 


French Guiana .... 34,740 


35 


1-0 


Netherlands territory (Surinam) . 54,291 


192 


3-5 


Paraguay 157,047 


1,304 


8-3 


Peru 482,258 


8,204 


17-0 


Uruguay 72,172 


2.353 


32-6 


Venezuela 352,143 


4,697 


13-3 



* In computing the world density the area of Antarctica is omitted, 
t Includes Eritrea as military trustee area. 
t Population of former Tramjordan only. 

I Areas and populations of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania included in 1950 
and 1946 U.S.S.R. totals. 



ARGENTINA. Second largest South American republic, 
occupying the southeastern portion of the continent. Area 
(excluding the so-called " Zona Austral " which is supposed 
to comprise the "Malvinas"; i.e., Falklands, and other 
islands or territory in Antarctica): 1,079,965 sq.mi. Pop.: 
(May 10, 1947, census) 16,108,573; (mid-1948 est.) 16,300,000. 
The population is overwhelmingly European in origin (mostly 
Spanish and Italian, with Irish, German, Croat and Polish 
admixtures); in 1940 about 9% were of mixed blood, the 
dwindling Indian population was estimated at 262,600 and the 
total of foreign-born population was 2,355,900. The distri- 
bution of the population is uneven: the federal capital and the 
four provinces of the littoral (La Plata, Corrientes, Parana 
and Sante F6) cover only one-fifth of the total area but have 
two-thirds of the country's population; urban population is 
estimated at 75%. Language: Spanish. Religion: mainly 
Roman Catholic; Jewish 360,000. Chief towns (pop. 1947 
est.): Buenos Aires (/.v.) (capital and leading port, 3,000,371); 
Avellaneda, a Buenos Aires suburb (279,572); Rosario 
(464,688); C6rdoba (351,644); La Plata (271,738); Lanus 
(242,760); Santa F6 (168,01 1); Tucuman (152,508). President 
of the republic, General Juan Domingo Peron. 

History. The Argentine national hero, General Jos6 de San 
Martin, died in exile in France in 1850. The year 1950 was 
officially dedicated to his memory, and it was decreed that on 
every day throughout the centennial year the words Afro del 
Libertador General San Martin were to be added to the 
calendar date at the head of all newspapers and other printed 
matter. In January one hundred or more newspapers in 
Buenos Aires and the provinces were closed for varying 
periods by order of a congressional committee, on the pretext 
that they had failed to print the prescribed legend in their 
date-lines. Most of these publications happened to be news- 
papers which were known to be in some degree critical of 
President Per6n's regime. The committee which performed 
this indirect censorship had been appointed originally to 
investigate " anti-Argentine activities " and was headed by 
Jos6 Emilio Visca. By taking control of the country's chief 
newsprint stock, Visca obtained almost complete power over 
the Argentine press, though La Prensa, in spite of considerable 
obstruction, managed to preserve its traditionally independent 
outlook. Visca's intolerance aroused indignation in the 
United States at a time when Argentina was badly in need of 
economic assistance from Washington. In March the U.S. 
assistant secretary of state, Edward G. Miller, visited Buenos 
Aires and indicated that if certain concessions were made to 
U.S. susceptibilities a dollar credit might be forthcoming. A 
few days later the Argentine minister of the treasury, Ramon 
A. Cereijo, concluding a two months' visit to North America, 
assured U.S. businessmen that Argentina would welcome 
private U.S. capital and would treat it fairly. In May it was 
announced that the Export-Import Bank of Washington would 
be willing to grant a credit of $125 million to a group of 
Argentine banks for the purpose of cancelling the debts which 
Argentine importers owed to U.S. firms. At the beginning of 
June the Argentine congress pointedly did not re-nominate 
Visca to his post on the committee of investigation. 

To improve the balance of dollar payments the Argentine 
government also restricted imports from the United States 
and made a big effort to increase exports to that country. In 
the first half of the year exports to the U.S rose from the 1949 
figure of 107 million pesos to 467-8 million, while imports 
from the U.S. were reduced from the 1949 figure of 372-8 
million pesos to 321 -6 million. The subsequent outbreak of 
war in Korea stimulated U.S. demand for Argentine products. 

On July 17 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs published 
Argentina's reply to the appeal of the secretary general of the 
United Nations for support in connection with the Korean 
war The reply declared Argentina's willingness 1 to fulfil her 



58 



ARMIES OF THE WORLD 



obligations and added: "We are waiting for the unified 
command to enter into direct communication with the 
Argentine government." The publication of this message 
immediately provoked public demonstrations against Argen- 
tina's participation in hostilities. People marched through 
the streets of Buenos Aires and Rosario shouting " We want 
peace ! ", " Keep our children out of war ! " On the following 
day the Ministry of Foreign Affairs explained that the reply 
to the United Nations did not commit Argentina to send 
troops to Korea as that would require the sanction of congress. 

For the national economy it was unfortunate that the far 
eastern war began in a year when Argentina's agricultural 
production was suffering from the effects of a serious drought 
and from the effects of the government's previous policy of 
encouraging urban industry at the expense of agriculture. 
Before the outbreak of hostilities it had already become 
apparent that Per6n's industrialization projects still depended 
on the importing of equipment and fuel which, because of the 
evaporation of foreign currency reserves, could now only be 
paid for by increasing the export of Argentina's traditional 
pastoral and agricultural products. In April, therefore, the 
president launched a campaign for an increase in the sowing 
of cereals and announced the higher prices which the I.A.P.I. 
(Institute Argentine de Promoci6n de Intercambio) would 
pay for the forthcoming crops. On June 7 Peron raised the 
official price of steers by 23 %. In September and October 
further increases were announced in the prices at which 
I.A.P.I. would purchase cereals. 

Throughout the year Anglo- Argentine commercial and 
financial negotiations were periodically broken off and resumed. 
Although trade between the two countries was substantial, 
there was great dissatisfaction on both sides. Because of the 
devaluation of sterling, Argentina now asked for 140 a ton 
for meat, whereas the United Kingdom offered 90. The 
Argentine authorities demanded compensation on their 
sterling balances existing at the time of the 1949 devaluation of 
the pound, but the British contended that no such balances 
existed at that date. The British negotiators complained that 
the Argentine government had only issued import licences for 
an insignificant quantity of non-essential manufactures and 
that there were enormous arrears of commercial and other 
debts owing to Great Britain for which remittance permits had 
not been granted. The Argentines replied that they had no 
sterling available for those purposes. On Jijly 21, as no price 
agreement had been reached, I.A.P.I. instructed the local 
meat-packing organizations to cease shipping meat to the 
U.K. On Aug. 21 the Ministry of Economic Affairs announced 
new and higher minimum prices for light steers in preference 
to the heavy steers traditionally bred in Argentina for the U.K. 
market. The ministry stated that Argentine stock-breeders 
must now cater for European and South American markets 
where light steers were preferred, and that they must no longer 
cater only for the U.K. The suspension of shipments to the 
U.K., coupled with the difficulty of finding alternative 
markets, caused a great accumulation of meat in the packing 
houses, and on Oct. 18 the Ministry of Economic Affairs 
therefore authorized the packers to use their stocks of frozen 
meat for canning. At the end of November negotiations 
between the U.K. and Argentina were once again resumed in 
London and Buenos Aires. 

On Aug. 28 the Ministry of Finance announced a simpli- 
fication in the Argentine system of multiple exchange rates. 
The new system and rates represented a substantial devalua- 
tion of the peso. It was anticipated that this devaluation 
would assist the export of Argentine products and thereby 
enable Argentina to purchase from abroad the essential 
supplies which, under the influence of the Korean war, were 
becoming scarcer and more expensive. 

The cost o*f living continued to rise during 1950, and many 



strikes occurred. The higher wages demanded by the strikers 
were invariably granted, and the popularity of the regime did 
not diminish. Provincial congressional elections took place in 
March, with satisfactory results for Per6n's party. Colonel 
Domingo Mercante, a supporter and close friend of the 
president, was re-elected governor of the province of Buenos 
Aires. His Radical opponent, Ricardo Balbin, was arrested 
on polling day. 

In September Per6n made a speech in which he defined his 
policy as being ideologically " on the left, on the right, or in 
the centre, according to events." He said: " We are altogether 
anti-sectarian. We are anti-Communist because the Com- 
munists are sectarian, and we are anti-capitalist because the 
capitalists are sectarian too." The president stated that he 
had raised three great banners: " Economic independence, 
social justice and national sovereignty," and he named his 
policy Justicialismo, the policy of justice. (G. P.) 

Education. Schools (1945): primary 14,294, pupils 2,064,464, teachers 
79,741; secondary (1946) 1,145, pupils 221,409, teachers 28,360; 
universities (1943) 8, students 62,870. 

Agriculture. Main crops ('000 metric tons, 1948-49; 1949-50 in 
brackets): wheat 5,170 (5,720); barley 610 (600); oats 700 (650); rye 
250 (240); maize 4,600 (2,000); potatoes 850 (1,210); linseed 490 (600); 
sunflower seed 1,100 (800); groundnuts 100 (110); tobacco 26 (27); 
cotton, ginned 91 (93); rice 120 (HO); sugar, raw value, 565 (549). 
Livestock ('000 head): cattle (1947) 41,268; sheep (1949) 45,000; 
pigs (1949) 3,500; horses (1949) 7,238; asses and mules (1949) 501; 
poultry (1949) 20,000. Meat production ('000 metric tons, 1949): 
beef 1,814. Wool production ('000 metric tons, greasy basis, 1948-49; 
1949-50 in brackets): 209 (200). 

Industry. Industrial establishments (1947) 101,884; persons employed 
in manufacturing industries (1949) 1,169,000. Fuel and power: coal 
('000 metric tons, 1947) 32-9; crude oil ('000 metric tons, 1949; 1950, 
six months, in brackets) 3,200 (1,655); electricity consumption (million 
kwh., 1948; 1949, six months, in brackets) 3,072 (1,588). Raw materials 
('000 metric tons, 1949): lead 18; zinc 19; sulphur 9; iron ore 22. 
Manufactured goods (main products, '000 metric tons, 1949; 1950, 
six months, in brackets): iron and steel products 154; cement 1,440 
(776); paper pulp 37; rubber types ('000 units) 820. 

Foreign Trade. (Million pesos, 1949; 1950, six months, in brackets) 
import 4,645-4 (2,278-1); export 3,717-5 (2,566-7). Main sources of 
imports (1949): Italy 16%; U.K. 15-6%; U.S. 14-8%; France 10-0%. 
Main destinations of exports: U.K. 22-8%; Brazil 10-9%; U.S. 
10-7%. Main imports (1949): machinery and vehicles 21-5%; textiles 
18-6%; iron and steel goods 16-3%; fuel and lubricants 10-7%. Main 
exports : meat and animal products 50 5% ; agricultural products 45 -0%. 

Transport and Communications. Roads (1949): 20,082 mi. Licensed 
motor vehicles (Dec. 1949): cars 250,000; commercial 160,000. Rail- 
ways (1948): 26,568 mi.; freight carried (1948) 43 million tons; passengers 
carried (1947) 335 million. Shipping (July 1949): number of merchant 
vessels over 100 gross tons 403; total tonnage 834,840. Air transport 
(1949, six months): mi. flown 3,996,721; passengers flown 132,538; 
cargo carried 302,004 tons; air mail carried 51,779 tons. Telephones 
(1949): subscribers 650,058. Wireless licences (1949): 2 million. 

Finance and Banking. (Million pesos) budget: (1950 est.) revenue 
4,870-0, expenditure 5,040-9; (1951 est.) revenue 4,844-1, expenditure 
4,844-0. Budget of autonomous agencies (1950; 1951 in brackets): 
balanced at 5,022-7 (5,987-9). National debt (Dec. 1948; Dec. 1949 
in brackets): 12,940 (15,408). Currency circulation (July 1949; July 
1950 in brackets): 7,018 (9,174). Gold reserve (million U.S. dollars, 
July 1949; July 1950 in brackets): 167 (216). Monetary unit: peso with 
a free market rate (pre-devaluation, 1949; Nov. 1950 in brackets) of 
19-38 (38-22) pesos to the pound and 4-81 (13-65) pesos to the U.S. 
dollar. 

See J. C. J. Melford, San Martin: The Liberator (Oxford, 1950). 

ARMIES OF THE WORLD. Three outstanding 
developments affected the armies of the world during 1950: 
on June 25 the army of North Korea invaded South Korea; 
the United States abandoned attempts to economize in its 
defence expenditure, passed a new draft law and began 
major shipments of arms to North Atlantic treaty nations 
while greatly expanding its own ground forces; and Chinese 
Communist troops intervened in Korea, and China launched 
an invasion of Tibet and built up forces in Kwangtung for 
a possible amphibious thrust at Formosa or support of the 
Communist forces in Indo-China. 

The major changes in the disposition of the armies of the 



ARMIES OF THE WORLD 



59 



world during 1950 resulted from the Korean war. Nearly 
all of the U.S. forces of occupation in Japan were sent to 
Korea, while most of the regular army troops in the United 
States were also sent to the far east. Within the United 
States the troops being sent overseas were replaced by con- 
scripts and the activation of four national guard divisions. 
France continued to send additional troops, mostly colonials, 
to Indo-China. At the same time a gradual build-up of 
strength commenced among the North Atlantic treaty 
nations. There was little change in the disposition of the 
Soviet and satellite armies. 

Great Britain. The international crisis forced Great Britain 
to modify its programme for economic recovery and concen- 
trate on building up its armed forces. In July a three-year 
defence plan was announced, involving an expenditure of 
3,400 million. Military service for men from 18 to 26 was 
extended from 18 months to two years and service pay was 
increased by as much as 75 % for some ranks. Increases in 
pay would add another 200 million to defence expenditure. 
Great Britain was to expand its forces in Germany, and pro- 
duce tanks, transport and heavy artillery for the Atlantic 
treaty army. 

Disposition. Steps were taken during 1950 to increase the 
army by 55,000. This was to bring the 6^ divisions overseas to 
full strength. A new division, the 1 Hh Armoured, was moved 
to Germany, joining the 7th Armoured and 2nd Infantry 
which were already in the British Army of the Rhine. British 
troop strength of about 50,000 was maintained in the middle 
east with a concentration in the Suez canal zone and with 
troops in Eritrea and Cyprus. There was the equivalent of 
two divisions in Malaya together with about 70,000 police of 
all types. Strength in Hong Kong was 40,000. In Korea the 
28th and 29th brigades and supporting troops, including 
armour, fought as part of the United Nations forces. 

Equipment. The 60-ton Centurion tank, which saw some 
service in Korea, was one of the best heavy tanks in the world, 
along with the Soviet Stalin Mark III. However, British 
production of the Centurion was only slightly more than 100 
a year. (See BRITISH ARMY.) 

United States. At the beginning of 1950 the U.S. army 
faced an economy programme, by which the number of troops 
would be reduced from 677,000 to 630,000. At this time about 
20% of the strength of the army was allocated to " house- 
keeping " duties normally performed by civilian employees 
who had been dismissed during the economy drive. Conse- 



quently, when hostilities broke out in Korea the army had 
only about 596,000 men. 

With the bulk of the regular army committed in Korea, the 
trend was completely reversed. The rate of military appro- 
priations indicates the development of plans for U.S. rearma- 
ment. The appropriation for the army for the fiscal year 1950 
was $4,407 million. With economy in mind the initial 
appropriation for the fiscal year 1951 (beginning July 1, 1950) 
was $4,018 million, a reduction of $389 million. The over-all 
defence appropriation for this period was $13,000 million. 
However, during 1950 congress passed two supplementary 
defence appropriations the first for $1 1,000 million and the 
second for $15,000 million, bringing defence appropriations 
to more than $42,000 million or three times the original 
figure by the end of the calendar year. Of this amount approxi- 
mately half was for the army and provided for a strength of 
1,263,000 men. 

At the outbreak of the Korean war in June 1950 the U.S. 
army had only ten active divisions. Of these, four were on 
occupation duty in Japan, one was in Germany and the rest 
were in the U.S. Two of the divisions in the U.S., the 2nd 
and 3rd Infantry, were sent to Korea and four National 
guard divisions the 28th (Pennsylvania), 40th (California), 
43rd (Connecticut, Rhode Island and Vermont) and 45th 
(Qklahoma) were called to active duty. In addition the 
196th (South Dakota) and 278th (Tennessee) Regimental 
Combat teams were called up, These units were to be brought 
to full strength with drafted men. Some non-divisional 
National guard units were mobilized to replace units of 
regular divisions sent overseas. The strength of the National 
guard at the start of the Korean conflict was 325,976 and 
included 27 divisions and 20 regimental combat teams. At 
that time the organized reserve had a strength of 185,000 and 
the volunteer reserve 337,000. By the end of 1950 more than 
200,000 men had been inducted into the army under selective 
service, bringing the over-all ground strength to nearly a 
million. Plans called for the equivalent of 24 divisions to be 
organized by June 1951. 

Disposition. Approximately half the U.S. troops, 314,000, 
were in the United States during the first half of 1950, and 
about 100,000 in Europe and 150,000 in the Pacific area. At 
the end of 'the year U.S. troop strength in the Pacific was 
considerably greater, the forces stationed in Europe increasing 
only slightly. 

Steps were taken to transform the occupation forces in 




Tanks of the French tinny taking part in manoeuvres, Aug. 30 to Sept. /, 7950 



60 



ARMIES OF THE WORLD 



Germany into a component part of the Atlantic treaty army. 
The 7th U.S. army was put on an active service footing with 
headquarters at Stuttgart. The first combat forces assigned 
to this army included the 1st U.S. Infantry division and 
constabulary units which were to be reorganized into an 
armoured division. 

Training, The U.S. army began to put its stations on an 
active basis and modernize training areas necessary for 
handling an army of two to three times the size of the regular 
army in 1950. Initial plans called for the induction of about 
80,000 men a month during the early part of 1951. 

During 1950 three major training exercises were conducted. 
In February " Sweetbriar " was held in Alaska jointly with 
the Canadian army to test arctic equipment and technique. 




Fifty-ton Centurion tanks oj the British army, each carrying a 
20-pdr. gun seen at Catterick camp, Yorkshire. 

About 5,300 troops participated in a " mechanized march " 
across difficult Alaskan terrain to attack an airstrip held by 
an "aggressor*' force. The U.S. 14th Regimental Combat 
team and elements of Princess Patricia's Canadian Light 
infantry, with some airborne troops, participated. " Portex," 
held in March, was the largest peacetime amphibious-airborne 
joint operation held up to the end of 1950. With about 
80,000 U.S. army, navy, marine and air force personnel 
participating this exercise was designed to provide training 
in joint operations including airborne-amphibious techniques, 
to test under service conditions and to train the defence 
forces of the Caribbean command. In May " S warmer " 
put to test a purely aerial invasion. Conducted with about 
63,000 men and 375 planes, including the bulk of the 1 Ith and 
82nd Airborne divisions, this operation tested the practicality 
of capturing and supporting completely from the air a foothold 
in enemy-held territory. The operation proved that capture 
of an airhead was feasible and that airborne operations of a 
greater scope than any attempted in World War II could be 
mounted. The principal lesson from this exercise was that 
paratroopers needed to be protected from enemy tank 
attacks. Another training problem which received attention 
in 1950 was that of close support of ground units by tactical 
aircraft. An army air-support centre was established at Fort 
Bragg, North Carolina, to train air-ground teams. 
Equipment. New tanks put into production during 1950 
included a light tank, the T-41, weighing 28 tons, mounting 
a 76-mm. gun, with a speed of 35 m.p.h. The T-41 was stated 
to be superior to anything in its class, including the thinly 
armoured M-24 light tank which mounted a 75-mm. gun. An 
improved medium tank, the M-47, was also put into produc- 
tion. A development of the General Patton, the new tank had 
similar characteristics, such as a weight of 48 tons, a 90-mm. 
gun and a speed of 33 m.p.h. 

A new anti-tank weapon was also produced in 1950, a 
105-mm. jeep-mounted recoilless rifle. This weapon was 
designed for infantry units, to be used with 5 5-in. bazookas 
and the 75-mm. recoilless rifle against armour. 



U.S.S.R. There was little evidence of change in the over-all 
strength of the Soviet army in 1950. With about 100 divisions 
at full strength, and another 100 in cadres, the U.S.S.R. was 
maintaining about 2-5 million men on active service in the 
army. Because the proportion of administrative and supply 
troops was smaller in the Russian army than in the western 
armies, this number gave the U.S.S.R. a higher proportion 
of effective combatants than would usually be the case for 
this number of men in an army. The published defence 
appropriations for 1950 amounted to 19% of the total 
budget. 

Disposition. No major changes in disposition of the Soviet 
army took place in 1950. About 30 to 35 divisions were 
maintained in Germany at full strength (1 1,000 for the infantry 
units). These divisions included six armoured formations 
and there were some unattached tank regiments. In addition 
there were six Soviet divisions in Hungary and Rumania and 
two in Austria. The exact number of units in Poland was 
unknown and it was apparent that a great concentration of 
strength could take place there almost unobserved. Bridges 
in the eastern zone of Germany were strengthened to carry 
the very heavy Stalin Mark III tanks. The strength maintained 
in the far east was 650,000 men. 

Training. At least one special task force was trained during 
1950 in arctic warfare technique. Large-scale exercises were 
held in Germany, although tank manoeuvres were believed 
to be restricted because of the deterioration of equipment. 
An analysis of the state of training and equipment in the 
Soviet army showed the following conditions: (1) Main- 
tenance of mechanized equipment and armour was at its 
lowest ebb since World War II because of an extreme shortage 
of technicians. It was deduced that Soviet industrial expan- 
sion had received first priority for technicians and that the 
army was required to train its own mechanics. (2) There was 
a shortage of all forms of mechanized equipment. Tanks were 
old, trucks were scarce and in bad condition and there was 
a scarcity of self-propelled guns. (3) Armoured divisions 
lacked good radio equipment. (4) The physical condition, 
training and discipline of the troops were excellent. (5) Des- 
pite shortcomings the Soviet army was an extremely effective 
fighting force. 

France. The length of military service was increased from 
18 months to two years as part of the programme to expand 
the army to fulfil France's commitments under the Atlantic 
treaty. Plans called for the expansion of the army in Europe 
to a total of ten divisions in 1951 and at least five more in 




An anti-aircraft gun crew of the United States army taking part 

in combined U.S. -Canada army manoeuvres in Yukon Territory, 

Canada. 



ARMIES OF THE WORLD 



61 









Mute-train artillery of the bodyguard of the Dalai Lama of Tibet seen during field exercises in Lhasa, Oct. 1950, as the Chinese forces 

began their invasion of Tibet. 



1952 and a further five in 1953. The defence budget totalled 
Fr. 740,000 million (28-5% of budget). 

Additional financial support was promised by the United 
States, as well as arms and equipment. 

Disposition. Three French divisions were engaged in 
occupation duties in Germany and Austria. Four additional 
divisional cadres were available in France and were to be 
fully manned in 1951. Reinforcements were sent from France 
and north Africa to Indo-China during the year. These 
included an armoured regiment equipped with Sherman 
tanks and an infantry regiment composed of battalions from 
the French Foreign legion and from Morocco and Senegal. 
French strength in Indo-China amounted to 150,000, of 
which about one-third was French, one-third colonial and 
the balance Vietnamese. About half the Vietnamese troops 
were well-trained; less than 10,000 were under Vietnamese 
officers, the rest having French officers. 

Opposing the French and Vietnam forces in Indo-China 
were 150,000 Vietminh troops, a large proportion of whom 
had been armed and trained at the principal depot and 
supply centre of Nanning in southern China. Ho Chi Minh 
maintained 53 well-armed battalions and 50 lightly armed 
units' of battalion strength in the vital Tongking area, where 
French communications to Hanoi and Haiphong were 
harassed. 

The French continued to hold the vital areas around 
Hanoi, but expected a major drive to capture this rice- 
producing region. General de Lattre de Tassigny was named 
commanding general in Jndo-China late in the year. 

Equipment. France depended heavily on U.S. equipment 
both in Indo-China and metropolitan France. Production 
of armoured vehicles was increased but was still insufficient. 

China. The strength of the Chinese Communist armies, 
like that of most Chinese armies, was very indefinite. There 
were probably about 3 million men under arms, of whom 
nearly half were in central Manchuria and North Korea. 
Mobilization was publicly decreed on Dec. 12, 1950, and 
there were indications that the Chinese Communists were 
apprehensive of a general war in Asia. In addition to the 
regular army, there was the People's militia of 2 million men. 

Most of the remaining forces of Chiang Kai-shek were 
concentrated on the island of Formosa, although some 
guerrilla bands continued to harass the Communist forces, 
particularly in southwest China. Chiang's forces numbered 



about 400,000, although most of these had received only six 
to eight weeks' training and very few were properly equipped. 

Disposition. There was an important shift in the dis- 
position of the Chinese armies following the intervention of 
Chinese Communist units in the Korean war. The 4th Field 
army, with a strength of more than 500,000 men and one 
of the best in China, was moved from the south to Korea. 
To fill the gap left by this movement the 3rd Field army 
moved to cover the Indo-China border and the coast opposite 
Formosa. The 2nd Field army was reported to be in south- 
west China and there was some indication that the 1st Field 
army was in central Manchuria. 

Organization. The strength of the Chinese divisions was 
7,000 to 10,000 men each. These were organized into three 
infantry regiments. The Chinese divisions had few supporting 
services suclj as engineers, communications, reconnaissance, 
etc. Artillery support was limited. Three divisions were 
grouped into each arjny, and three armies into each group of 
armies. A field army usually had several groups of armies. 

Equipment. Most small arms were old and of Soviet or 
U.S. origin. The Chinese had field artillery up to 155 mm. 
There were some U.S. light and medium tanks, and some 
Soviet small arms and medium tanks. 

The Korean War. Military observers noted the following 
facts in the Korean war. The training of both North Korean 
and Chinese troops was good, with a strong emphasis on 
guerrilla and infiltration tactics. The strategy was similar 
to that used in the civil war in China sudden attacks which 
faded away into the hills when they encountered opposition 
that was too strong. The leadership of the North Korean 
and Chinese forces was excellent and showed an ability to 
exploit any weakness and to take advantage of terrain. 
Soviet equipment stood up well under adverse conditions. 
Such equipment included a sub-machine gun with a drum- 
type magazine and high rate of fire, a 120-mm. mortar, 
jeeps and anti-tank guns. The T-34 tank had the field to 
itself until the U.S. General Patton tank with its 90-mm. gun 
arrived. (See KOREA; KOREAN WAR.) 

The North Atlantic Army. Agreement was finally reached 
in 1950 among the powers of the Atlantic area over the 
details of establishing an international army for the defence 
of western Europe. This followed the creation in 1948 of 
Western Union (q.v.) with its five-power defence treaty for 
50 years, and the signing in 1949 of the 12-nation North 



62 



ARMIES OF THE WORLD 



Atlantic treaty. Although all the Atlantic treaty nations 
passed greatly augmented defence budgets in 1950, agree- 
ment on the individual contributions and the composition 
of the army was not reached until late in the year. Even then 
the rearmament of Western Germany continued to be a 
controversial subject among the North Atlantic treaty powers, 
and a final solution concerning Western Germany was not 
reached in 1950. 

The following is a general indication of the number of 
divisions from the Atlantic treaty countries and Western 
Germany which were to be stationed in western Europe 'by 
1953 (number of divisions in western Europe in 1950 in 
brackets): the Benelux countries, 9(2); France, 25(5); Italy, 
18(8); United Kingdom, 7(2); United States, 10(2); total, 
69(19). To support these units the U.S. appropriated $6,000 
million in 1950 for equipment to be sent to the treaty nations. 

On Dec. 19, 1950, General Dwight D. Eisenhower (q.v.), 
United States, was appointed commander in chief of the 
forces of the North Atlantic treaty powers. 

Belgium. The army was reorganized to fit into the Atlantic 
treaty force. Three commands were established, one for the 
troops forming part of the treaty army, one for the defence 
of the national territory and one for maintenance and trans- 
port. Plans were made to send a full division to Germany 
to strengthen the Belgian corps, which consisted of two 
brigades in 1950. Compulsory service was extended from 
1 8 months to two years. Strength of the armed forces was 
75,000 but was to be raised to 150,000. 

Italy. During the year Italy maintained about 100,000 men 
in the army; in addition there were 70,000 carabinieri. To 
build up sufficient forces for defence, the 8 existing divisions 
would be increased to 12; there would also be 2 armoured 
brigades. The development of the army was hindered by 
lack of equipment, which would, however, be forthcoming 
under the Atlantic treaty. 

Netherlands. With the disbandment of the Netherlands 
Indies army, the Dutch commenced to build up their ground 
forces for the North Atlantic army. Supplies to .arm one 
infantry division were to be received from Canada. 

Eastern Europe. Bulgaria. One of the most advanced of 
the armies in the Soviet orbit, the Bulgarian army was 
reported to have 195,000 men under arms, although the 
treaty limit set a maximum figure of 55,000. The Bulgarian 
army was well-equipped with Soviet T-34 tanks. About 
3,000 Soviet military advisers assisted with the training and 
organization of the army. 

Czechoslovakia. The " Sovietization " of the Czechoslovak 
army was accelerated during 1950. Much emphasis was 
placed on discarding so-called French theories of defence 
and adopting so-called Soviet theories of the offensive. 
Most of the schooling, however, was based on the German 
tactics of armoured wedges and pocket fighting and the 
usual Soviet theory of mass attack. The army consisted of 
135,000 men and had several hundred T-34 tanks. 

Eastern Germany. The " People's Readiness squads " 
reached a strength of about 60,000 in 1950, but there were 
many desertions from these units. These troops were known 
to be given arms only during training periods. There was 
still evidence that the Soviet plan was to train the officers 
and enlisted cadres of the People's police to be used as the 
basis for a greatly expanded German army. 

Hungary. The Hungarian army received considerable 
Soviet equipment in 1950. Measures were taken during the 
year to increase armament production. Army strength was 
reported to be well above the treaty maximum of 65,000. 
Military service was extended from two to three years. 
There were approximately 30,000 Soviet troops in Hungary. 

Poland. 1>e '* Sovietization " of the Polish army neared 
completion as many new officers were commissioned from 



the ranks of agricultural and industrial workers and former 
officers dismissed as politically unreliable. The draft age 
was dropped from 21 to 20 and the length of service in the 
army increased to two years, followed by reserve service 
to the age of 50. The army numbered 250,000 men and 
included 16 infantry divisions. (See also POLAND.) 

Rumania. One of the first satellite armies to be re-organized 
on the Soviet pattern, the Rumanian army consisted of 
approximately 200,000 men, well over the treaty limit of 
120,000. In addition there were 30,000 Soviet troops in the 
country. 

Yugoslavia. The strength of the army was 600,000, 
organized into 25 divisions. Its training was the best in 
Europe, but emphasized guerrilla tactics and mountain 
fighting to compensate for the lack of heavy equipment. 
Although fairly well equipped with small arms, the army 
lacked anti-tank guns, mortars, artillery and heavy weapons. 
Its armour consisted of a pot-pourri of tanks collected during 
World War II. A mountain guerrilla campaign, to be carried 
on by about a million men, was planned in the event of an 
attack. 

Other European Countries. Spain. Although Spain took 
steps to modernize its army, including the weeding out of 
incompetent officers, the calibre of the force did not improve. 
Plans put into effect in 1950 included the training of a large 
number of soldiers and non-commissioned officers to form a 
cadre for a larger army in the event of mobilization. The 
strength of the army in 1950 was 250,000, organized into 
22 divisions, but the mobilization goal was 2 million. For 
everything except small arms, Spain would be dependent 
on outside help. The existing equipment included artillery 
dating* from 1938 and French and German tanks of pre- 
World War II types. 

Sweden. A new record defence budget was planned at the 
end of 1950. This would increase expenditures from 17% 
to 19 4 % of the budget. Full-scale manoeuvres were planned 
for 1951. On immediate mobilization, the strength of the 
army would be 700,000. 

Commonwealth. Canada. An appropriation of $800 million 
for defence in addition to $300 million for new equipment 
supported not only the Canadian defence establishment and 
the expeditionary force to Korea but also forces of some of 
the Atlantic treaty nations. The army was maintained at 
22,000 and a force of 10,000 was sent to Korea. 

India. Although relations with Pakistan improved a 
little, the Kashmir situation continued to strain Indian 
defences. Approximately 50% of the budget was allocated 
to defence. 

Pakistan. The army was maintained at the same level as 
in 1949, while defences were strengthened. 

Middle East. Egypt- The reorganization of the army, 
begun after the disastrous fighting against Israel, continued 
in 1950. A new armoured division was formed and equipment 
ordered from western Europe and Great Britain. 

Israel. During 1950 Israel turned more and more to 
western Europe for training and equipment, because requests 
to the United States were refused. Although lacking modern 
arms, Israel could mobilize 200,000 men in an emergency. 

Persia. Faced with an increasingly tense situation along the 
Soviet-Persian border, the Persian army cancelled all leaves 
at the end of 1950. In the event of an attack it was planned 
to conduct a defence in depth with the 150,000-man army 
and to fall back to the mountains for the main battle. 

Turkey. Army strength was reduced to 400,000, but com- 
bat strength was maintained by economies in manpower. 
The general staff, command and supply systems were re-organ- 
ized on U.S. lines, and about 10,000 Turkish military person- 
nel completed courses under U.S. instructors. Approximately 
one-third of the budget was for defence. During 1950 a 



ART EXHIBITIONS 



63 



brigade was sent to Korea and proved to be extremely 
effective in combat. (See also BRITISH ARMY; KOREAN 
WAR; MUNITIONS OF WAR; NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY 
POWERS.) (E. L. S.) 

ART EXHIBITIONS. The wealth of French art 
of over four centuries seen in London in 1950 was made 
available by the relaxation of import restrictions. French 
19th-century painting was well represented: at Burlington 
house, by a part of the Burrell collection selected for circu- 
lation; by the first comprehensive assembly of Berthe Mori- 
sot's paintings (55 in all) to be seen in London; and at several 
private galleries. The Lefevre gallery opened its new premises 
in Bruton street, London, with an exhibition of Raoul 
Dufy's work, followed by one of Edgar Degas's. Many 
French contemporaries could also be studied, the best repre- 
sented being the veteran Fernand Leger, to the phases of 
whose painting (cubist, " planes-in-space " and mechanistic) 
the Tate gallery devoted considerable space in the spring. 

Also at the Tate gallery, " Modern Italian Art " was 
outstanding among exhibitions of contemporary art from 
overseas. Arranged by the Arts Council of Great Britain, the 
Italian institute and the Amici di Brera, this offered (with the 
important exception of that of Gino Severini) a fair repre- 
sentation of Italian art as far as concerned two sides of 
Futurist development: the Scuola metafisica (Giorgio de 
Chirico, Carlo Carra, Amadeo Modigliani, etc.) and the 
novecento group (Arturo Tosi, Mario Sironi, etc.) but stopped 
short of the more recent Fronte Nuova deW Arte. This latter 
it was hoped to represent later. Contemporary Italian 
sculpture was seen at the Italian institute in the autumn. 

The opportunity of studying an aspect of modern American 
painting was afforded when the Institute of Contemporary 
Arts held in its new premises an exhibition of " Symbolic 
Realism in American Art 1940-50 " a collection of minutely 
painted illustrations, surrealist or illusionist in character. 
Others whose work was shown in London, in some cases for 
the first time, were Max Ernst, Constant Permeke, Lovis 
Corinth, Claude Venard, Marc Chagall and Pablo Picasso 
whose recent Provencal works included his extraordinarily 
inventive ceramics. 

Exhibitions of old masters and antique works of art 
hardly rivalled those of 1949. Nevertheless " William and 
Mary and their Time," to which the King lent three tapestries, 
and which was the first considerable fruit of the Anglo-Dutch 
Cultural convention, provided an excellent portrait of an age. 
The Arts Council was responsible for the circulation of two 
old master collections, both including some little-krfown 
masterpieces, namely those lent by the Duke of Bedford 
from Woburn abbey and those from the Wellington gift. 
Rembrandt was the artist chosen by the Edinburgh Festival 
society for 1950, and 36 paintings were exhibited, including 
the sumptuous " Family Group " from the Count Anton 
Ulrich museum, Brunswick, later shown in London. In 
accord with the current romantic mood were Wildenstein's 
important and revealing exhibition of Rubens' portraits, 
decorative panels and drawings (many of them unfamiliar) 
illustrating the diversity of his genius; and the first London 
exhibition of paintings and drawings by William Blake's 
contemporary Henry Fuseli. 

In " Painters' Progress," at the Whitechapel Art gallery, 
eight painters were invited to exhibit works illuminating the 
successive phases of his or her artistic career. Duncan 
Grant, Ivon Hitchens, John Piper, John Napper and Prunella 
Clough were among those selected. " The Private Collector," 
organized by the Contemporary Art society at the Tate 
gallery, and the exhibition before dispersal of part of the 
private collection of Howard Bliss, were most rewarding and 
showed the trend of enlightened collectors' taste; interesting 



also, not least for their historical associations, were the 
William Rothenstein and D. S. McColl memorial exhibitions, 
also at the Tate. 

The Royal Academy of 1950, chiefly memorable for 
variations by Stanley Spencer (^.v.) on the theme of the 
Resurrection, reflected, in the greater influx of serious works 
and the dwindling of outworn features, the liberal policy of 
the new president, Sir Gerald Kelly (q.v.). The latter's one- 
man show at the Leicester galleries showed that his scrupulous 
craftsmanship was hardly paralleled in contemporary art. 
Two instances of overdue revival deserve mention: that of 
mural painting, by the constitution of the Society of Mural 
Painters; and of tapestry by the Edinburgh Tapestry society. 

The 25th Venice Biennale was the highlight of the year's 
exhibitions of modern art, coming near to providing a cross- 
section of the contemporary achievement not only of Europe 
but of the western world. Twenty-one nations participated, 
five (Colombia, the republic of Ireland, Portugal, Brazil and 
South Africa) for the first time. John Constable, Matthew 
Smith and Barbara Hepworth were selected to represent 
Great Britain. The choice of 35 of Constable's works was 
generally acclaimed; that of 36 of Matthew Smith's with 
reserve, since many fell below the standard of his best. 
Barbara Hepworth's austerely formal sculptures were 
retrospectively arranged; her drawings were mostly recent. 

If the British pavilion suffered from over-simplification, an 
embarras de rlchesse characterized the Italian. There were 
not only substantial assemblies of work by the signatories of 
the first Futurist Manifesto, memorial exhibitions honouring 
the sculptor Medardo Rosso, the engraver Cino Bozzetti 
and the painters Mario Broglio and Lorenzo Viani and 
shows of the painters Carra, Pio Semeghini and Alberto 
Magnelli, as well as a section of modern sculpture, but also 
numerous contributions by less-known artists. The general 
effect was one of nervous vitality requiring self-discipline. 
The Swedish pavilion exhibited work of the painters Carl 
Hill and Ernst Josephson and the sculptors Sven Erixson 




the Oath oj tnc Kutii, shown in JMJ in an exhibition of the 
works of Henry Fuseli at the New Burlington galleries, London. 



64 



ART EXHIBITIONS 




and Bror Hjorth. Herbert Boeckl's one-man exhibition was 
the mainstay of the Austrian pavilion, while in the Belgian 
the work of Paul Delvaux, Edgard Tytgat and Constant 
Permeke supported the splendid memorial exhibition of 
James Ensor's painting. The French pavilion, carefully 
balanced, drew partly from the magnificent tradition which 
nurtured Pierre Bonnard, Henri Matisse, Maurice Utrillo, 
and Henri Rousseau (with a one-man show of each of these, 
and drawings by Georges Seurat) and partly from notable 
contemporaries such as Othon Friesz, Maurice de Vlaminck 
and others who passed through a Fauve period, with cubist 
paintings by Marcel Gromaire, Georges Braque, Juan Gris, 
Le"ger and Picasso, and the abstract sculptor Henri Georges 
Adam. The German pavilion concentrated on the " Blaue 
Reiter " group (of which such members as Wasily Kandin- 
sky, Paul Klee and Franz Marc exercised a profound influence 
throughout the first half of the 20th-century) with, for 
sculpture, an impressive array of Ernst BarJach's carved 
wooden figures. 

In Germany itself, though British drawings were seen in 
Berlin, exhibitions consisted mainly of mediaeval art and of 
that produced by important native movements, particularly 
the 4 * Blaue Reiter " and the Weimar-Dessau Bauhaus groups 
(Lyonel Feininger, Oskar Schlemmer, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, 
etc.). The "Great Art Exhibition, Munich 1950" included 
800 pictorial items, emphasizing the " Secession " and the 
Neuc Gruppe. Switzerland (where too a Rembrandt exhibition 
was held at Schaffhausen) and Austria paid magnificent 
homage to the art of the middle ages. 

The national galleries and museums made further progress 
towards recovery from the effects of World War II. At the 
Victoria and Albert museum, London, six more galleries, 
including the Islamic, were reopened. The famous Raphael 
cartoons (the surviving seven of the original ten) were again 
on view. Foremost of the individual acquisitions was 
Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini's baroque masterpiece " Neptune 
and Glaucus." The museum opened Ham house (consigned 
to its care) to the public and extended its scheme of loan 
exhibitions. Further rooms were opened at the National 
gallery and special air-conditioning in one gallery allowed the 
showing of masterpieces without glass. An important 
accession was a large composition by Bartolome Esteban 
Murillo presented through the National Art Collections fund. 



** The Family Group " by Rembrandt, 

from the Count Anton Ulrich museum, 

Brunswick, exhibited during 1950 at 

the National Gallery, London. 

In Paris the reorganization of 
the Petit Palais proceeded apace, 
and at the Louvre an exhibition 
of the Madonna in French art 
was held after the rearrangement 
of the French paintings. Exhib- 
itions of drawings from the 
Albertina, Vienna, of Yugoslav 
mediaeval art, of the first of the 
work of Eva Gonzales (a neglected 
Impressionist) and of paintings by 
the Mexican Rufino Tamayo, were 
among those held in France. The 
Palais d'Art Moderne initiated a 
Marc Chagall room. Throughout 
Europe, indeed, museums and 
galleries too numerous to record 
individually reopened in whole or 
in part, often after much recon- 
struction. New ideas in museum 
display generally demanded re- 
arrangement, excellent British 
examples being provided at the Victoria and Albert, London, 
and at Brighton. Not only was large-scale reconstruction 
achieved in areas badly affected by the war (e.g.* Namur, 
Tournai, Bonn, Barmen and the Hamburg print-room) but 
new museums were installed and opened, such as the gallery 
of contemporary art at C6ret and museums at Antwerp and 
Pisa. (See MUSEUMS.) 

There was evidence of increasing interest in art generally, 
reflected in Great Britain in the acquisition of new premises 
by the Arts Council and the Institute of Contemporary Arts. 
Acquisitions of modern art by the Tate gallery included a 
Fauve Matisse, examples of Picasso's " Negro " and early 
cubist periods, and sculpture and drawings by Alberto 
Giacometti. The " native " part of this gallery's double role 
was nobly supported by the accession of John Constable's 
" Marine Parade and Chain Pier, Brighton " and of a group 
of William Blake's paintings and watercolours. 

(N. A. D. W.) 

United States. During the summer of 1950 the Philadelphia 
museum again brought before the public some 250 items 
from the rich private collections of the vicinity. The most 
important exhibits were " The Family " by El Greco from 
the Pitcairn collection; " Jose Romero " by Francisco 
Goya from the Tyson collection; and "On the Balcony" 
by Mary Cassatt from the Scott collection. Notable canvases 
by Paul Cezanne, Vincent Van Gogh and Pablo Picasso were 
also included. 

In the autumn of 1950 the museum celebrated its diamond 
jubilee with a loan exhibition called " Masterpieces in 
America," comprising 102 paintings and 119 drawings 
covering eight centuries. They ranged from a " Crucifixion " 
by Fra Angelico to " The Three Musicians " by Pablo 
Picasso. A feature of the exhibition was " St. Peter Denying 
Christ " by Rembrandt lent by the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 
Also included was the only work in the U.S. by Michelangelo, 
a red chalk study for the Sistine " Libyan Sibyl," lent by the 
Metropolitan museum, New York. 

A special event at the National gallery, Washington, was 
the showing of 40 paintings, normally on loan to the National 
gallery, London, from the collection of C. S. Gulbenkian. 
Rembrandt's " Pallas Athene " was outstanding in the 
group as well as several important French 19th-century 
pictures. 



ARTHRITIS ART SALES 



65 



The Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washington featured 
44 American Processional " to celebrate the 150th anniversary 
of Washington as the U.S. capital. Important events in 
American history and life from 1492 to 1900 were depicted 
in paintings, drawings and a few prints. The portrait of 
Christopher Columbus by Sebastiano del Piombo formed 
the introductory note to the exhibition. Beginning with the 
end of the 17th century events were depicted by artists 
working in America. 

New York's Museum of Modern Art held three notable 
retrospective exhibitions of the work of three highly diversi- 
fied artists. The first was of the work of Paul Klee, the 
fanciful and highly imaginative Swiss artist who had much 
influence on contemporary art. Another was Charles Demuth, 
a sensitive American artist and facile water colourist. Finally, 
it gathered from collectors in Paris and in the United States, a 
comprehensive survey of the painting of Chaim Soutine, the 
French expressionist. 

A whole gallery at the 25th Venice Biennale was devoted 
to the work of John Marin, doyen of American water 
colourists, and the work of six avant garde painters, Arshile 
Gorky, William de Kooning, Jackson Pollock, Hyman 
Bloom, Lee Gatch and Rico Le Brun, was also shown. 

The Carnegie institute in Pittsburgh resumed its famous 
International exhibition after a lapse of 11 years. The jury 
was made up of Marcel Gromaire (Paris), Sir Gerald Kelly 
(London), the American artists Charles Burchfield and 
Franklin Watkins and the retiring Carnegie director, Homer 
Saint-Gaudens. First prize of $2,000 went to Jacques Villon 
(France) for "The Thresher," second prize of $1,000 went 
to Lyonel Feininger for " Houses by the River " and third 
prize of $800 to Priscilla Robert's " Self-Portrait." 

New York's Metropolitan museum put on a handsome 
sampling of its American paintings ranging from John Singer 
Sargent's frothy and deftly painted 4 * Wyndham Sisters " 
and Winslow Homer's vigorous 44 Gulf Stream " to work 
by contemporary artists. (See also ART SALES; ARTS COUNCIL 
OF GREAT BRITAIN; DRAWING AND ENGRAVING; MUSEUMS; 
PAINTING; SCULPTURE.) (F. A. Sw.) 

ARTHRITIS. During 1950 Cortisone and ACTH con- 
sistently demonstrated an anti-rheumatic effect on many 
types of arthritis, especially those of inflammatory nature 
and particularly rheumatoid arthritis. 

New developments in the manufacture of Cortisone and 
ACTH during the year resulted in a substantially increased 
supply at a considerably lower cost. The practical application 
of these hormones in the treatment of rheumatic patients 
was accomplished in some acute rheumatic illnesses such 
as rheumatic fever and gouty arthritis. Their use in chronic 
illnesses such as rheumatoid arthritis was still problematical. 
It was found that this disease is not eliminated by a short 
period of administration of Cortisone or ACTH, although 
it may be completely suppressed. When the hormone is 
discontinued the disease almost invariably recurs and usually 
presents the same problems that existed before treatment. 
In an effort to obtain more permanent benefits, trials of 
repeated short periods of hormone treatment, separated by 
periods without the hormone, were made. Such treatment 
failed. Many medicines were used immediately following 
Cortisone or ACTH with the hope that they would sustain 
the benefits of the hormone, but none was successful. 
Studies of long periods of continuous Cortisone or ACTH 
therapy for rheumatoid arthritis were being made. The 
results indicated that in some patients it seemed reasonable 
and possibly desirable, in others it was impractical because 
effects of the hormone other than the anti-rheumatic effect 
sometimes produce complications and make the treatment 
unsafe. These other effects include hormonal and metabolic 

B.B.Y. 6 



changes which may result in diabetic changes, oedema, 
hypertension, central nervous system changes which result 
in depression or excitement, and bleeding tendencies which 
may cause severe haemorrhage. Also, long use of the hor- 
mones may decrease the functioning of the patient's adrenal 
or pituitary glands. This may cause undesirable glandular 
changes when the hormone is discontinued, resulting in 
withdrawal symptoms of weakness, stiffness and depression; 
this is in addition to the worsening in the arthritis which 
usually occurs even after long use of the hormones. These 
complications are important factors which make prolonged 
use of Cortisone and ACTH difficult and sometimes 
impossible. 

Cortisone is effective by mouth and in general has the 
same effects as when given by intramuscular injection, as 
formerly required. Tablets of Cortisone became available 
during the year, making treatment simplified and less 
expensive. 

A principal difficulty in the use of ACTH was the require- 
ment of injections of this hormone several times each day; 
this was necessary because of the short period of effectiveness 
of available preparations. Efforts were being made to 
develop a form of this hormone which could be slowly and 
uniformly absorbed so as to require injection only every 
48 or 72 hr. and thus facilitate its use in ambulatory patients. 
The developments were encouraging. 

Many steroids were produced, chemically similar to 
Cortisone. These were intensively studied, and investigation 
was continued with the hope of developing an effective 
substitute for Cortisone, a substitute which would have few 
complicating subsidiary effects. An outstanding example of 
these drugs was pregnenolone. Reports concerning its 
effectiveness varied widely. It seemed to have much less 
anti-rheumatic effect than Cortisone. Many investigators 
found this drug to be of little or no value in the majority of 
trials, but because it had little toxicity, efforts were con- 
tinued to determine if this steroid could be made more 
effective. 

Intensive research into the cause and mechanism of 
rheumatoid arthritis, and in ways to improve physical 
measures of treatment, pain-relieving drugs and other well- 
established forms of treatment was also being carried forward. 
(See also ENDOCRINOLOGY.) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. E. W. Boland and N. E. Headley, " Management of 
Rheumatoid Arthritis with Smaller (Maintenance) Doses of Cortisone 
Acetate," J.A.M.A., 144, 365-372, Sept. 30, 1950; R. H. Freyberg, 
M. Patterson, C. H. Adams, J. Durivage and C. H. Traeger, " Practical 
Considerations of the Use of Cortisone and ACTH for Rheumatoid 
Arthritis," to be published ; R. H. Freyberg, C. T. Traeger, C. H. Adams, 
T. Nuscu, H. Wainerdi and I. Bonomo, " Effectiveness of Cortisone 
Administered Orally," Science, 112, 429, Oct. 13, 1950. (R. H. FRO.) 

ART SALES. The year 1949 had ended at Christie's 
with the sale of four remarkable drawings, one by Pisanelio 
(2,300 guineas), one by Brueghel (1,800 gns.), one by Fra 
Bartolommeo (540 gns.) and the last by Boucher (480 gns.). 
The first spectacular sale of 1950 was at Christie's in February 
when some important Dutch paintings from the collection 
of the late Colonel H. A. Clowes were sold: " A Girl at her 
Toilet" by Metsu brought 4,000 gns. and a fine beach 
scene by Jacob van Ruysdael 5,900 gns. In March Sotheby's 
offered an interesting pair of panels of St. Sebastian and 
St. Roch by Lucas Cranach, the outer sides of a destroyed 
triptych, which realized 1,000 gns. In March also Christie's 
sold a Wilson Steer, " View of Shoreham " for 20 gns., a 
Charles Spencelayh for 200 gns. and a Utrillo for 183 15*. 
On April 3 a 14th-century Parisian missal reached 5,000 at 
Sotheby's and at the same sale 1 77 letters from Charles Darwin 
were sold for 5,200 and a draft of Acts I and II of Wilde's 
The Importance of Being Earnest for 400 gns. A surprise item 
in the sale of April 26 was a half-length portrait of a Carmelite 



66 



ARTS COUNCIL OF GREAT BRITAIN 



monk attributed to Rubens. This brought 4,000 and another 
portrait, attributed to Lorenzo Lotto, brought 600. 

At Christie's on May 12 a small landscape on panel 
attributed to Rembrandt provoked a lengthy struggle among 
the dealers and was knocked down for 6,200 gns. A double 
portrait by Ferdinand Bol was sold for 850 gns. and 1,950 gns. 
was paid for a Samuel Scott view of the Thames at West- 
minster. In May some modern masters at Sotheby's made 
interesting contrasts; the highest price (300) was paid for a 
Vuillard gouache and oil on panel but drawings by Modigliani 
(68), Matisse (66) and Rodin (22) showed the more general 
level of the year for works of this kind. On June 7 a painting 
of the Capel family by Cornelius Johnson realized the very 
respectable price of 2,000 gns. A fortnight later a number of 
important paintings and drawings came up for sale at 
Sotheby's. These included a double sheet of drawings by 
Goya which had been sold in 1935 for 145 and now brought 
680, a Valasque/ portrait of Queen Isabella (1,500), an 
Emmanuel de Witte of the synagogue at Amsterdam (1,200), 
and a Hogarth portrait of Dr. Hoadley (450). 

Two days later a sale at Christie's produced some curious 
results: a Gainsborough portrait realized 650 gns., a Samuel 
Scott 220 gns. and two views of Dresden by Bernardo Belotto 
3,800 gns., though they had been bought four years ago for 
nearly a thousand pounds more. An early Munnings " The 
Gravel Pit " secured a purchaser at 80 gns. Early in July " A 
Street Scene " by Utrillo brought 620 gns. and t'^ree Fantin- 
Latours together realized nearly 3,000. A Corot woodscape 
was sold for 2,100 gns. The big event of this month was the 
Clinton sale at Sotheby's. Rembrandt's " The Flight into 
Egypt " was sold cheaply at 10,000. A fine Zuccarelli 
brought 700 and a Jan van Goyen view of Arnhem 1,500. 
At Christie's the sale of pictures from the collection of Alan 
G. Fenwick produced some very high and some very low 
prices. Mabuse's " Madonna and Child " brought 3,400 
and a Simone Memmi 70. 

When the season opened again in late September a sketch 
by Constable was sold at Christie's for 16 guineas and an 
early 18th-century Italian drawing for 6 gns. The disposal of 
238 lots from the collection of the late Henry Harris at 
Sotheby's a few weeks later realized more than 28,000. 
Outstanding items were a fountain head by Giovanni 
Francesco Rustici bought by a private collector for 3,200 
after the Victoria and Albert museum' had underbid for it. 
Many early Italian paintings went back to their homeland. A 
week before, at the same saleroom, a Jan van Goyen had 
been bought for 3,000 gns. and a Fantin-Latour for 2,600. 
The most important items in November sales were a 
Rembrandt belonging to the late Lord Holford which Sotheby's 
sold for 21,000 to a Dutch collector and a small panel at 
Christie's of a young man attributed to Rogier van der Weyden 
but thought to have been the work of another artist, 
possibly Fouquet. 

Europe. In the European market sales were not as brisk 
as in England. In France, in June, 1,170,000 francs, a record 
price, was paid for a pair of chairs at the Hotel Drouot. An 
important and unusual sale was that of the contents of the 
Chateau de Tourronde, near Lugnin: paintings by Murillo 
and a series of royal portraits were among the most important 
items, and many of these were acquired by the Prince of 
Monaco. 

In Milan, at the Galleria del Bramante in July, a Guard! 
sold for 220,000 lire, a sign of the general weakening of prices. 
One of the curious things was that, in spite of the concern 
about the " forged " Utnllos, that artist's works continued to 
command high prices. In July one which had been bought a 
few months previously in England for 175 gns. was sold in 
Paris for 240,000 francs and some time later another was sold 
for 800,000 Yrancs. 



Many prices rose: a Boudin sold for 910,000 French francs, 
ten times as much as it cost 50 years earlier; a Seurat sold in 
Paris for 191,000 francs in 1949 and was sold 12 months later 
for 450,000 francs; Picassos of all periods were selling very 
well; Renoir was a good steady seller; Gris, Vuillard, Roger 
de la Fresnaye (one sold for 700,000 francs) were markedly 
successful. One of the most marked features of the year was 
the improvement in the sale of those 19th-century masters 
who do not come within any of the well defined movements. 

There were several sales of important collections: at 
Brunswick in March 80 paintings from the collection of the 
Duke of Brunswick-Luneberg were disposed of at prices 
which were not remarkable, and the following month saw 
the sale at Brussels of several important items from the 
collection of M. Burthoul. In Brussels also, a month earlier, 
a Rubens, " The African Magi," sold for the equivalent of 
1,700. (See also ART EXHIBITIONS). (B. DR.). 

ARTS COUNCIL OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

The Arts Council in 1950 was concerned increasingly with 
preparations for the Festival of the Arts, a part of the Festival 
of Britain 195 1 . By the end of the year most of the detailed 
plans had been made and the programmes of the individual 
festivals in different parts of the country had been distributed 
to the press all over the world. In addition, the outline 
programme for the London Season of the Arts, which was 
designed as a concentration of the finest national productions 
in music, theatre, opera and ballet, and the visual arts, in 
May and June 1951, had been given its main shape. 

There was some valuable co-operation between local 
authorities and the Arts Council during the year. The most 
encouraging example was that of the Bristol corporation 
which undertook, for the first time, financial support for the 
city's Theatre Royal, the oldest theatre in the country, which 
the Arts Council had managed since 1942. The trustees who 
own the theatre, the Arts Council as managers, and the 
corporation representing the citizens of Bristol thus came 
together for the first time in active co-operation for the 
running of the theatre, which was now also the home of an 
Old Vic company. 

In Jan. 1950, the report was published of the House of 
Commons Select Committee on Estimates, which had 
enquired into the council's work on the basis of evidence 
submitted during the autumn of 1949. The conclusions and 
recommendations of the committee were positive and 
encouraging, although they suggested that overheads were 
higher than they need be and they queried the amount of 
money spent in grants to metropolitan ventures as opposed 
to provincial ones. Both these points were answered in a 
reply, published later in the year, where it was explained that 
the council's administrative costs were incurred by no means 
only for the machinery of giving financial help but, to a very 
large extent, for the purpose of providing technical help and 
advice apart from money to the many enquirers, corporate 
and individual, who approach the council for help. It was 
also explained that the subsidies given for London theatre 
companies, orchestras and art exhibitions must, in the nature 
of things, be larger in amount than the grants given to corres- 
ponding bodies in the provinces, and the following figures 
were given to show the actual number of ventures financed 
outside London during the previous year: 111 Arts Council 
exhibitions in 257 places outside London, 156 music societies 
guaranteed against loss, 63 arts clubs associated with the 
council and receiving help of some kind and 417 plays given with 
the council's support by 28 different companies. (M. C G.) 

ARUBA: see NETHERLANDS OVERSEAS TERRITORIES. 
ASCENSION ISLAND: see SAINT HELENA. 



ASSASSINATIONS ASTRONOMY 



67 



ASSASSINATIONS. Actual or attempted assassina- 
tions during 1950 included the following: 

Feb. 20. Mexico City. Jose Gallostra, Spanish minister 
to Bolivia, was shot dead. 

March 3. Saigon, Indo-China. Do Van Nang, leader of 
the Vietnamese youth movement, was assassinated. 

March 9. Beirut, Lebanon. Tewfik Hamdan, a Syrian 
Nationalist, fired several shots at Riad Bey es Sulh, Lebanese 
prime minister, at a banquet. Riad Bey escaped injury, but 
several of the other guests were killed or wounded. The 
assailant was condemned to death on May 23. 

April 28. Singapore. A grenade thrown at Sir Franklin 
Gimson, the governor, exploded harmlessly. 

April 28. Saigon, Indo-China. Marcel Bazin, deputy chief 
of security services in southern Vietnam, was shot dead by a 
Vietminh rebel. 

June 5. Saigon, Indo-China. Vuong Quang Nhuong, 
Vietnam minister of education, was wounded when an 
assailant fired at his car. 

July 3. Saigon, Indo-China. Truong Van, editor of the 
Vietnamese nationalist newspaper Anh Sang, was shot by a 
terrorist at his home. 

July 18. Saigon, Indo-China. Henri Bonvicini, editor of 
Saigon Presse, was shot and seriously wounded. 

July 31. Damascus, Syria. Lieut. Colonel Mohammed 
Nasser, c. in c., Syrian air force, was shot by unidentified 
assailants; he died in hospital. 

Aug. 18. Seraing, near Liege, Belgium. Julien Lahaut, 
Communist leader, was shot dead by two unknown persons. 

Oct. 30. Beirut, Lebanon. General Sami Hinnawi, who 
organized the coup d'etat in Syria on Aug. 14, 1949, was shot 
dead at a tram stop. A Syrian was arrested. 

Nov. 1. Washington, D.C. Two Puerto Rican nationalists 
tried to shoot their way into Blair house, President Truman's 
temporary residence. One was shot dead and the other 
wounded by the guard. 

Nov. 13. Caracas, Venezuela. Lieut. Colonel Carlos 
Delgado Chalbaud, acting president, was shot dead. General 
Rafael Urbina, leader of the assassins, was later killed 
while trying to escape from custody. 

ASSOCIATION FOOTBALL : see FOOTBALL. 

ASTRONOMY. Solar System. For times of expanding 
horizons in astronomy, the solar system received unusual 
attention in 1950. As the first discovery regarding the system 
made with the 200 in. Hale telescope at Mount Palomar, 
California, G. P. Kuiper found the diameter of Pluto, the 
outermost known planet, to be about 3,600 mi. The sur- 
prising consequence was, assuming a " normal " density, 
that Pluto's mass would be about one-tenth of the Earth's. 
On the other hand, the perturbation of Neptune which had 
been ascribed to Pluto had previously given the mass of 
Pluto as about nine-tenths the Earth's. Kuiper also announced 
that observations (at the McDonald observatory, Texas) had 
yielded a diameter of 27,700 mi. for Neptune, the long- 
accepted value having been 3 1,000 mi. The asteroid dis- 
covered in 1949 by W. Baade, using the 48 in. Palomar 
Schmidt camera, was given the name Icarus. Its calculated 
orbit showed that it made the nearest approach to the Sun 
of any known member of the solar system; so the perturb- 
ations of the orbit were expected to yield an improved 
determination of the mass of Mercury. 

Analysis of the performance of a number of quartz-crystal 
clocks used for the Greenwich time service was interpreted 
by H. F. Finch as showing an annual fluctuation in the rate 
of rotation of the Earth such that, relative to uniform time, 
it is about 06 sec. slow in spring and about the same amount 
fast in autumn. 




A 30-ft. -aperture steer able paraboloid used in radio astronomy at 
the Jodrell Bank Experimental station^ Cheshire. 

A fresh discussion by G. M. Clemence of all the observa- 
tional evidence showed that the relativity effects in planetary 
orbits agreed well with the predictions of Einstein's theory. 
This was important because other predictions, whose agree- 
ment with pbservation was still in doubt, concerned the 
behaviour of light; it was more understandable that Einstein's 
theory might be deficient in this regard, than in its treatment 
of planetary motion. 

J. H. Oort gave a new theory of the origin of comets, 
briefly as follows. At some time in the past a planet between 
Mars and Jupiter exploded into fragments, a small proportion 
forming the meteors and asteroids. Of the main bulk, about 
90% was lost into interstellar space, but some 3 % was thrown 
into orbits having large major axes up to about 200,000 
astronomical units. These latter constituted a store of some 
10 U comets at an average distance of about 150,000 astrono- 
mical units from the Sun. At such distances, perturbations 
produced by other stars continually give some of them 
velocities that bring them into the vicinity of the Sun and so 
form, in the first instance, what are observed as long-period 
comets. Some of these are in turn perturbed by the planets 
so as to become short-period comets. 

The quantitative results agreed with observation in a 
satisfactory way and accounted for some hitherto unexplained 
cometary phenomena. Oort utilized much known work, his 
own important contribution being to demonstrate the 
significance of stellar perturbations of cometary orbits. 

Two years previously, W. H. Ramsey had given a new 
theory of the internal constitution of the Earth, according to 
which the existence of a " core " is due to a phase change of 
the material to a metallic state, brought about by pressure, 
and not to a variation of chemical composition. He had 
extended the theory to other terrestrial planets. In 1950 he 



68 



ATHLETICS 



and M. J. Ligh thill elaborated it to show that a planet in a 
certain mass-range could pass catastrophically from one 
internal configuration to another. This could have happened 
to the Earth or Venus and was tentatively suggested as the 
" explosion " that produced the meteors in the solar system 
(though it could scarcely have been sufficiently energetic for 
the other requirements of Oort's work). Ramsey also exten- 
ded his treatment of the behaviour of matter under pressure 
so as to obtain an apparently satisfactory theory of the 
constitution of the major planets, which also gave fresh light 
on the relation between the planetary and white-dwarf 
states of " cold " matter. 

Sun. D. H. Menzel gave a comprehensive theory of the 
motion of ionized matter in a weak general magnetic field of 
the Sun. He supposed such a field to exist and derived a 
rather complex picture of the behaviour of the Sun's outer 
atmosphere. This, he suggested, is being continually replen- 
ished by material ejected near the poles by the " spicules " 
discovered by W. O. Roberts, the material returning to the 
Sun's surface along paths determined by electromagnetic 
forces. Menzel suggested that the termination of some of 
these paths produce sunspots and that the downward 
moving material itself forms prominences of the various 
sorts that he had re-classified on the basis of the cinema- 
tography of solar activity carried out by him and his col- 
leagues at Climax (Colorado, U.S.A.). However, besides 
the difficulties of the electromagnetic theory, there was that 
of knowing whether all the material of the prominences, etc., 
was being observed, or only a part v.hose physical condition 
happened to render it more luminous. 

Theories were current which, contrary to earlier ideas, 
tentatively ascribed cosmic rays to a solar origin. Also some 
observations showed an apparent dependence of cosmic-ray 
intensities upon solar activity. If substantiated, this might 
not, however, show that any cosmic rays come from the 
Sun. It might only show that the disturbance, due to solar 
activity, of the magnetic field near the Earth affects the paths 
of rays coming from elsewhere. 

Stars. The huge distension of red giant stars had long been 
a perplexity to astrophysicists. F. Hoyle and R. A. Lyttleton, 
Li Hen and M. Schwarzschild, and C. M. ai?d H. Bondi 
explained it by a non-uniformity of composition. According 
to their calculations, a red giant has an oy ter region containing 
a small percentage of the mass composed mainly of hydrogen, 
the rest of the interior having a large helium content, and this 
model has a far greater radius than that of the same material 
if uniformly mixed. The helium was presumed to be that 
produced by the transmutation of hydrogen in the energy- 
generating process, but the origin of the two regions required 
further investigation. 

H. D. Babcock, who in 1947 had published the first 
measurement of the magnetic field of a star that had ever 
been made, was able by 1950 to announce that he had detected 
a general magnetic field for at least 25 stars. He estimated 
the fields by polarization measurements on the spectra. It 
had to be supposed that the field would be detected only if 
the magnetic axis were fairly near to the sight-line. The polar 
magnetic fields were found to be several thousand gauss (that 
of the Earth being 6 and of the Sun, if any, less than about 
50 gauss). Babcock found the field to be usually variable and 
in four stars to be periodically reversed in polarity. One 
suggestion was that the magnetic axis makes a large angle 
with the axis of rotation, so that the ** magnetic aspect " of 
the star varies during rotation. 

The spectra of the stars exhibiting a magnetic field showed 
certain peculiarities. Some of these might be explained, were 
it possible for the star, as it rotates, to present to view regions 
of different phemical composition. 

Radio Astronomy. The localized sources, discovered a few 



years previously, of some of the galactic radio-noise came to 
be called ** radio-stars.'* The view was gaining ground that a 
large proportion of all the " noise " came from such sources, 
those individually recognized being the nearest or most 
intense. Australian workers obtained possible identifications 
of three such sources with positions of certain galactic 
nebulae, but the majority were not identifiable with any 
known objects in the sky. 

The intensity of a " radio-star " observed at a particular 
station had been found to show rapid fluctuation. Comparing 
simultaneous observations at different stations, British 
workers showed that this is some form of " twinkling " caused 
by the Earth's atmosphere. C. G. Little gave a new diffraction 
theory of twinkling applicable both to this and the more 
familiar optical phenomenon. 

A. Unsold suggested that " radio-stars " may be stars of 
some unusual kind, probably of low luminosity and low sur- 
face temperature, but with disturbed regions in their surface 
layers. Others thought that they may be normal stars, 
emitting radio waves in the same way as the Sun, but with 
much greater intensity. Yet others suggested that the radio 
waves come from electrons trapped in a star's magnetic field 
and not from a star itself. 

General. The progress reported in an article like this, 
which is only a selection from much material, tends to be 
that depending upon special observations and related theories. 
In general, however, the special observations could be inter- 
preted only by using the results of the basic programmes of 
work being carried out by observatories all over the world, 
often with international co-operation. Though these results, 
comprising tables, catalogues, spectroscopic data and various 
standards, receive little mention, it must be appreciated that 
they represent a large proportion of any year's work in 
astronomy. To cite only two examples: Yale university 
observatory announced the completion in 1950 of a catalogue 
of the positions and proper motions of about 128,000 stars 
in particular zones of the sky; the work had taken 23 years 
and had utilized about 500,000 measurements. Charlotte E. 
Moore, in continuation of previous work, published an 
extensive ultra-violet multiplet table for selected spectra of 
the first 23 elements in the periodic table. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. A. Armitage, A Century of Astronomy (London, 
1950); Martin Johnson, Astronomy of Stellar Energy and Decay (Lon- 
don, 1950); W. H. McCrea, Physics of the Sun and Stars (London, 1950); 
W. M. Smart, Some Famous Stars (London, 1950). (W. H. McC.) 

ATHLETICS. Two great athletic gatherings, both of 
them convened only once in the four-year span of an Olym- 
piad, were the highlights of the 1950 season: in February 
the fourth Empire Games (</.v.) were staged at Auckland, 
New Zealand; and in August more than 400 athletes from 

23 countries, including the U.S.S.R., competed in the fourth 
European Games at the Heysel stadium outside Brussels. 

The chief surprise at the European championships was 
the failure of the Swedes in events such as the 1,500m. and 
the steeplechase, which had long been regarded as their 
strongholds; in contrast the national teams of Finland, 
France, Italy and Great Britain acquitted themselves notably. 
Eleven countries between them supplied the victors in the 

24 men's and 10 women's titles down for decision. In the 
men's events Czechoslovakia, France and Italy each won 
three titles, and Great Britain secured six. The U.S.S.R. 
won four women's titles, the Netherlands four (through the 
individual brilliance of F. E. Blankers-Koen), Britain two 
and France one. On a combined reckoning Great Britain, 
whose representatives also won three silver and six third-place 
medals, came out in front with eight gold medals in all, 
against the U.S.S.R.'s six and France's and the Netherlands' 
four each. 



ATHLETICS 



69 



f ' 









E. McDonald Bailey ', Great Britain, (left) winning his JOG yd. event in the triangulur athletic context between Great Britain, the Benelux 

countries and the United States at the White City, London, AUK. 1950. 



The high standard of competition at Brussels was well 
reflected because in nine events the winning performances 
were superior to the Olympic records. There were signs of a 
coming challenge to American supremacy in events which 
have had no great tradition among the European countries. 
Long-distance track events and javelin-throwing have always 
been the preserve of the European; but it now seemed that 
a threat was developing in such events as the pole vault and 
the 400 m. hurdles. 

The outstanding figure of the European championships was 
the prodigious Czech athlete, Emil Zatopek. In the 10,000 m. 
winning by almost a lap, he beat his own listed world's 
record of 29 min. 21-2 sec. by 9 2 sec. The next day, winning 
his heat, he qualified for the 5,000m. final; and there he 
met the Olympic champion, Gaston ReifT of Belgium. 
Reiff had to give up the unequal struggle when Zatopek 
tore past him in the penultimate lap, to record a time beaten 
only by G. Hagg, the Swedish world's record-holder. 

E. Bally (France), winner of the 100 m., was deprived of a 
second victory in the 200 m. by the fine sprinting of Britain's 



last-minute substitute, B. Shenton. This unexpected success was 
supported by further British victories in the 400 m. and 800 m. 
by D. C. Pugh and H. J. Parlett, who made records of 47 3 sec. 
and 1 min. 50 5 sec. In the 1 ,500 m. the world record-holder, 
L. Strand (Sweden), was overcome by nervousness and left the 
track when only 300 m. had been covered; and W. F. Slykhuis 
(Netherlands) won in the record time of 3 min. 47-2 sec. 

The favourite, A. Marie (France), won the high hurdles in 
14 6 sec. with J. Bulanchik (U.S.S.R.), who had reputedly 
returned 14 -2 sec. in his own country, a disappointing fifth. 
The longer hurdling event over 400 m. was dominated by the 
Italian A. Filiput, who won in the record time for the 16 
years of the championships, 51 '9 sec. Two months later 
Filiput broke the world's hurdle record for the longer 440 yd. 
race (52 2 sec. jointly held by the Americans L. B. Cochran 
and R. F. Ault) at Milan with another run in 51-9 sees. 
The standards achieved in the field events at Heysel, except 
in the long jump, were excellent: in the case of the hammer- 
and discus-throwing they surpassed those at Wembley 
during the 1948 Olympic Games. 



Event 
100yd. . 
220yd. . 
440yd. . 
880yd. . 
One mile 
Three miles 
High hurdles . 
Quarter-mile hurdles 
High jump 
Pole vault 
Long jump 
Hop, step and jump . 
Shot-put 
Discus . 
Hammer . 
Javelin . 



BRITISH ATHLETIC PERFORMANCES, 1939 AND 1950 
Best Performance 



Tenth Best Performance 



1939 
9-7 sec. 
21 -8 sec. 
47-6 sec. 
1 min. 52- 1 sec. 
4 min. 07-4 sec. 
14 min. 08-0 sec. 
14-7 sec. 
55 4 sec. 
6 ft. 2J in. 
12ft. 7 in. 
23 ft. 10i in. 
47 ft. 3 in. 
46ft. IJin. 
144 ft. 6 in. 
165 ft. 7 
202 ft. 2 



Jin. 
im. 



1950 
9-5 sec. 
21-0 sec. 
47 -6 sec. 
1 min. 51-2 sec.* 
4 min. 06-8 sec. 
14 min. 1 1 -2 sec. 
14-7 sec. 
53-0 sec. 
6 ft. 7 in. 
13ft.0l in. 
24 ft. 2J in. 
48 ft. 5J in. 
51 ft. llj in. 
154ft. 6i in. 
180ft. U in. 
202 ft. 4^ in. 



1939 

10-1 sec. 
22 -2 sec. 
50 -4 sec. 
1 min. 57-0 sec. 
4 min. 21 -6 sec. 
14 min. 38-0 sec. 
15-9 sec. 
59 -2 sec. 
5 ft. 1 1 in. 
11 ft. 3 in. 
23 ft. 0| in. 
44ft. IJin. 
42 ft. Oi in. 
127 ft. in. 
133ft. 7 Jin. 
166ft. 10 in. 



1950 
9-9 sec. 
22 -2 sec. 
49 -6 sec. 
1 min. 54 '7 sec. 
4min. 16-6 sec. 
14 min. 26-4 sec. 
15-6sec. 
57-2 sec. 
6 ft. 1 in. 
11 ft. 3 in. 
23 ft. 1 in. 
45 ft. 6 in. 
44 ft. 7 in. 
137ft. 5 in. 
'39 ft. 1 in. 
177 ft. 8i in. 



70 



ATOMIC ENERGY 



In this season Great Britain complied for the first time 
with the standard European practice of extending dual inter- 
national meetings over two days. In its first such meeting 
Britain defeated France in Paris by 106 points to 99. A week 
later Sweden defeated France by a margin of three points, 
thus leaving the problem of current European supremacy 
unresolved. The Swedish national sporting paper Idrottsbladet 
however, in a hypothetical international match between 
Britain and Sweden, acknowledged a defeat by 14 points. 

Great Britain's athletic recovery may perhaps most 
succinctly be judged by comparing the achievements of 1939 
with those of 1950. (See Table). 

The table, in which to give a truer picture allowances have 
been made for performances over metric distances, clearly 
shows that, with the single exception of the best 1939 three 
miles, every other one of that season's leading performances 
were equalled or surpassed in 1950; and this already significant 
overall trend would soon receive the full impact of the 
Amateur Athletic association scheme carried out under 
900 qualified honorary coaches. (N. McW.) 

United States. Jim Fuchs, Yale university and New York 
Athletic club, who won the five national Amateur Athletic 
union, National Collegiate Athletic association and Inter- 
collegiate A. A. A. A. shot-put titles in 1950, continued to 
improve on the world record, his best throw of 58 ft. lOf in. 
being made in Sweden in August. 

Dick Attlesey, University of Southern California and Los 
Angeles Athletic club, bettered Harrison Dillard's world 
record early in 1950 when he was tim^d at 13-5 sec. for the 
120-yd. event, and later he surpassed Spec Towns's 110-m. 
record in winning the national A.A.U. outdoor title in 
13 -6 sec. 

At the meeting of A.A.U. officials in December, Don 
Gehrmann was finally declared winner of the Wanamaker 
mile of the previous Jan. 28. Gehrmann and Fred Wilt had 
run an apparent dead-heat. Wilt recorded the fastest 5,000-m. 
time ever put up by an American when he won in 14 min. 
26-8 sec. overseas after capturing the A.A.U. championship. 

Mai Whitfield of the U.S. air force proved to be the 
best half-miler for the third consecutive year and equalled 
the world record of 1 min. 49 2 sec. helc} by Sydney Wooder- 
son of Great Britain. (See also EMPIRE GAMES.) (T. V. H.) 

ATOMIC ENERGY. President f rupnan's announce- 
ment in January that the United States Atomic Energy 
commission would continue to work upon the development 
of the so-called hydrogen bomb, aroused strong reaction. 
There was considerable repugnance at the thought of using 
a weapon variously estimated to be equivalent in explosive 
power to something between 100 and 1,000 atomic bombs. 
The principal objection raised was that it was difficult to con- 
ceive of situations in which the use of so powerful a bomb 
would be at all justifiable. It was, however, accepted by many 
people that, in the present international situation, there was 
no real alternative to developing the weapon once the 
possibility of its existence had been revealed. The war in 
Korea led to suggestions from various quarters that atomic 
bombs should be used there. The U.S. authorities, however, 
announced that they had no intention of doing so. 

The fourtjn World Power conference was held in London in 
July. One session was devoted to nuclear power. Sir John 
Cockcroft, director of the British Atomic Energy Research 
establishment, outlined the scientific and technical problems 
that would have to be solved before any nuclear power plants 
of any magnitude could be constructed. He estimated that 
the building of the necessary experimental nuclear reactors 
would probably take some three to five years. A further five 
years or so wpuld probably elapse before sufficient experience 
had been gained with these to enable any large-scale develop- 



ment of nuclear power to be embarked upon. W. F. Davidson 
and R. Liljeblad both discussed the economic aspects of the 
question and expressed the view that, at least for several 
decades, it would not be possible for nuclear power plants to 
compete in cost with those using normal fuels. This would 
mean that nuclear power plants would, in the first instance, 
be of value in situations which made full use of their extremely 
low fuel consumption. Such applications would be, for 
example, a large central electrical power station situated in a 
region remote from supplies of other kinds of fuel in which the 
cost of transportation of fuel would be abnormally high, or 
a marine propulsion unit where the increase in cruising 
radius and the saving in space normally devoted to carrying 
fuel supplies would be of value. 

In December, the atomic energy authorities of Canada, 
the United Kingdom and the U.S. released certain informa- 
tion upon low-power nuclear reactors, including those 
nuclear properties of uranium which are important in the 
design and operation of such reactors. Values were given 
for the cross sections for fission, capture and scattering of 
uranium 235 and 238 for low-energy neutrons. It was also 
stated that on the average 2-5 secondary neutrons are 
emitted when fission occurs as a result of the absorption of 
a low-energy neutron by uranium 235. 

Constructional details of *" Gleep," the low-energy reactor 
at Harwell, were also described. 

British Technical Developments. In 1950 the Ministry of 
Supply announced the selection of a site at Aldermaston, near 
Reading, for a seventh atomic energy establishment. Those 
already in existence were the central research establishment at 
Harwell, Berkshire, the radiochemical centre at Amersham, 
Buckinghamshire, the production headquarters at Risley, 
Derbyshire, the uranium refinery at Springfields, Stafford- 
shire, the plutonium production centre at Sellafield, Cumber- 
land, and a site under development at Capenhurst, Cheshire. 
The purpose of this last establishment and of that projected 
at Aldermaston had not been announced by the end of 1950. 

At Harwell, the production of radio-isotopes in " Bepo," 
the large pile, was expanded and shipments were made at the 
rate of about 500 a month. Shipments were made to South 
Africa by loading radio-isotopes into the wingtips of an air- 
craft. This considerably reduces the weight of shielding 
required and so reduces the cost of transportation. During 
the year, much attention was devoted to increasing the 
industrial uses of radio-isotopes. 

Progress was made in the chemical engineering and metal- 
lurgical problems associated with the design of more advanced 
types of nuclear reactors. It was announced that designs 
were being prepared for experimental reactors which could 
serve as prototypes for nuclear power plants and in particular 
for a possible marine propulsion unit. 

In April a linear accelerator capable of producing electrons 
with an energy of 3 5 million electron-volts was brought into 
operation. It consisted essentially of a hollow metal tube of 
special design. Pulses of electro-magnetic waves of very short 
wavelength were sent down the tube simultaneously with a 
beam of electrons. The electro-magnetic radiation exerted 
a force on the electrons which were accelerated thereby and 
attained very high velocities. This type of instrument was 
developed as a result of the great advances made in high 
frequency techniques during the development of radar. 

During the summer a large electro-magneiic isotope 
separation plant was completed. It was capable of producing 
gramme quantities of separated isotopes of the heavy elements. 
In this apparatus a beam of electrically charged atoms of 
the element concerned was deflected by a powerful magnetic 
field. The deflection depended upon the mass of the atom. 
Consequently, different isotopes were deflected by different 
amounts and could be collected separately. 



ATOMIC ENERGY 



71 



Commonwealth. Reports were given during the year on 
the work that was being done by the Canadian atomic energy 
project. In addition to a considerable amount of research 
work in nuclear physics, a new radiochemical laboratory 
was completed. It was capable of supplying all Canadian 
demands for radio-isotopes and in 1950 was also exporting 
to foreign firms and institutions. 




A small inexpensive Geiger counter developed in 1950 by the United 
States Atomic Energy commission. 

In Australia, it was announced that mining operations 
had begun at the extensive uranium deposits which had been 
found at Radium hill, 270 mi. from Adelaide. 

Europe. In France, the construction of a second pile began 
at Saclay, near Paris. This site was destined to become the 
central French atomic energy research establishment. The 
new pile, expected to be completed in 1951, was to consist of 
uranium metal with heavy water as the moderator. It was 
to be of a 1,000-kw. capacity, which is comparable with the 
large Harwell pile, but would have a rather higher neutron 
flux. Various other instruments for nuclear research were 
being built at Saclay, in particular a cyclotron and an electro- 
static generator. In the course of the year it was announced 
that a milligramme of pure plutonium had been isolated 
from material irradiated in the low energy pile, " Zoe," 
at Fort le Chatillon. 

In Norway, work began upon the construction of a low- 
energy pile which was to be made from uranium oxide and 
heavy water. It would have a power dissipation of about 
100 kw. The site was at Kjeller, 15 mi. from Oslo. It was 
intended to use the pile for research purposes and for the 
production of radio-isotopes. (J. L. Ms.) 

United States. The Hydrogen Bomb. More than 20 years 
before the discovery of uranium fission in 1939, physicists 
realized that vast amounts of energy could be released by 
the synthesis of helium from hydrogen. If four atoms of 
hydrogen were combined into one atom of helium there 
would be a loss in mass of 0-0286 atomic mass units. This, 
in accordance with the Einstein equation for the trans- 
formation of matter into energy, E = me 2 , would mean the 
release of 2,670,000 ev. of energy. During the 1930s astron- 
omers came to the conclusion that hydrogen was undoubtedly 
the atomic fuel of the sun and stars and equations were 
written by Hans Bethe for the probable nuclear reactions 
occurring in the celestial bodies. But scientists despaired of 
duplicating these processes on earth since apparently they 
could take place only at the high temperatures existing in 
the interiors of the sun and stars. Because of their dependence 
on such temperatures they were named thermo-nuclear 
reactions. However, with the discovery of uranium fission a 
new possibility developed. Even before an atomic bomb 
had been achieved, J. Robert Oppenheimer and his associates 
at the United States national scientific laboratory at Los 
Alamos, New Mexico, recognized that the explosion of a 



uranium bomb would generate a temperature at which 
thermo-nuclear reactions might take place. It occurred to 
them that it might be possible to build a hydrogen bomb 
which would employ an atomic bomb as the detonating fuse. 

After World War II, preliminary studies were instituted 
at Los Alamos to explore these possibilities. It was realized 
that it was not feasible to employ ordinary hydrogen, which 
is a mixture of 98% lightweight hydrogen and 2% deuterium 
or double-weight hydrogen. It did appear, however, that a 
hydrogen bomb could be made with deuterium; or with 
tritium or triple-weight hydrogen; or with a combination of 
deuterium and tritium. Deuterium could be separated from 
ordinary hydrogen by chemical means. However, tritium 
occurs in nature only in infinitesimal amounts. But it was 
known that tritium could be produced by subjecting lithium 
to neutron bombardment in a nuclear reactor or uranium 
pile. It was estimated that a given weight of tritium would 
release seven times as much atomic energy as an equal 
weight of plutonium. One kilogram of tritium would be the 
equivalent in explosive violence to 140,000 tons of T.N.T. 
the atomic bomb that devastated Hiroshima was the equiva- 
lent of 20,000 tons of T.N.T. 

Unlike the uranium or plutonium bomb, the hydrogen 
bomb would not be limited in size to any critical mass. 
Theoretically it appeared possible to produce a hydrogen 
bomb 1 ,000 times as powerful as an atomic bomb. Cost of 
production and difficulties of transportation appeared to 
be the only limiting factors. A further possibility was the 
construction of a hydrogen bomb surrounded by some 
material that would be rendered highly radioactive by 
the neutrons released in the bomb explosion. The substance 
most suitable for this purpose appeared to be cobalt, so that 
the proposed weapon was designated a hydrogen-cobalt bomb. 
It was suggested that such a bomb exploded at sea would release 
great quantities of radioactive dust which would be carried 
landward by prevailing winds to devastate vast areas. 

On Nov. 28, 1950, the U.S. Atomic Energy commission 
announced that a new plant, to be known as the Savannah 
River plant, would be built on a 250,000 ac. site in Aiken 
and Barnwell counties, South Carolina, on the Savannah 
river. It was generally understood that the primary purpose 
of this plant would be the production of material for the 
hydrogen bomb. Congress appropriated $260 million for 
construction of the new plant. 

Research. The largest and most powerful nuclear reactor 
designed exclusively for research purposes went into operation 
at the Brookhaven National laboratory on Aug. 22, 1950. 
It was an air-cooled graphite-uranium pile which cost $25 
million to build. Columbia university, New York city, 
became the possessor of the world's most powerful atom 
smasher when its new synchro-cyclotron began operation 
on May 2 at Irvington-on-Hudson. It developed energies 
of 400 million ev. 

Propulsion Units. The Westinghouse Electric corporation 
and the General Electric company were engaged in 1950, 
under contracts with the U.S. Atomic Energy commission, 
on the design of atomic power plants for use in submarines. 
Westinghouse was working on a ship thermal reactor, a 
nuclear reactor utilizing slow neutrons, while General Electric 
was working on a ship intermediate reactor employing 
neutrons of higher speed. Early in 1950 a technical advisory 
board to the Oak Ridge National laboratory, composed of 
more than 20 aeronautic and nuclear physicists, was organ- 
ized to accelerate the development of a nuclear power plant 
for aeroplanes. 

Radiological Warfare. It had been realized since 1945 
that the fission products formed in a nuclear reactor could be 
used to manufacture particularly vicious forms of radio-active 
poison gases or for the preparation of radio-active dusts and 



72 



ATOMIC ENERGY 



sands. These could be released in various ways or fired in 
artillery shells. The U.S. Atomic Energy commission an- 
nounced in 1950 that it was continuing its studies of radio- 
logical warfare. 

United States Atomic Strength. The entire programme of 
the U.S. Atomic Energy commission was accelerated in 

1950. Fissionable materials were produced at the highest 
rate of output and the lowest unit cost on record. Procure- 
ment of both foreign and domestic ores was increased and 
plans were made to expand operations on the Colorado 
plateau. Planning and construction were carried on for 
new weapons tests at the Eniwetok proving grounds in the 
Pacific. The U.S. air force disclosed that hundreds of men 
had been taught in a secret training programme how to 
handle atomic bombs. The U.S. navy announced that 
bomber planes sufficiently large to carry atomic bombs 
had made successful test landings on an aircraft carrier. 
Gen. J. Lawton Collins, chief of staff of the U.S. army, 
said that an artillery piece capable of firing atomic weapons 
and guided missiles with atomic war-heads were under 
development. As 1950 drew to a close, the U.S. made plans 
for a tremendous expansion of its atomic energy facilities in 

1951. On Dec. 13, Senator Brien McMahon outlined to 
the senate a $1,050 million programme for the development 
of new and more effective atomic weapons. This included 
a $500 million plant to be built near Paducah, Kentucky, 
for the production of uranium 235. 

Civil Defence. The basic information required for the 
planning of civil defence against atomic attack was published 
on Aug. 12, 1950, by the U.S. Department of Defence in 
The Effects of Atomic Weapons. This described in detail the 
four main sources of damage in an atomic explosion, namely, 
(1) the air blast or shock wave, (2) the heat wave or thermal 
radiation, (3) the radioactive rays or nuclear radiations and 
(4) the residual radioactivity of the fission fragments. The 
chief damage is done by the air blast or shock wave and this 
is greatest when the bomb is exploded in air at an altitude 
of about 2,000ft. Under such circumstances the average 
limit of general structural damage is roughly two miles in 
all directions from ground zero, the point directly under 
the exploding bomb. 

On Sept. 8 the National Security Resources board sub- 
mitted a plan to President Truman for the civil defence of 
the U.S. On Dec. 1 President Truman created the federal 
Civil Defence administration as a branch of his executive 
office and appointed former Governor Millard F. Caldwell, 
Jr., of Florida, to head it. On Dec. 4 bills were introduced 
into congress embodying the plan for civil defence prepared 
by the National Security Resources board. This called for 
the expenditure of $3,100 million over a period of three years. 
The largest expenditure foreseen was that of $2,250 million 
for communal air-raid shelters. 

U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. On July 11 President 
Truman nominated Gordon Dean, a member of the com- 
mission, to be chairman in place of David Lilienthal, whose 
resignation had become effective on Feb. 15. Marion W. 
Boyer, vice president of the Esso Standard Oil company, 
became general manager on Oct. 25 in place of Carroll Wilson, 
who had resigned. 

International Deliberations. Attempts to reach an inter- 
national agreement on the control of atomic energy came to 
an abrupt halt on Jan. 15, 1950, when the Soviet deputy 
foreign minister, Yakov Malik, walked out of a conference 
of representatives of the five permanent members of the 
Security council and Canada at Lake Success. When President 
Truman addressed the general assembly of the United Nations 
at Lake Success on Oct. 24, he suggested that a new approach 
might be made to disarmament and the control of atomic 
-energy by merging the U.N. Atomic Energy commission 




A cartoon by Cummings in the " Daily Express " (London) in 
March 1950" Ah! Dr. Fuchs' s successor, no doubt." 

and the Commission for Conventional Armaments. When, 
however, on Nov. 3 the political committee approved a 
resolution calling on all nations to accept the majority plan 
for the control of atomic energy and to agree to a reduction 
in armaments, the vote was 47 to 5, with the Soviet bloc 
casting the negative votes. 

Security Cases. On April 28, Frederic Joliot-Curie was 
dismissed from his post as French high commissioner for 
atomic energy after he had addressed the congress of the 
French Communist party saying that a " true progressive 
scientist " would never give any of his knowledge for war 
against Russia. Professor Bruno Pontecorvo, a naturalized 
British subject, failed to return to his post at the British atomic 
energy station at Harwell when his leave expired on Aug. 31. 
He had been on holiday in Italy and it was later learned that 
he arrived at Helsinki, Finland, on Oct. 23. George Strauss, 
minister of supply, told the House of Commons on Nov. 6 
that he believed Pontecorvo had gone to Russia. 

On March 1 Klaus Fuchs was sentenced at the central 
criminal court, London, to 14 years' imprisonment for 
giving U.S. and British atomic secrets to the U.S.S.R. Fuchs 
had joined the German Communist party in 1932 and fled 
to Britain in 1933. He was naturalized in Britain after he 
had worked on atomic energy projects in World War II. It 
was believed probable that his treachery enabled the U.S.S.R. 
to achieve the atomic bomb at least a year earlier that it 
could otherwise have done. On Dec. 9 Harry Gold, 39, a 
biochemist, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was sentenced 
in the U.S. to 30 years' imprisonment for acting as a messen- 
ger between Fuchs and Soviet espionage agents. (See also 
CHEMISTRY; METALLURGY; MINERAL AND METAL PRODUC- 
TION; PHYSICS; X-RAY AND RADIOLOGY.) (D. Dz.) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Sir John Cockcroft, " The Development of Power 
from Nuclear Energy," Transactions, fourth World Power conference, 
London, 1950; W. F. Davidson, " Nuclear Energy for Power Produc- 
tion," ibid.; R. Liljeblad, " Some Economic and Technical Aspects of 
the Use of Nuclear Energy for Power Production," ibid.; D. A. Keys, 
" Atomic Energy Developments in Canada," ibid.; L. Kowarski, 
" Le Progres de l'nergic Nucleaire en France," Ibid.; W. B. Lewis, 
" The Canadian Atomic Energy Project," Bulletin of the Atomic 
Scientists, Chicago, May 1950; G. Randers, ** Planning for Atomic 
Physics in Norway," ibid.; U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 7th 
semi-annual Report, Jan. 1950, 8th Report, July 1950, The Effects of 
Atomic Weapons, Aug. 1950; National Security Resources Board, 
United States Civil Defense, Sept. 1950; Congressional Joint Com- 
mittee on Atomic Energy, The Hydrogen Bomb and International 
Control: Technical and Background Information, July 1950. 



ATTLEE AUSTRALIA 



73 



ATTLEE, CLEMENT RICHARD, British states- 
man (b. London, Jan. 3, 1883), was educated at Haileybury 
and University college, Oxford. After a period of legal prac- 
tice, he was secretary of Toynbee hall, London, and a 
lecturer at Ruskin college, Oxford. In 1913 he joined the 
staff of the London School of Economics. During World 
War I he served in Galiipoli, Mesopotamia and France. 
He was first Labour mayor of Stepney, London, 1919-20, 
was elected M.P. for Limehouse in 1922, and in the second 
Labour government was chancellor of the duchy of Lan- 
caster and later postmaster general. He was deputy prime 
minister in the wartime coalition government and became 
prime minister when the Labour party achieved a majority 
in July 1945. 

In the general election of Feb. 23, 1950, the Labour party 
was confirmed in power with a small majority, and the 
prime minister was returned for West Walthamstow; and on 
Feb. 25 he accordingly re-formed his ministry. On March 
16 he rejected Winston Churchill's demand for a secret 
session on defence. In April he attended the opening by 
Mrs. Attlee of the Thames water 'bus service and spoke 
at the Royal Academy dinner. He had discussions with the 
U.N. secretary general, Trygve Lie, in April and May; 
in May he also conferred with the U.S. secretary of state, 
Dean Acheson, and attended a dinner in the latter's honour 
given by the Pilgrims of London. On May 28 he left for a 
short tour of the Loire chateaux with Mrs. Attlee; they were 
later entertained by Joseph Paul-Boncour, former French 
premier. The prime minister broadcast once before the 
general election and three times on defence. On July 31 
he opened a new ocean terminal at Southampton. In Septem- 
ber he attended the 82nd annual Trades Union congress at 
Brighton and, speaking at the Labour party conference at 
Margate in October, rejected suggestions that there would 
be a coalition government or an immediate general election. 
On Oct. 26 he took part in the ceremony to mark the opening 
of the new House of Commons chamber. On Dec. 2 he 
received the French prime minister and foreign minister, and 
two days later flew to Washington for discussions on defence 
with President Truman. After calling at Ottawa on Dec. 10 
for consultations with the Canadian prime minister, he 
returned to London on Dec. 12. 

AURIOL, VINCENT, French statesman (b. Revel, 
Haute-Garonne, Aug. 27, 1884). After receiving his degree 
of doctor of laws at the faculty of law in Toulouse, he prac- 
tised in that city. In the early 1900s Auriol edited the news- 
paper Le Midi socialiste. Entering politics, he was constantly 
elected to the Chamber of Deputies as Socialist member for 
Muret (Haute-Garonne) from 1914 to the collapse of France 
in June 1940. Auriol's first cabinet post was in the Blum 
cabinet in 1936, when he was appointed minister of finance. 
He was minister of justice in the Chautemps cabinet 
(1937-38) and held a post in the short-lived Blum cabinet 
in 1938. Auriol, who was among 80 French parliamentarians 
who on July 10, 1940, voted against according full powers 
to Marshal Petain, was imprisoned by Vichy authorities for 
several months but was later released. In Oct. 1943 he 
escaped to London where he joined General de Gaulle's 
movement. He became a member of the Consultative 
Assembly set up in Paris after its liberation in Aug. 1944. 
In Nov. 1945 he was appointed minister of state without 
portfolio in the de Gaulle government. He was elected 
president of the French Constituent Assembly on Jan. 31, 
1946, and was twice re-elected to the post during 1946. 
On Jan. 16, 1947, Auriol became the first president under 
the constitution of the Fourth Republic; he was elected 
by 452 votes out of 883 cast by the combined houses of 
National Assembly and Council of the Republic, meeting 



at Versailles. In April 1947 he paid an official visit to French 
West Africa. In May 1949 he visited Algeria. On March 7, 
1950, President and Mme. Auriol arrived in London on a 
three-day state visit. At a state banquet at Buckingham 
palace at which King George referred to the old ties uniting 
France and Great Britain, President Auriol said in reply 
that the happiness and peace of the peoples of the world 
largely depended on the resolution of the two nations to 
act in concert. During May 23-26 Queen Juliana and the 
Prince of the Netherlands were the guests of President and 
Mme. Auriol in Paris during an official visit to France. 

AUSTIN, WARREN ROBINSON, United States 
lawyer and politician (b. Highgate, Vermont, Nov. 12, 1877), 
graduated from the University of Vermont in 1899, practised 
law and became active in Republican politics. Elected U.S. 
senator from Vermont in 1931 to fill an unexpired term, 
he was re-elected in 1934 and 1940 but resigned to become 
acting U.S. representative to the United Nations on June 5, 
1946. He was confirmed in this appointment with the rank 
of ambassador on Jan. 13, 1947. He was one of several U.S. 
leaders to disagree with Herbert Hoover's suggestion, 
early in 1950, that the United Nations should proceed 
without the Communist bloc, which was then boycotting the 
Security council. He led the attack against Soviet efforts to 
use the Security council as a propaganda sounding-board 
after the Russians resumed their seat to take advantage of 
their turn in the presidency in Aug. 1950. He repeatedly 
opposed the Soviet delegate, Yakov Malik (q.v.), in debates 
on Korea. On Aug. 2 he led the fight against Malik's attempt 
to seat the delegation of the Peking regime on a ruling from 
the chair. He consistently held that the U.N. rulings of 
1947-49 that Korea must be unified by popular vote must 
be adhered to. 

AUSTRALIA, COMMONWEALTH OF. Self- 
governing member of the Commonwealth of Nations, 
situated in the southern hemisphere. Areas and populations 
of the six federated states, of the Northern territory and of 
the Australian Capital territory are: 

Population 

States and Territories Area (1947 (mid-1950 

with their capitals (sq. mi.) census) est.) 

New South Wales (Sydney) 309,433 2,985,464 3,225,242 

Victoria (Melbourne) 
Queensland (Brisbane) 
South Australia (Adelaide) 
Western Australia (Perth) 
Tasmania (Hobart) 
Northern Territory . 
Australian Capital Territory 
(Canberra) . 



87,884 


2,055,252 


2,202,869 


670,500 


1,106,269 


1,183,792 


380,070 


646,216 


700,257 


975,920 


502,731 


557,918 


26,215 


257,117 


272,649 


523,620 


10,866 


15,303 



939 



16,905 



20,772 



Dec. 31, 1949, est. 



2,974,581 7,580,820 8,178,802 



Full-blood aboriginals were estimated at 47,000; half- 
castes numbered 24,881 in 1944. Territories under the 
administration of the Commonwealth but not included in it 
comprise Papua (?.v.), Norfolk Island, the trust territory of 
New Guinea, Nauru, the territory of Ashmore and Cartier 
islands, and the Australian Antarctic territory. Language: 
English. Religion: Christian (1933 census: Anglican 
2,565,118; Roman Catholic 1,161,455; Presbyterian 713,229; 
Methodist 684,022; other Christian 603,914); Jewish 37,000. 
Chief towns (pop., 1947): Sydney (1,484,434); Melbourne 
(1,226,923); Brisbane (402,172); Adelaide (382,604); Perth 
(272,586); Newcastle (127,188); Hobart (76,567). Governor 
general, William John McKell; prime minister, Robert 
Gordon Menzies (q.v.). 

History. The new government, a coalition of the Liberal 
and Country parties, with R. G. Menzies (Liberal) as prime 



74 



AUSTRALIA 




/?. (7. Menzies (standing, centre)^ prime minister of Australia, congratulating A. G. Cameron (right) on his election as the new speaker 
of the Federal House of Commons, Feb. 1950. The government supporters can be seen behind the prime minister. 



minister, and A. W, Faddcn (Country party), in charge of 
the Commonwealth Treasury, had taken office just before 
the year began. Australian public affairs in 1950 were 
dominated internally by the new government's, bill for the 
suppression of the Communist party and externally by the 
growing international tension, culminating in the Korean 
war. 

The Suppression of the Communist Party. In bringing in a 
bill for the suppression of the Communist party and affiliated 
organizations, the government fulfilled an election pledge. 
The main features of the bill were: the declaration as illegal 
of the Communist party and certain organizations declared 
to be affiliated to Communism; the declaration by the 
governor general in council of certain individuals as Com- 
munists. Declared individuals would become automatically 
disabled from holding executive office in certain named key 
trade unions. The bill defined Communists as persons 
" who support or advocate the objectives, policies, teachings, 
principles, or practices of Communism as expounded by 
Marx and Lenin." The bill provided for a right of appeal to 
the High Court by declared persons or associations. It was 
expressly based, in the first place, on the defence power of the 
Commonwealth, and in the second place, on the power of 
the Commonwealth to make laws incidental to the execution 
and maintenance of the constitution and the laws of the 
Commonwealth. The bill aroused strong public controversy, 
and the opposition of the Labour party. As a result, the 
government introduced certain amendments, in particular a 
high-level advisory committee, to advise the government 
on the declaration of persons and associations. It did not 
yield on thd vital ** onus of proof" clause, which charged 
the " declared " person to deny on oath that he was a 



Communist. After months of discussion, the Labour party, 
faced with the threat of a double dissolution, of the House of 
Representatives and the Senate, withdrew its opposition to 
the bill. Upon the promulgation of the Suppression of the 
Communist Party act, the party became automatically illegal, 
but the implementation of the act was delayed by the party's 
challenge of the constitutionality of the act before the High 
Court an action pending at the end of the year. 

During the year, the royal commissioner appointed by the 
Victorian government to enquire into the activities of the 
Communist party (Mr. Justice Lowe) issued his report, 
which came to the conclusion that the party did not openly 
advocate unconstitutional procedure, but that its objective 
and policies encouraged the fomenting of industrial disputes 
and internal unrest, and in certain contingencies envisaged 
resort to unconstitutional means for the overthrow of 
government. 

Industrial and Economic Position. By comparison with the 
previous year, the country was free from serious industrial 
trouble, except for a railway strike affecting most of the 
Australian states, which started early in October over the 
refusal of a conciliation commissioner to sanction an agree- 
ment between the Victorian railway commissioners and the 
Railwaymen's union, by which passive time was to be counted 
in the assessment of overtime rates. 

In June 1950 the basic wage stood at 6 15s. Qd. Returns 
compiled from 80% of wage-earners showed at the same time 
an average wage of 9 \9s. Qd. The Commonwealth Arbi- 
tration Court issued its basic-wage judgment, which increased 
the basic wage by 1 a week. 

Economic activity was sustained on a high level; national 
income in 1949-50 was A 2,265 million, an increase of 



AUSTRALIAN LITERATURE 



75 



16% over 1948-49; the level of employment in June 1950 
was the highest on record, with 2,546,900 wage and salary 
earners. Unemployment in March was 0-8%, equal to the 
lowest recorded. Prices rose sharply during the year; the 
"C" series retail index in June indicated an increase of 
10% over June 1949. 

Exports rose to A 617; 3 million, an increase on the 
previous year of 14%. This was due mainly to the further 
price rises in wheat, and in particular, in wool, which was 
in keen competitive demand by Soviet, U.S. and other 
buyers. Imports stood at A 536 million for the same period, 
an increase of 30% over 1948-49. 

The Commonwealth obtained a dollar loan from the 
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 
earmarked for the purchase of U.S. machinery and other 
capital equipment. Australia's overseas funds rose to 650 
million, an increase on the previous year of 43%. The 
estimated capital inflow of A 210 million was believed to be 
largely due to " hot money " transferred to Australia in 
anticipation of the revaluation of the Australian currency. 
Revaluation, however, was officially shelved by the govern- 
ment, after repeated discussions. 

Defence Services. Estimated defence expenditure for 
1950-51 was A 133,383,000, an increase of A 79,136,853 
over the previous year. This was almost entirely due to a 
vastly increased defence programme, connected with 
Australia's active participation in the United Nations' 
action in Korea, and a projected expansion of all three arms 
of the military forces. 

Immigration. The number of immigrants was expected to 
exceed 200,000 in 1950, as compared with 149,000 in 1949. 
It was anticipated that, with the gradual exhaustion of the 
European pool of displaced persons, the proportion of 
British immigrants would increase. The absorption of 
immigrants into production and employment caused no 
problems, but the housing shortage became more acute. 
The gap between housing needs and new building was, at 
the prevailing rate of construction, expected to increase by 
30,000 to 35,000 houses a year. 

Foreign Affairs. Australia was one of the first members of 
the United Nations to promise support for action in Korea 
and immediately sent a fighter squadron stationed in Japan, 
which fought with the U.S. forces. In September a battalion of 
the Australian occupation forces in Japan became part of the 
British Commonwealth brigade fighting in Korea. Under 
its new minister for external affairs, P. C. Spender (q.v.), 
Australia's foreign policy took a sharper anti-Soviet turn. 
In the U.N. general assembly, Australia strongly supported 
intervention in Korea, opposed Soviet proposals for the 
banning of atomic weapons alone, opposed the recognition 
of the Communist Chinese government and generally 
supported the policy of the United States. Spender also 
proposed a Pacific pact which would link together all the 
American states with a Pacific coastline, Australia, New 
Zealand, the Philippines, Korea and anti-Communist China, 
as well as the British Pacific possessions. 

The Arts and Sciences. Professor M. L. E. Oliphant, noted 
nuclear physicist, became director of the National University 
School for Nuclear Research at Canberra. Visiting lecturers 
from overseas included Bertrand Russell (q.v.), Professor 
A. R. Todd of Cambridge, Sir Alan Herbert; the vice chan- 
cellors of most of the Commonwealth universities visited 
Australia on their way to a conference in New Zealand. 
The archbishop of Canterbury arrived in October for an 
extensive visit to the country. Visiting artists from overseas 
included the conductors Otto Klemperer and Sir John 
Barbirolli, and the Australian-born composer, Arthur 
Benjamin, the Robert Masters quartet, the singer Erna 
Berger and the actress Elizabeth Bergner. (W. FR.) 



Education. (1947) State schools 8,212, pupils (average weekly enrol- 
ment) 856,753, teachers 32,941; private schools 1.871, pupils (average 
weekly enrolment) 281,838, teachers 12,484; universities 8, students 
30,477, professors and lecturers 2,141. 

Agriculture. Main crops ('000 metric tons, 1948-49; 1949-50 in 
brackets): wheat 5,190 (5,891); oats 428 (580); maize 132 (178); barley 
403 (414); sugar cane, raw value, 964 (955); potatoes 457 (520). Live- 
stock ('000 head, March 1949): sheep 108,500; cattle 14,124; pigs 1,194; 
horses 1,116. Wool production ('000 metric tons, greasy basis, 1948*49; 
1949-50 in brackets) 465 (474). Milk production (million gal., 1948-49; 
1949-50 in brackets) 1,206 (1,250). Food production ('000 metric tons, 
1948-49; 1949-50 in brackets): butter 164-4 (171 -2); cheese 43 -9 (45 -6); 
meat 986-4 (1.048-7) of which beef 582-0 (611-8). 

Industry. Manufacturing establishments (1948-49): 40,010; persons 
employed, including working proprietors, 890,454. Fuel and power 
(1949; 1950, six months, in brackets): coal ('000 metric tons) 14,328 
(7,962); lignite ('000 metric tons) 7,488 (3,871); manufactured gas 
(million cubic metres) 974 (516); electricity (million kwh.) 9,018 
(4,925). Raw materials (1949; 1950, six months, in brackets): gold 
('000 fine ounces) 893 (417); refined copper ('000 metric tons) 10-1 
(7-9); refined lead ('000 metric tons) 187 (108); zinc ('000 metric tons) 
83 (43); steel ingots and castings ('000 metric tons) 1,149 (689). Manu- 
factured goods ('000 metric tons): wool yarn (1948-49; 1949-50 in 
brackets) 23-0 (21-7); cement 1,076 (643). 

Foreign Trade. (A million, 1949; 1950, six months, in brackets) 
import 455 (296); export 535 (358). Main sources of imports (1948-49): 
U.K. 51-4%; U.S. 10-2%; India 6-4%; Canada 2-9%. Main desti- 
nations of exports: U.K. 42-4%; France 8-5%; U.S. 5-9%; Italy 
5*3%. Main imports: machinery 9*8%; cotton and linen piece-goods 
7-5%; petroleum 5-1%; silk and rayon piece-goods 4*1%. Main 
exports: wool 42-3%; wheat and flour 18-6%; meat 5-4%; butter 
4-4%. 

Transport and Communications. Roads (1946 est.): 500.497 mi. 
Licensed motor vehicles (Dec. 1949): cars 747,200; commercial 425,889. 
Government railways (1948-49): 26,999 mi.; passengers carried 504.076; 
freight carried 40.225 tons; freight net ton-mi. 6,308 million. Shipping 
(merchant vessels of 100 gross tons and over, July 1949): 341, total 
tonnage 541,516. Air transport (1949): mi. flown 43,224,000; passenger- 
mi. 710-9 million; freight net ton-mi. 18-0 million; air mail ton-mi. 
4-1 million. Telephones (Dec. 1949): subscribers 1,066,385. Wireless 
licences (Dec. 1949): 1,986,180. 

Finance and Banking. (A million) budget: (1949-50) revenue 589-5, 
expenditure 606; (1950-51 est.) revenue 738-7, expenditure 738-3. 
National debt (June 1949; June 1950 in brackets): 1,838-2 (1.850-9) 
Currency circulation (Aug. 1949; Aug. 1950 in brackets): 218 (237). 
Gold and foreign exchange (million U.S. dollars, March 1949; March 
1950 in brackets): 1,301 (1,251). Bank deposits (Aug. 1949; Aug. 1950 
in brackets): 678 (855). Monetary unit: Australian pound with an 
exchange rate of A 1 -25 to the pound and A 0-45 to the U.S. dollar. 

See J. B. Greaves, Economic and Commercial Condition* In Australia 
(London, H.M.S.O., 1950). 

AUSTRALIA!^ LITERATURE. Australian literary 
output maintained its variety in 1950 only in the face of 
rising costs of printing and publication. Poetry suffered 
moreover a continued decline from the public support which 
it had enjoyed during the war, and Australian Poetry had to 
announce that future volumes would appear only every 
second year. The year however saw the publication of 
Australia's most ambitious poem, The Great South Land by 
Rex Ingamells, the 12th volume of his poetical works, which 
dealt with the discovery of Australia and reached the pro- 
portions of Paradise Lost. Two poetry collections were 
issued: James Devaney's Poems made up from five small 
books no longer in print; and Nancy Cato's The Darkened 
Window, a collection of poems which had previously appeared 
in the Bulletin. Under the auspices of a Commonwealth 
literary fund, Donovan Clarke tegan work on a Panorama 
of Australian Poetry, dealing with the lives and works of 
Australian poets, living and dead. 

Perhaps the outstanding work of criticism was Nettie 
Palmer's Henry Handel Richardson, a study based on an 
intimate friendship with the author and a profound know- 
ledge of her work. Colin Roderick provided an interesting 
and valuable survey of literary developments in An Intro* 
duct ion to Australian Fiction; and the regular work of 
Southerly, Meanjin and the " Red Page " of the Bulletin 
made their usual contribution to Australian, criticism, the 
Chris Brennan number of Southerly being of particular note. 



76 



AUSTRIA 



Among the novels were Norman Lindsay's Dust or Polish 
written with his usual gusto and vitality; Jean Devanny's 
Cindie, a story of the Queensland cane-fields; Winged Seeds, 
the third volume of Katherine Susannah Prichard's trilogy 
on the Western Australian goldfields; Gavan Casey's City 
of Men, a documentary novel of a Kalgoorlie family; John 
Morrison's The Creeping City; and Catherine Gaskin's 
Dust in the Sunlight, her first novel set in a London scene. 

Short stories and plays published in book form were 
fewer than ever. Coast to Coast and George Farwell's Surf 
Music and Other Stories and Dymphna Cusack's Three 
Australian Three-Act Plays were the most notable in these 
fields. (C. A. BR.) 

AUSTRIA. Republic of central Europe. Area: 32,388 
sq.mi. Pop.: (1939 census) 6,652,720; (1948 census) 
6,952,744. Language: German 98%, other 2% (mainly 
Slovene in Carinthia). Religion (1939): Roman Catholic 
88-27%, Protestant 5-35%, Jewish 1-26% (0-2% in 1945), 
other 5 12%. Principal towns (pop., 1948 est.): Vienna 
(cap., 1,730,613); Graz (226,229); Linz (184,336); Salzburg 
(106,919); Innsbruck (98,561); Klagenfurt (65,950). President, 
Dr. Karl Renner (died Dec. 31; see OBITUARIES); chancellor, 
Leopold Figl. The Austrian government had jurisdiction 
throughout Austria, with certain limitations regarding 
matters control over which was reserved to quadripartite 
decision in the Allied Council for Austria. By Dec. 31, 
1950, members of the A.C.A. were: France, Jean Payart 
(from June 29); United Kingdom, Sir Harold Caccia (from 
June 12); U.S., Walter S. Donnelly (from Aug. 24); U.S.S.R., 
Lieut. General V. P. Sviridov. 

History. The country remained divided into four occupied 
zones, and Vienna into as many sectors, plus the quadri- 
partite regime of the innere Stadt. The total strength of the 
occupying forces at the beginning of 1950 was 68,500, of 
which Soviet troops numbered 44,000, U.S. 10,000, British 
8,500 and French 6,000. In the five years of occupation the 
military and civilian costs had swallowed up, it was estimated, 
some 30% of the country's wealth: in 1949 alone contributions 
amounted to Sch. 420 million. 

In addition, the Russians by enforcing their claim on all 
ex-German properties secured possession of most of Austria's 
oil as well as the assets of the Danube Shipping company ; 
and in their latest negotiations over the terms of the will-o'- 
the-wisp peace treaty, they sought to exact payment in respect 
of the relief goods and services which they supplied immedi- 
ately after World War II. The Soviet Union thus had a tight 
grip on the nation's economy, even if its conduct had ensured 
that the majority of Austrians would be in the western camp. 

No wonder, then, that the dearest wish of both government 
and people was to achieve a peace treaty and effective 
independence: to get rid of " the men on their back." The 
prevalent feeling of " disappointment, grief and righteous 
wrath " found fitting expression in President Renner's New 
Year broadcast, and he re-quoted his famous simile of " four 
elephants in a rowing boat." 

Only the U.S. could afford to pay their own occupation 
costs, but the process of relaxation of controls continued 
throughout 1950. Such measures of alleviation, however, 
could bring little comfort, but were in contrast with the 
behaviour of the Soviet Union, seemingly concerned to frust- 
rate the efforts of the foreign ministers' deputies to get an 
agreed draft treaty. The minister of finance, Eugen 
Margaretha, showed elementary realism in including the occu- 
ation-costs tax in his 1950 budget estimates. And the public 
mood was on the whole fatalistic. 

Nevertheless, the government felt it incumbent on them to 
make the demand that these costs should be borne by the 
occupying powers. A note in this sense was addressed to the 



powers and on March 8 Karl Gruber, foreign minister, 
detailed in parliament some of the other requests that were 
included: that the strength of the foreign garrisons should be 
drastically reduced; that requisitioned property should be 
released; and that all military courts, zonal frontier controls 
and every form of censorship should be abolished. Chancellor 
Figl was understood also to have suggested a meeting in 
Vienna at the highest level to break the deadlock. 

This proposal was not taken up. But, after the 252nd 
abortive meeting of the deputies on April 26, the foreign 
ministers of the three western powers, on the occasion of their 
London talks, issued on May 19 a statement that they were 
willing to settle all outstanding issues if this would bring about 
agreement on the treaty as a whole; failing that, while the 
occupation must be maintained, everything possible would be 
done to lighten the burden, and, to begin with, civilian high 
commissioners would be appointed to replace the military 
commanders. 

A formal reply was made by the British Foreign Office on 
July 13. The concessions cofnprised: a considerable reduction 
of high commission personnel, further de-requisitioning, a 
promise of sympathetic consideration for any plan for ending 
Allied control over the Austrian broadcasting system and, in 
time, the abolition of military travel permits. But on military 
courts and the right to ban books and newspapers the British 
government would not yield. (In fact censorship no longer 
existed in the British zone.) The U.S. and French govern- 
ments made somewhat similar response. - 

During 1950 Austria received Sch. 2,600 million in respect 
of Marshall aid funds, divided almost equally among private 
undertakings, nationalized industries and public services, 
including the railways. In addition a " stopgap " allocation 
of a further Sch. 200 million from E.R.P. sources was forth- 
coming to cover housing costs, for which, as in 1949, no 
provision had been made in the budget. This helped substan- 
tially to relieve an acute situation in the building trade, which 
threatened to have serious political consequences. The 
subsidies to industry and agriculture thus made possible 
went some way to correcting the unfavourable trade balance 
of 1949. But, even so, the chronic problem of unemployment 
(which had reached a peak figure of 195,000 in February) 
persisted, and the ominous date of 1952, when Marshall aid 
would cease, was looming ahead. 

Thanks to U.S. aid industrial production rose to 109% of 
the 1937 figure; agricultural output and the volume of exports, 
on the other hand, amounted to only 70% of the prewar level. 
The hardest task of the Catholic-Socialist coalition govern- 
ment was, clearly, to strike a fair balance between the interests 
of town and country. Early in September a crisis developed 
over fixing the in'and price of wheat: the People's party were 
stipulating for a figure higher than the Socialists could accept 
unless there were a compensatory rise in wages. After some 
hard bargaining, under the shadow of a threatened strike by 
the trade unions, a new price and wage agreement was reached, 
on a basis of a 10% increase of wages and salaries, with 
appropriate increases in pensions and family allowances, to 
offset the increased cost of living, including the removal of 
certain food and fuel subsidies. The Communists, however, 
saw an opportunity to stir up unrest. First they initiated 
token strikes and demonstrations, with the deliberate con- 
nivance of the Soviet authorities in Vienna; and then on 
Sept. 30 a conference of some hundreds of Communist works 
councillors issued an ultimatum calling for a general strike on 
Oct. 3 unless the wage and price agreement were withdrawn. 
By that time, however, the government and trade union 
leaders regained complete authority over the bulk of the 
workers, and the strike was called off. Only in the Soviet 
zone were there any serious disturbances. 

For the time being the Communists ceased to count as a 



AVIATION, CIVIL 



77 



serious factor in Austria's internal politics. At the Peasant 
Chamber elections held in Lower Austria in April, despite 
Soviet activity, they failed to win a single seat. And in local 
elections in the same Soviet sector of Lower Austria held in 
May they polled only 5 23 % against 51-96% for the 
People's party and 39-97% for the Social Democrats: 10 of 
the 11 Communist mayors installed in 1945 lost their seats. 
Neo-Nazism, likewise, receded as a political danger, with 
the disintegration of the League of Independents. Its moderate 
leader, Herbert Kraus, continued to woo the Volkspartei 
leaders with the prospect of an anti-Marxist combination in 
parliament which would have a comfortable majority. But 
in fact the rift between Socialists and Communists was 
widening, and the great majority of Austrians perceived that 
the maintenance of the " black-red " coalition was essential 
for the very survival of their country. (W. H. CTR.) 

Education. Schools (1948-49): elementary 4,956, pupils 829,326, 
teachers 34,105; secondary 167, pupils 47,310, teachers 3,476; technical 
and commercial 64, students 20,739, teachers 1,691. Teachers' training 
colleges 28, students 4,821, lecturers 534; universities 4, students 
19,762, professors and lecturers 1,684. 

Agriculture. Main crops ('000 metric tons, 1949; 1950 est. in brac- 
kets): wheat 350 (347); barley 197; oats 286; rye 365 (366); maize 
132; potatoes 2,008; sugar 52 (67). Livestock (*000 head): cattle (Dec. 
1949) 2,200; sheep (Dec. 1948) 454; pigs (May 1950) 2,024; horses 
(Dec. 1948) 286; poultry (May 1950) 4,140. 

Industry. Insured persons employed (Dec. 1949) 1,896,966. Fuel and 
power (1949; 1950, six months, in brackets): coal ('000 metric tons) 
184 (89); lignite ('000 metric tons) 3,816 (2,045); electricity (million 
kwh.) 4,164 (2,253); crude oil 900 (450). Raw materials ('000 metric 
tons, 1949; 1950, six months, in brackets): iron ore 1,728 (831); pig 
iron 838 (420); crude steel 835 (464); magnesite 521 (255); lead smelter 
8-6 (4-6). Manufactured goods ('000 metric tons, 1949; 1950, six 
months, in brackets): woven cotton fabric 12-0 (6-3); cotton yarn 
18-0 (9-4); fertilizers 288 (93); chemical and paper pulp 430 (235); 
cement 1,098 (582). 

Foreign Trade. (Million schillings, 1949; 1950. six months, in 
brackets.) import 4,477-2 (3,551-9); export 3,228-0 (2.719-1). 
Main sources of imports (1949): Germany 16%; Italy 12%; Czecho- 
slovakia 9%; U.S. 6%. Main destinations of exports: Italy 18%; 
Germany 8%; Czechoslovakia 7%; Yugoslavia 7%. 

Transport and Communications. Roads (1947): 53,000 mi. Licensed 
motor vehicles (Dec. 1949): cars 37,350; commercial 54,620. Railways 
(Jan. 1949): 3,728 mi.; passenger-mi. (1948) 2,617 million; freight 
net ton-mi. (1949) 3,311 million. Telephones (1949): subscribers 
231,857. Wireless licences (1949): 967,787. 

Finance and Banking. (Million schillings) budget: (1949) revenue 
6,091, expenditure 7,532; (1950 cst.) revenue 9,617, expenditure 10,695. 
Internal debt (Dec. 1948; Dec. 1949 in brackets): 11,152 (11,826) 
Currency circulation (Sept. 1949; Sept. 1950 in brackets): 5,817 (5,863). 
Bank deposits (Aug. 1949; Aug. 1950 in brackets): 5,367 (6,864). 
Monetary unit : Schilling with an exchange rate (Nov. 1950) of Sch. 60 20 
to the pound and Sch. 21-49 to the U.S. dollar. 

AVIATION, CIVIL. In 1950 British commercial 
air transport began to use new aircraft which had been 
delayed in delivery, and so entered the phase in which more 
satisfactory financial results could be expected; yet in the 
course of the year there were unexpected setbacks. Some of 
the effects of the devaluation of sterling were felt and for the 
first half of the year, British Overseas Airways corporation 
was still without most of the new aircraft on which it had 
counted. Not until November was this handicap fully 
removed. At that point, the corporation ceased to operate 
flying-boats and all its services thenceforward were flown by 
land aircraft. These were expected to produce economies 
both in the cost of operation per ton-mile and through the 
saving of expense on the maintenance of marine stations on 
the routes to the far east and to South Africa. British Euro- 
pean Airways corporation was not due to receive the first of 
its new aircraft until early in 1951 and relied on careful 
management and an energetic sales organization to bring 
expenditure and revenue more closely together. 

For the greater part of the year therefore both corporations 
were in much the same position of having to use a proportion 
of old-type aircraft at a time when they wished to develop 



and increase their services. In common with other operators 
they sought to increase their traffic and the hours flown by 
their aircraft by offering cheap return fares during "off* 1 
seasons on the long runs and at less popular hours on the 
short routes. The result was to increase the number of 
passengers and also the number of capacity ton-miles flown. 
Unfortunately the rise in capacity exceeded the rise in 
passenger ton-miles in both corporations, but the extra 
traffic obtained by B.E.A. through cheap fares appeared to 
be balancing the direct operating cost of the aircraft employed 
on the early and late services and so helped to spread adminis- 
trative costs over a bigger total of ton-miles flown. To this 
extent the policy justified itself but the dual difficulty of coping 
with seasonal traffic and of obtaining a big enough average 
flow of traffic at existing rates to show a profit had still to be 
solved. B.O.A.C., in the financial year ended March 30, 
1950, had a deficit of 7,791,887 and B.E.A.'s deficit in the 
same year was 1,363,594 or about half that of the previous 
year. The loss suffered by B.O.A.C. included that of British 
South American Airways corporation (subsequently amal- 




A British European Airways helicopter arriving at Speke airport, 
Liverpool, from Cardiff to inaugurate the first permanent passenger 
* service by helicopter on June 7, 1950. 

gamated with B.O.A.C.) and a sum of about 1,750,000 
was accounted for by the grounding of the Avro Tudor 
aircraft which B.S.A.A. had been using. 

From November B.O.A.C. was fully re-equipped. It had 
received its overdue Stratocruisers and Hermes I Vs. It had 
been able in the summer to increase its services between 
London and New York from seven to eight a week. From 
November, it used a new landplane route between London 
and Johannesburg. Three times a week this route was by way 
of Tripoli, Kano, Brazzaville and Livingstone, and twice a week 
the more familiar route through Cairo, Khartoum and 
Nairobi was used. At the same time the corporation had 
completed its administrative reorganization and its plan for 
reducing expenditure by reducing staff and by re-grading 
some of its employees. In the course of three years its staff 
had been reduced from 24,000 to about 17,000 and some of 
the employees remaining had accepted salary reductions of 
up to 25%. 

Prospects of prosperity appeared to be improving although 
the ratio of pay load to capacity in the latter part of the year 
was still not good enough to promise a profit. This situation 
lent special interest to the additional aircraft the corporation 
would put into commission during the next three years. 
Early in 1952 the de Havilland Comet jet air liner was likely 
to begin operations on the Australia route and to reduce the 
journey time by about half. This was expected to attract 
passengers and help to increase the average pay load, but it 



78 



AVIATION, CIVIL 



would also throw into greater prominence the question of 
differential fares. By 1953 the big Princess flying-boats were 
expected to be ready. The corporation had already set up a 
unit to prepare for their advent and therefore presumably 
intended to use them from the old flying-boat base at South- 
ampton. By the end of 1950 the corporation was better 
equipped to meet competition and to bring cost of operation 
per ton-mile nearer that of other lines which had modern air- 
craft. The task before it was to increase revenue by obtaining 
more traffic and to keep costs steady in a period of rising 
prices. 

Operating the home and European services, B.E.A. 
continued to make progress within the limitations imposed 
by its equipment and to prepare for further development. 
In the course of the year it lost the right to carry loads to 
and from Lisbon through the insistence of Portugal on her 
right to carry half the available traffic between London and 
Lisbon. As B.O.A.C. was calling regularly at Lisbon and 
was able to handle all the traffic left under this arrangement 
B.E.A. agreed to discontinue its services. In their place it 
opened services to Madrid. On other European routes the 
corporation's business was generally bigger than in 1949. In 
the summer months the traffic increased by about 30 %, part of 
the increase being accounted for by cheap fares on early and 
late services. Home Cervices were much less profitable and 
there were signs at the end of the year that the corporation 
intended temporarily to resign a bigger proportion of the 
home routes to private operators licensed as " associates " 
of the corporation. In 1950 some 48 routes were operated 
by associates. The corporation announced in November 
that it intended to take over six of those routes but was 
prepared to recommend that more than 70 of the smaller 
routes should be allocated in 1951 to associates. At the 
same time B.E.A. had given a contract for the modification 
of its fleet of 28 Douglas DC-3s to permit this type to be 
worked by a crew of two instead of the normal crew of three. 

This evident attempt to reduce the cost of operation in 
1951 was also a temporary expedient, for the corporation had 
placed an order for 14 four-engine Miles Marathon liners 
intended to carry 12 to 14 passengers and to operate from the * 
small aerodromes on the minor home routes. Bv its experi- 
mental service of helicopters between Liverpool and Cardiff, 
the corporation also showed its ultimate belief in the heli- 
copter as the vehicle for most air serviced w,Uh stages of less 
than 200 mi. This daily helicopter service did not show a 
profit but as the corporation was paid a fee for some opera- 
tional research work undertaken in the course of the service, 
the net loss was small enough to be offset reasonably against 
the experience gained. The six-month contract for the 
carriage of night mails by helicopter between Peterborough 
and Norwich which ended in April was both profitable and 
successful. This service, flown throughout the winter months, 
with a ban on operations when the cloud base was below 
500 ft. or the visibility less than half a mile, achieved a 
regularity record of 96*6%. 

Another hint of developments to come was seen in the use 
for brief periods on two routes of the new Vickers Viscount 
turbo-prop liner. This was operated on regular services for 
one week on the Edinburgh route and for two weeks on the 

TABLE I. UNITED KINGDOM CIVH. AIR TRAFFIC 

All Internal External 

services* services services 

1949 1950t 1949 1950| 1949 1950f 
Mi. flown ('000) . 44,257 48,229 
Pass, carried ('000) 921 1,156 
Pass,-mi. ('000) . 614,659 793,724 
Freight carried (tons) 14,148 19,337 
Freight ('000 tons) 18,085 21,905 
Mail carried (tons) 5,297 6,481 
Mail ('000 ton-ii.) 10,557 12.111 



6.006 6,952 38,251 41,277 
453 486 468 670 
72,432 80,896 542,227 712,828 
12,392 
17,756 
4,064 
10,352 




1,756 
329 

1,233 
205 



2,280 
427 

1,413 
234 



17,110 

21,478 

5,068 

11,877 



' BOAC, BEAC and associate companies, t Provisional. 



The French balloon pilot, Charles Dolfuss* making an ascent over 

Stockholm in 1950 to celebrate I he 50th anniversary of the Federation 

Aeronautique Internationale. 

Paris route. Soon afterwards a firm order was placed for 
28 Viscounts with provision for deliveries to begin late in 
1952. Preparations were also made for putting the Airspeed 
Ambassador liners into service in the spring of 1951 for the 
carriage of big holiday loads particularly between London and 
Paris. The Ambassador was intended to carry 50% more 
passengers than the Viking at a cruising speed about 60 m.p.h. 
faster. B.E.A. also used the year to consolidate earlier 
economies. Its staff, reduced from 7,800 to about 6,500, 
remained steady and proved adequate to deal with the 
increased traffic. The corporation suffered two serious 
accidents involving the loss of a Viking and a DC-3, with the 
death of nearly all on board. Another Viking, badly damaged 
by a bomb apparently placed by a passenger in the lavatory, 
was brought safely back to London. Its captain was subse- 
quently decorated with the George Medal. 

Independent air operators also had a year of fair activity. 
Besides acting as associates of B.E.A., several were engaged 
at times of pressure to help with the regular services or the 
freight-carrying of the two corporations. They were busy 
too with a great variety of private charters. Two independent 
services still run by private operators were the motor-car 
ferry across the English channel (which handled 4,000 cars and 
1,000 motor cycles) and the weekly flying-boat service 
between England and Madeira. The charter companies in 
general obtained extra business through the Holy Year 
pilgrimages to Rome, the Council of Europe at Strasbourg 
and holidays organized by tourist agents, student bodies 
and the Boy Scouts association. One company obtained a 
contract from the War Office to carry troops between 
England and west Africa. Others included in their loads 
Arab ponies from Iraq and cattle and pigs from Italy and 
Greece. There was some development of the dusting and 
spraying of crops from the air and an experiment was made 
in the treatment of hill land near Plynlymon with super- 
phosphate pellets. 

In the handling, supervision and control of commercial 
aircraft over the United Kingdom there were some important 
improvements. Early in the year a new radar station with a 
range of 140 mi. was established at London airport, its 
purpose that of monitoring traffic over the southern part of 
England and of helping liner captains in that area with 



AVIATION, CIVIL 



79 



TABLE H. REVENUE STATISTICS FOR BRITISH AIR LINES 
(Financial years, April 1 -March 31) 

B.O.A.C. B.E.A.C. 



Operating revenue 
Operating expense 
Operating deficit 
Non-operating expense 
Total deficit 



1948-49* 



17,717,220 

24,962,497 

7,245,277 

560,697 

7,805,974 



1949-50 



19,530,584 

26,102,495 

6,571,911 

1,219,976 

7,791,887 



1948-49 



5,312,654 
7,820,927 
2,508,273 

226,565 
2,734,838 



1949-50 



6,884.935 
8,104,285 
1,219,350 
91,472 
1,310,822 



* 1948-49 figures are those shown in the corporation's report and accounts 
for 1949-50, and exclude from non-operating expense profit on disposal of 
assets and redemption of stock. The total deficit for B.O.A.C. B.S.A.A.C. as 
shown in the 1948-49 accounts is 6,977,777. 

information about their position, height and bearing. A plan 
was also announced for creating a series of seven traffic 
lanes leading into the chief air traffic centres in England, 
Scotland and Northern Ireland, the intention being to equip 
each lane with radio ranges to enable pilots to fix with a 
high degree of accuracy their positions in the approach lanes. 
The first lane was brought into use in August. In September 
the ground-controlled approach team at Northolt brought 
in their ten thousandth aircraft to a safe landing. 

Within the Commonwealth there was some expansion and 
the promise of more. Canada was engaged for some months 
in negotiations with the United States arising out of her 
proposal to run services to New York. This was resisted by 
the United States line already handling this traffic; but 
Canada, strengthened by her recent acquisition of Newfound- 
land and consequent control of Gander airport, pressed her 
claim and was allowed to open her service in April. About 
the same time Trans-Canada Airlines had second thoughts 
about its plans to order Avro Jetliners (made in Canada) 
for its main services. Up to the end of the year the outcome 
of this reconsideration had not been announced. The 
privately owned Trans-Pacific Airways, which had already 
ordered two Comet jet airliners for its proposed service from 
Vancouver to Tokyo by way of the Aleutian islands, found 
itself in some difficulty by the decision of the U.S. not to 
continue to maintain certain bases along that line. 

Australia too showed an interest in the Comet and also 
in the Indian ocean route from Western Australia to Johannes- 
burg, touching at the Cocos islands and Mauritius, but nothing 
had been settled on either point by the end of the year. On 
its existing services Qantas Empire Airways made a profit in 
the previous complete year. Towards the end of the year 



Tasman Empire Airways opened a service between Sydney 
and Christchurch and so for the first time linked New Zealand's 
south island with Australia by a regular line. There were 
other plans for services between Christchurch and Melbourne, 
and between Wellington and Sydney. New services with 
flying-boats were also being organized from Australia to the 
Solomon islands, the New Hebrides, New Caledonia and 
various other islands. Inside Australia there was little 
development, but there were signs that the government- 
owned Trans-Australian Airlines might make a profit on the 
year's work. Australian National Airlines operated a beef 
service between the killing station at Glenroy and the port 
of Wyndham, a run of 180 mi. More than two million Ib. 
of meat was carried in the five-month season and the advan- 
tages over the old method of delivering the beef ** on the 
hoof* were proved. This company also became a minority 
shareholder in Air Ceylon, established to operate long 
distance services. In New Zealand the state-owned National 
Airways was offered for sale by the new government. 

The chief event in Africa was the completion of the big 
airport at Livingstone and the removal of flying-boats from 
the main routes. The two corporations serving central and 
east Africa with their bases at Nairobi continued to expand. 
India, was, if anything, over-served with air transport. 
Among its 16 companies there was little prosperity and a 
new government policy on air transport was expected. 
Difficulty in communications between Assam and Calcutta 
arising from the creation of East Pakistan was relieved to a 
large extent by air transport. Similar enterprise was shown 
in Pakistan in the operation of a service from Peshawar to 
Gilgit following the valley of the Indus through the moun- 
tains of the northwest frontier. 

European air operators generally had a difficult time during 
the year. For the first time in recent years K.L.M.* failed 
to make a profit. There were doubts as to whether Sabenaf 
would show a profit. Discussions took place between these 
two companies and Swissair with a view to a closer pooling 
arrangement to embrace aircraft maintenance and stocks of 
spares. The three Scandinavian companies also drew closer 
together in search of further co-operative economies. France 
alone undertook expansion, acquiring additional U.S. as well 
as home-produced aircraft and plunging boldly ahead with a 

* K.L.M. Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij (Royal Dutch Air Lines). 
tS.A.B.E.N.A.~Societ6> Anonyme Beige d'Exploitation de la Navigation 
Aerienne. , 




The British European Airways Vickers Viscount at Le Bourget airport, Paris, July 2$, 1950, after flying from London. THis wax the first 

scheduled nassenuer service in the world hv a turho-oroo airliner. 



80 



AVIATION, CIVIL 



scheme of differential fares based on aircraft seating arrange- 
ments. Air France and its associates were reported to have 
seven different fare scales by the end of the year. (E. C. SD.) 

United States. An analysis of 226 air lines in operation 
throughout the world in April 1950, of which 55 were U.S.- 
operated and 171 operated by other countries, shows that 
four-fifths of the world's scheduled air line services were 
being conducted with U.S.-built aircraft. While the U.S. 
share of the total scheduled aircraft-miles dropped to 48% 
from 52 % in the previous year, air lines operating under the 
U.S. flag had increased their revenue ton-mile capacity by 8 % 
during the year, and by 35% since 1948. It was expected 
that still further substantial additions to the U.S. civil fleet 
would result from the faster and larger versions of air tran- 
sports which were on order for delivery during 1951 and 1952, 
including more than 100 Douglas DC-6Bs and Lockheed 
Constellation 1049s. 

The U.S. civil air line industry experienced its best year 
since the end of World War II. International and domestic 
scheduled air carriers made traffic gains comparable to, or 
greater than, those reported in the record year of 1949. 
Total operating revenues increased about 8 %, while operating 
expenses increased about 5%. This difference largely 
accounted for a 47% increase in net operating income to a 
total of $66-8 million, a far cry from the heavy operating 
deficits of 1946 and 1947. Collectively, the industry added 
1 6 7 % in passenger-miles over 1 949, 11 6 % in mail ton-miles 
and 19-7% in cargo services, including express and freight. 
Altogether, 18,828,000 passenger runs were reported, while 
total revenue loads, including passengers, mail and cargo, 
reached a record figure of 1,230 million ton-mi., a 16-8% 
increase from 1949. 

TABLE ill. U.S. SCHEDULED AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS 



Revenue passengers carried 

Domestic 

International 
Revenue miles flown 

Domestic 

International 
Revenue passenger- miles flowt 

Domestic 

International 
Passenger-miles flown . 

Domestic 

International 
Ton-miles of express carried 

Domestic 

International 
Ton-miles of freight carried 

Domestic 

International 



1949 
(actual) 

16,600,771 

15,080,704 

1,520,067 

456,165,882 

351,639,998 

104.525,884 

8,806,576,000 

6,752,578,000 

2,053,998,900 

9,233,945,000 

7,065,146,000 

2,168,799,000 

77.217,799 

27,773,669 

49,444,130 

101,969,397 

95,227,983 

6,741,414 



1950 
(estimate) 

18,828,000 

17,162,000 

1,666,000 

460,453,000 

367,184,000 

93,269,000 

10,115,000,000 

7,929,000,000 

2,186,000,000 

10,600,000,000 

8,283,000,000 

2,317,000,000 

80,740,000 

37,01p.OOO 

43,730,000 

136,119,000 

120,519,000 

15,600,000 



The distribution of revenues among the three principal 
sources of traffic for the scheduled air carriers remained about 
the same in 1950 as in 1949, passengers accounting for 73%, 
mail for approximately 17-5% and cargo for 6 7 %. Average 
unit receipts for freight dropped to slightly less than 19 cents 
a ton-mile for the first time, reflecting the increasing volume 
of back-haul freight movement at special commodity rates. 

The 16 domestic trunk lines alone more than doubled their 
net operating income, from approximately $25 million in 
1949 to more than $51 million in 1950. The 12 local-service 
air lines had an operating net of $500,000, in round figures, 
contrasted with a loss of about the same amount during the 
previous year. The 13 international and overseas air lines, 
on the other hand, showed a decline of about 28 %, to a net 
operating income of $ 1 5 ' 3 million for the year. Nevertheless, 
Pan American World Airways reported that its 1950 traffic 
volume was the greatest in its 24-year history. The company 
transported more than a million passengers and 50 million Ib. 



of cargo during the year, in addition to military contract 
operations on the trans-Pacific Korean air lift. 

The year witnessed a continuous and gradual extension of 
ah* coach operations on the part of the scheduled carriers, 
while the ** irregulars," or non-scheduled operators, found it 
more and more difficult to maintain their services in the face 
of the stiffening restrictions of the Civil Aeronautics board. 
During the spring, T.W.A. (Transcontinental and Western 
Air, Inc.) and American Airlines began using modern high- 
speed Constellations and DC-6 type equipment with high- 
density seating in New York-Los Angeles coach operation. 
In July they both reported load factors of more than 90% and 
bookings several weeks in advance. Ten major air lines wefe 
offering coach service on various routes, reaching 32 domestic 
cities in July 1950, including 16 out of the 20 leading traffic- 
generating points. Load factors on the Los Angeles-San 
Francisco run were particularly heavy, with fares as low as 
3 cents a mile. 

For the first four months of 1950, revenue passenger-miles 
on air coach services showed a tenfold increase over a similar 
period in 1948. In fact, much of the increase in total passenger 
air traffic during the year came from air coach service. 
Altogether, domestic air lines carried some 48-5% of the 
total U.S. first class rail and air travel market in 1950, com- 
pared with 43% in 1949. 

TABLE IV. U.S. SCHEDULED Am CARRIER OPERATING 



Operating revenues . 

Operating expenses . 

Net operating income. 

Revenue ton-mile receipts average 

Revenue ton-mile expenses average 

Passenger-mile receipts 

Mail ton-mile receipts 

Express ton-mile receipts . 

Freight ton-mile receipts 



REVENUES AND INCOME 
1949 

$755,877,711 
710,402,051 
45,475,660 
57 -36 cents 
54 -29 cents 
5 76 cents 
110 -17 cents 



32 -78 cents 
19-46 cents 



1950 (/.) 
$813,210,000 

746,410,000 

66,800,000 

54 7 cents 

49 -4 cents 

5 5 cents 

103 -6 cents 
33 -9 cents 
19-0 cents 



U.S. domestic scheduled services maintained their high 
safety record of recent years with only four fatal accidents, 
the same number as in 1949. On the basis of passenger 
fatalities this was a rate of 1 -2 per 100 million passenger-miles 
flown in domestic operations, compared with 1 3 for the 

Srevious year. One accident in 1950, involving a U.S. aircraft 
ying outside the U.S.A., resulted in 48 deaths and brought 
the combined over-all rate to 1-4, compared with 1 -0 in 1949. 

The year 1950 marked a definite turning point in the 
history of the private-plane industry in which sales had 
diminished since 1946. Based on official statistics for the 
first 11 months, and unofficial reports for December, the 
total number of private aircraft sold during the year exceeded 
3,400, with a manufacturer's value of about $18-5 million. 
This compared with 3,370 sold in 1949 and valued at 
$14,324,000. The increase in dollar volume reflected the 
demand for the larger types of four- and five-seater models 
used mainly by business executives. About 100 helicopters 
were built during the year for military and commercial 
purposes. The use of light aircraft for agricultural purposes 
continued to grow; about 10,500 planes were owned by 
farmers and ranchers. 

In general, flying schools and fixed-base operators found 
1950 a difficult year. The number of student pilots dropped 
off as ex-service applicants decreased. There was a 17% 
decline in the number of private pilot certificates issued from 
more than 30,000 to 25,000 and a 29% reduction in the 
number of commercial pilot certificates issued. 

During the second half of the year, the shadow of the 
Korean war and the mobilization activities to which it gave 
rise made still more uncertain the immediate outlook for 
civil aviation that was not directly or indirectly related to 
the defence effort. 



BACTERIOLOGY-BAHAMAS 



81 



As the year closed, the Civil Aeronautics administration 
made compulsory the filing of flight plans for planes entering, 
or flying within, designated air defence identification zones. 
Areas affected were: a zone several miles in diameter around 
each atomic energy plant; zones surrounding the cities of 
San Francisco and Los Angeles; and zones covering the 
Atlantic and Pacific ocean areas seaward to a line about 
20 mi. off-shore. Flight plans were also required for planes 
entering the United States from Canada east of Wisconsin. 

For the first time since the end of World War II the use 
of civilian aviation flight and ground schools was planned for 
large-scale training of air force personnel. About 10,400 
U.S. air force technicians were to be trained in civilian trade 
schools by July 1951 ; and contract training of a minimum of 
2,250 basic flight cadets was announced at five fields to be 
operated by civilian flight-school contractors. 

The C.A.A. Federal Aid Airport programme went on a 
defence footing, 1950-51 projec.s being screened to meet the 
cuts in non-defence construction. Grant agreements entered 
into during 1950 numbered 598, involving $40-6 million in 
federal funds. Projects completed during the year numbered 
452 on which $27-3 million in federal funds had been 
expended. 

Employment in the basic aircraft industry, which totalled 
about 256,000 in June 1950, was expected to reach 500,000 
by mid-1951. (J. P. V. Z.) 

AVIATION, MILITARY: see AIR FORCES OF THE 
WORLD. 

AZORES: see PORTUGAL. 

BACTERIOLOGY. Vitamin B 12 simultaneously 
produced with streptomycin had proved of great value in the 
treatment of pernicious anaemia. Maximum stimulation of 
haematopoiesis occurs when folic acid, a bacterial metabolite, 
is administered with vitamin B 12 . It appeared that both 
substances were produced by bacteria normally residing in 
the intestines and that defective absorption might result in 
deficient blood formation. A growth-stimulating substance 
present in aureomycin concentrates produced by Streptomyces 
aureofaciens identified as " animal protein factor " was an 
entirely new entity in the field of fermentations. Consumption 
of this factor by poultry and pigs results in 20% greater 
growth with unusually high meat quality and increases the 
vigour and growth of calves. The discovery might revolu- 
tionize the preparation of manufactured feed for animals and 
poultry and create a new industry for producing the factor. 

Immunity in Syphilis. A substance present in blood of 
infected individuals, called reagin, had been of inestimable 
value in the serological tests for diagnosis of syphilis, but 
reagins are not true antibodies in that they offer no protection 
and are of little value in the study of immunological mechan- 
isms. A protective antibody, which has an immobilizing 
effect on Treponema pallidum, appears in the sera of experi- 
mentally infected and treated animals. The level of immunity 
is directly correlated with the immobilizing power of the serum. 
Disclosure of these data offered for the first time a research 
tool for more detailed studies of syphilis immunity in man. 

Antibiotic Resistance and Dependence. The development 
of resistance of many bacteria to streptomycin has been 
demonstrated both experimentally and in the course of 
therapy in human infections. Whether this is a result of 
natural selection according to Darwinian principles with 
survival and overgrowth of resistant individual cells, or the 
outcome of acquired resistance in the manner of Lamarchian- 
ism, was still being debated in 1950. The ultimate in this 
tendency of the bacterial organisms to withstand strepto- 
mycin was reached when it was reported that many bacteria 

7 



actually become streptomycin-dependent and fail to grow in 
its absence. Similar phenomena were also observed with one 
of the newer antibiotics. Chloramphenicol resistance and 
dependence was shown for Klebsie/la pneumoniae, and 
bacitracin resistance was observed to develop in many strains 
of beta haemolytic streptococci. Since these antibiotics had 
already enjoyed rather extensive clinical use the isolated reports 
lent support to the view that the newer antibiotics would not 
lead to frequent development of resistant strains of pathogenic 
organisms as had been the common observation in strepto- 
mycin therapy. 

Poliomyelitis. Attempts to develop a vaccine for polio- 
myelitis had been thwarted by difficulties encountered in 
cultivating the virus in sufficient quantity and by the existence 
of many yet unrecognized immunological ly distinct strains 
of the virus. A report on the successful propagation of the 
virus in a test tube on human placenta! tissue might be an 
important step toward removing mysteries surrounding the 
disease and might facilitate attempts to produce a vaccine. 
Likewise the isolation of strains in addition to the three 
reported should be more readily accomplished. A vaccine 
to be successful must have immunizing potentialities against 
all strains of the virus. Some hope from new data was 
extended to the use of ultra-violet irradiation to attenuate 
the virus for purposes of vaccine production. (M. N.) 

BADMINTON. National and international champion- 
ship tournaments took place during 1950 HI all continents of 
the globe. In the most important of these, the 40th all- 
England championships in London in March, the winners 
were Wong Peng Soon (Malaya) and Fru Tonny Ahm 
(Denmark) in the singles; and Jorn Skaarup and Preben 
Dabelsteen (Denmark), Fru Ahm and Frk. Kirsten Thorndahl 
(Denmark) and Poul Holm and Fru Ahm (Denmark) in the 
doubles events. In international matches England defeated 
Ireland and Scotland, but was beaten by Denmark and 
Sweden. Ireland defeated Scotland, and for the first time New 
Zealand got the better of Australia. 

Thirty-four counties took part in the English inter-county 
championship which was again won by Cheshire with a close 
win over Surrey in the final. Essex headed Division II. 

A new departure instituted by the Badminton Association 
of England was the holding of the first all-England junior 
championships in January; in these 118 competitors took 
part. A large number of other tournaments took place all 
over the United Kingdom, and all attracted increasing 
numbers of players. Eighteen national associations were 
members of the International Badminton federation, and 
most of them were expected to take part in the championship 
for the Thomas cup in Malaya in 1951. (H. A. E. S.) 

BAHAMAS, British colony, an archipelago of about 
700 islands, of which New Providence is the most important, 
outside the Gulf of Mexico and off the coast of Florida. 
Area: 4,403 sq.mi. Pop.: (1943 census) 68,846; (1948 est.) 
76,620. Language: English. Capital: Nassau. Administra- 
tion: governor; executive council; Legislative Council of 
9 unofficial nominated members and House of Assembly 
of 29 elected members. Governors (1950), Sir George Ritchie 
Sandford and, from Dec. 7, Major General R. A. R. Neville. 

History. Butlin's vacation village at West End, Grand 
Bahama, opened early in the year and as a result of the 
increase in facilities the colony experienced a record tourist 
season : by the end of July the number of visitors was already 
10,000 greater than for the whole of 1949. But in the autumn 
it was learnt that the future of the village was endangered 
by lack of capital to ensure its completion. Petitions were 
presented for the winding up of the company, but judgment 
was postponed pending the outcome of various efforts to 



82 



BALANCE OF PAYMENTS 



raise extra capital, and the outcome was still undecided at 
the end of the year. An agreement was signed permitting 
the U.S. jointly with the United Kingdom to establish and 
operate technical and supporting facilities at selected sites 
in the colony for a guided missile range to be known as 
" Bahamas long-range proving ground." The Colonial 
Development corporation announced that it had launched 
an agricultural undertaking to make the colony to a large 
extent self-supporting in food; the plans envisaged projects 
on three of the main islands, Eleuthera, Andros and Abaco; 
the capital authorized up to October, including the purchase 
of the land and buildings at Eleuthera, was 1,034,000. 

Finance and Trade. Currency: pound sterling; U.S. currency also 
generally accepted. Budget: revenue (1950 est.) 1,315,760; expenditure 
(1950 cst.) 1,649,573. Foreign trade (1949): imports 4,775,789; 
domestic exports 488,365; re-exports 172,448. Principal exports: 
lumber, tomatoes, salt and crawfish; the economy of the colony was 
primarily dependent on the tourist industry. (J. A. Hu.) 

BAHREIN ISLANDS: ^ARABIA. 

BAKERY PRODUCTS: see BREAD AND BAKERY 
PRODUCTS. 

BALANCE OF PAYMENTS. During 1950 the 
world outside the United States substantially improved its 
position in the balance of payments, and its reserve position 
was strengthened. 

Closer balance was established after Lie widespread 
currency devaluation of Sept. 1949, by countries accounting 
for nearly two-thirds of world trade. The basic cause of the 
devaluations was the postwar distortion in international 
payments, of which the most obvious symptom was a world 
shortage of U.S. dollars: in 1949 the surplus of the U.S. with 
the rest of the world for goods and services amounted to 
$6,200 million. This surplus was reduced in the first half of 
1950 to an annual rate of $3,000 million and in the third 
quarter of 1950 to an annual rate of less than $300 million. 
It would be premature however to assume that this wide- 
spread improvement meant the achievement of a new 
equilibrium. In the 12 months' period ending with Sept. 
1950 countries other than the United States were able to 
increase their gold and dollar holdings by ati amount of 
about $3,750 million, of which $3,000 million resulted 
from transactions with the U.S. and thfe rest from new gold 
production. Countries benefiting from rising exports and 
by the inflow of speculative capital gained most ox the gold 
and dollars, such as Canada ($900 million), the sterling area 
($1,300 million excluding the Union of South Africa) and 
also some of the Latin American countries. 

Devaluation improved the competitive position of the 
devaluing countries. But it was only one of the factors that 
improved the foreign balances of payments with the U.S. 
Other important factors were: (1) the continuing U.S. govern- 
ment aid to foreign countries at a rate of more than $4,500 
million a year; (2) reduction of foreign purchases from the 
U.S. in order to conserve dollar resources; and (3) an increase 
in the imports of the U.S. This last was facilitated by the 
high level of business activity in the U.S. as well as by the 
improvement, due to devaluation, in the competitive position 
of the exporting countries. There was indeed since devaluation 
an expansion in the volume of Europe's exports not only to 
the U.S. but also to overseas countries in general in relation 
to imports. The advantages of this were however offset by a 
deterioration of about 10-15% in Europe's terms of trade 
with overseas countries, brought about by devaluation.^ 
Therefore the improvement in the gold and dollar holdings' 
of Europe could not be explained primarily by changes in the 
balance of merchandise trade but rather by shifts in the 
pattern of tfade by an improvement in service and capital 



transactions and by an inflow of speculative capital. 

The Sterling Area. Because of the United Kingdom's 
central position in world trade and the importance of sterling 
as an international currency the most important development 
of 1950 was the improvement of the position of the sterling 
area in general and of the United Kingdom in particular in 
the balance of payments. This improvement was illustrated 
by the sterling area's earning a net gold and dollar surplus 
of $220 million in the first half of 1950 as against deficits of 
$962 million and $570 million in the first and second halves of 
1949 respectively. The United Kingdom's contribution to 
this was a drastic reduction in its net gold and dollar deficit. 
A further major contribution came from the earnings of the 
overseas sterling areas, made possible by the increase in demand 
for and prices of their products (such as tin, rubber, wool, etc.) 
as well as by their sale of gold to the United Kingdom. 

The actual increase of the gold and dollar reserves of the 
sterling area was, of course, greater than the net gold and 
dollar surplus earned. It amounted to $735 million in Jan.- 
June 1950 as a result of Marshall aid ($426 million) and of 
drawing on the line of Canadian credit ($45 million) and also 
because of certain smaller items. This net addition to the gold 
and dollar reserves could be compared with a reduction of 
such reserves to the extent of $205 million in the first half 
of 1949 and an addition of $37 million in the second half of 
1949. There was a further increase of $878 million in the 
second half of 1950, made up of $293 million in Marshall 
aid and $585 million surplus earned by the sterling area, 
including the United Kingdom. Part of this increase in the 
fourth quarter was -due to special factors such as an inflow 
of funds from North America in anticipation of future com- 
mercial needs. Total reserves amounted to $3,300 million 
on Dec. 31, 1950, nearly treble the reserves just before 
devaluation. In view of the great improvement in the dollar 
position of the sterling area and in view of the launching of 
the Mutual Defence Aid programme by the United States, 
it was mutually agreed to suspend Marshall aid to the United 
Kingdom from Jan. 1, 1951. 

United Kingdom Current Account. The improvement of 
the United Kingdom's position in the balance of payments 
with the world at large on current account is shown in Table I. 
It showed a surplus of 52 million in the first half of the year, 
against a surplus of 16 million in the first half of 1949 and a 
deficit of 54 million in the second half of 1949. It was 
estimated that the surplus for 1950 as a whole was of the 
order of 200 million-250 million, a striking result compared 
with a deficit of 38 million for 1949. 

It was even more important that the United Kingdom 
succeeded in reducing its deficit on current account with the 
dollar area to 52 million (in the first six months of 1950) as 
against 142 million and 160 million (in the first and second 
halves of 1949 respectively). 

The improvement in the first half of 1950 was not in the 
visible balance of current transactions, which is made up 
of the difference between United Kingdom exports and 
imports both valued at f.o.b. prices. The visible items showed 
a deficit of 108 million in the first half of 1950 as against 
deficits of 43 million and 104 million in the first and second 
halves of 1949 respectively, because, although the sterling 
value of exports increased, that of imports increased even 
more. But even in this period the United Kingdom succeeded 
in reducing its deficit on visible items with the dollar area to 
71 million in the first half of 1950 as against 1 1 1 million and 
140 million in the first and second halves of 1949 respectively, 
both by reducing imports and increasing exports. In the 
second half of the year a sharp improvement in visible 
trade took place, and towards the end of the year the United 
Kingdom was earning more on visible exports than it was 
spending on imports* In 1950 the volume of British exports 



BALANCE OF PAYMENTS 



83 



U.K. BALANCE OF PAYMENTS 



NET PAYMENTS 

1947 

NET RECEIPTS 




NET PAYMENTS 
NET ftfcEIPTS 

NET PAYMENTS 

1949 

NET RECEIPTS 



NET PAYMENTS 

I95CT 

NET RECEIPTS 



iM.,1.-! 00 



200 300 400 500 
*lst Smooths of enwol rot* 



600 700 



was 16% more than that of 1949, a substantial achievement, 
while the volume of British imports was only 1 % more. 
Also the expansion of exports to the dollar area was greater 
than the expansion to other areas. This was however counter- 
balanced by the marked deterioration in the terms of trade 
of the United Kingdom. In 1950 export prices increased by 
6% as compared with the average for 1949, while import 
prices increased by 17%. 

Improvement for the United Kingdom in the first half of 
1950 was most marked in the balance of invisible items, 
which showed a surplus of 160 million as against 59 million 
and 50 million in the first and second halves of 1949. Net 
income from shipping and from interest, profits and dividends 
increased a little; the net deficit on travel and total government 
transactions abroad remained about the same as in the first 
half of 1949; but the mixed bag of other net income increased 
to 137 million from 75 million and 84 million, mainly 
reflecting increased income of oil and insurance companies 
operating abroad. The United Kingdom earned a surplus 
of 19 million on its invisible balance with the dollar area 
against a deficit of 31 million and 20 million. 

United Kingdom Capital Account. The way in which the 
surpluses and deficits in the current accounts were financed and 
the changes in the capital accounts of the United Kingdom are 
shown in the second part of Table I* 

An important change on the debit side of the capital 
account was the further increase in the short-term sterling 
liabilities bringing them to 3,471 million at the end of June 
1950, as against 3,340 million at the end of Dec. 1949. 
The sterling-area countries remained the largest creditors of 
these balances, owning 2,497 millions. The non-sterling area 
countries owned balances to the extent of 974 million. 
Releases continued to be made and negotiations with various 
creditors took place in 1950, but no general arrangement was 
made for the final settlement of these balances. In fact the 
pressure for such an arrangement diminished as countries 
became more willing to hold their balances in sterling than 
before the devaluation. A block of balances owned centrally 
by the monetary authorities of O.E.E.C. countries on July 1, 
1950, amounting to 200 million, was swept into the European 
Payments union, to be used by the United Kingdom's 
creditors to cover their deficits. 

Another step towards settling these balances was contained 
on the so-called Colombo plan, which envisaged a reduction 
of the sterling balances or India, Pakistan and Ceylon by 
246 million within six years, these releases forming pan of 



the funds for developing the Commonwealth countries of 
southern and southeastern Asia, 

European Payments Union. An important new development 
in 1950 was the setting up of the European Payments union 
to be started as from July 1, 1950, thus replacing two previous 
intra-European payments agreements. For the first time the 
clearing arrangement was wholly multilateral and automatic. 
The principle was that the surpluses earned by one country in 
any other one should be expendable in all other countries, 
including the non-European monetary areas (e.g., as far as 
the United Kingdom was concerned, the whole sterling area). 
This arrangement, together with the liberalization of trade 
also agreed-to in 1950, was expected to facilitate a return 
towards multilateral trade in western Europe and to lead to 
the abandonment of discrimination between soft- and hard- 
currency countries. 

Each country was allotted a quota which reflected its 
weight in intra-European trade and represented the field 
within which whatever surpluses or deficits arose were to be 

TABLE I. UNITED KINGDOM BALANCE OF PAYMENTS, 1946 TO 1950 
( million) 













1949 


1950 


r ' 














Jan.- 


July- 


Jan.- 






1946 


1947 


1948 


June. 


Dec. 


June 
















(prov- 


A. 


CURRENT ACCOUNT 












isional) 




Debits 














1. 


Imports (f.o.b.) 


1,081 


1,560 


1,790 


958 


1,007 


1,150 


2. 


Shipping 


137 


165 


174 


95 


97 


96 


3. 


Interest, profits and 
















dividends . 


83 


94 


102 


52 


53 


55 


4. 


Travel . 


42 


76 


66 


27 


46 


32 


5. 


Migrants' funds, leg- 
















acies, private gifts 
















(net) . 


15 


46 


44 


18 


13 


8 


6. 


Government trans- 
















actions (net) 


363 


230 


87 


64 


76 


63 



7. Total debits . . 1,691 2,171 2,263 1,214 1,292 1,404 





Credits 








8. 


Exports and re-ex- 










ports (f.o.b.) 


905 


1,135 


1,583 


9. 


Shipping 


166 


198 


250 


10. 


Interest, profits, divi- 










dends. 


153 


171 


174 


11. 


Travel . 


13 


21 


33 


12. 


Other (net) . , 


106 


88 


143 


13. 


Total credits 


1,343 


1,613 


2,183 


14. 


Balance of current 


transactions 



915 
142 

78 
20 
75 



903 

138 

89 
24 
84 



1,042 
153 

98 

26 

137 



1,230 1,238 1,456 



(credit +, debit ): 348 558 80 
of which 

(a) visible trade . - -176 425 207 

(b) invisible . .712133 + 127 



+ 76 



-54 +52 



_43 _|04 __i08 
+ 59 + 50 +160 



B. INVESTMENT AND FINANCING ACCOUNT 

1. Grants, etc. (to U.K. 

) . . . 30 --138 71 83 111 

2. Overseas investment, 

borrowing, etc. 
(investment by 
U.K.+) . . __37Q 141 93 +8 +286 +16 

3. Sterling liabilities, 

etc. (increase, ). 31235 +205 +130 305 115 

4. Gold and dollar re- 

serves (increase, +) +53 152 54 51 +48 +262 



5. Total of investment 

and financing . 348 558 80 +16 54 +52 

of which net change 
in capital account 
(B2-4 above: in- 
vestment +, disin- 
vestment) . 348 528 +58 +87 +29 +163 
SOURCE: United Kingdom Balance of Payments, 1946 to 1950 CH.M.S.O., 
London, 1950). Reproduced by kind permission of the Controller, H.M. 
Stationery Office. 



84 



BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS BANKING 



TABLE II. UNITED KINGDOM CURRENT ACCOUNT: DISTRIBUTION BY 



AREAS ( million) 
1949 



Dollar area: 

visibles 

invisibles . 
Sterling area: 

visibles 

invisibles . 
O.E.E.C. area: 

visibles 

invisibles . 
Others: 

visibles 

invisibles . 



Jan. -June July-Dec. 



31 

4-78 
4-57 

9 
4-20 



140 
20 

4-78 
4-42 

31 

4- 2 



__ 1 11 

-H3 +26 



1950 
Jan. -June 

71 
4-19 

4-13 
4-67 

4-17 
4-34 

67 
+40 



settled by a combination of credit and gold payments in the 
course of E.P.U.'s operations. An excess beyond the quota 
had to be settled at once in full in gold. 

In order to secure the smooth working of E.P.U., a working 
capital fund of dollars (together with certain other guarantees) 
was provided by the United States. This fund was moreover 
supplemented by European currencies in the form of drawing- 
rights granted by certain creditor countries such as the 
United Kingdom, Belgium, etc. At the same time certain 
chronic debtor countries were given an initial credit balance 
in the books of E.P.U. 

The first six months of the operation of E.P.U. showed 
rather the impact of the uncertainties of the period than the 
normal way in which E.P.U. was expected to operate. In 
this period Germany incurred a heavy net debit and was 
offered a special short-term credit ^n condition that it put 
its own house in order. France and the United Kingdom 
earned a substantial cumulative surplus and both received 
gold from the union. (The United Kingdom moreover 
discharged its initial debt incurred by granting drawing 
rights.) 

Rearmament. In the second part of 1950 the immediate 
effect of the Korean war and the new drive for rearmament by 
the western world was to give a further impetus to U.S. 
purchases abroad, especially to purchases of strategic mater- 
ials, and to make probable the continuation of U.S. govern- 
ment aid in one form or another both factors improving 
the foreign dollar position. But rearmament imposed a new 
strain on the economies of the countries of western Europe, 
competed with exports, home consumption and investment 
and also increased the demand for dollars and dollar goods. 
However, the search for the long-term solution of an equili- 
brium in international payments continued. One step in 
this search was the " Report to the President of the U.S. on 
Foreign Economic Policies " prepared at the request of the 
president by Gordon Gray. This report emphasized the 
importance of western Europe's keeping up its competitive 
strength in order to ensure adequate export markets. But 
it also emphasized the need for the U.S. to increase its imports 
and to secure an adequate outflow of capital, by such methods 
as increased lending by the International Bank for Recon- 
struction and Development and the Export-Import bank 
(<7^.v.) as well as by grants and additional appropriations for 
the development of under-developed areas. (L. Rs.) 

See International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Yearbook. 

BALLET: see DANCE. 

BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLE- 
MENTS. Celebrating in 1950 the 20th anniversary of its 
foundation, the bank could justifiably claim to have lived 
down the hostility to its origins and purposes evident in 
many countries at the end of World War II. No decisive steps 
having been taken by the countries concerned to resolve the 
problems of German prewar debts, the bank took measures 



to segregate assets and liabilities connected with the execution 
of the Hague agreement of 1930 on German reparations, 
the intention being to facilitate the development of banking 
business by enabling a clear and complete view of the bank 
to be obtained. The balance sheet presentation was altered 
accordingly. 

BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS 

(Million Swiss gold 



Assets 

Gold in coins and bars 
Cash and sight funds . 
Bills, acceptances, investments 
Miscellaneous assets . 
Own Hague investments in Germany 



Liabilities 

Short-term and sight deposits (gold) 

Short-term and sight deposits (various cur- 
rencies 

Miscellaneous provisions .... 

Reserves (legal and general) 

Paid-up capital ...... 



francs, pre-1936 


value) 


March 31, March 31, 


1950 


1949 


267-6 


150-7 


44-3 


39-2 


373-0 


233-7 


1-6 


1-6 


68-3 


68-3 


754-8 


493-5 


96-8 


21-6 


399 8 


220-2 


113-3 


105-8 


19-9 


19-9 


125-0 


125-0 



754-8 



493-5 



Execution of Hague Convention 

Claims on German banks and other assets . 297-2 297-2 

Deposits of creditors and other liabilities . 297-2 297-2 

No new development affecting the sums connected with the 
Hague agreement occurred during the financial year 1949-50 
but returning confidence in the bank resulted in a consider- 
able increase in the amount of deposits entrusted to its care 
by central banks and other institutions. This, together with 
the bank's work as agent for the multilateral compensation 
schemes operated by the Organization for European 
Economic Co-operation, brought about a heavy expansion 
in the amount of business handled, turnover at Swiss (gold) 
Fr. 6,800 million being a record. The net profit, which was 
placed to reserve, was 18% higher than in 1949 at Swiss 
(gold) Fr. 6 million. 

In July the bank undertook to act as agent, initially until 
1953, for the new European Payments union devised by the 
O.E.E.C. In April Dr. Wilhelm Vocke was elected to the 
board to represent the central bank of the German Federal 
republic. (C. H. G. T.) 

BANKING. The dislocation of the world prices structure, 
caused in part by the series of currency devaluations of 1949 
and in part by the spectacular expansion of the demand for 
primary commodities after the opening of the war in Korea, 
was the main concern of bankers in Great Britain, the 
Commonwealth, Europe and the middle east in 1950. In 
the first part of the year the stable financial conditions 
established in most of the countries in these regions in 1949 
with the help of credit-restriction and other official anti- 
inflationary measures were largely maintained. But, as the 
upward movement in world prices gathered pace, the volume 
of money likewise began to expand and fairly large increases 
in bank deposits were recorded in most countries in the 
closing months of the year. 

The problems created for the commercial banks by the 
tendency of their total resources to expand were complicated 
in some countries by the central bank's bringing credit 
restriction into play to contain inflationary pressures generated 
by the boom in primary commodities. In a few cases the 
imposition of credit limitation on the initiative of the central 
bank led to clashes between the bank and the political 
authorities. This and the decision of a number of countries 
to give their central banks greater freedom from governmental 
control in formulating currency and credit policies focused 
attention during the year on the question of the degree of 



BANKING 



85 



freedom from governmental interference that should, in the 
national interest, be given to state central banks in these fields. 
The possibility that new trends in international payments, pro- 
duced by the distortion of the prices structure and other 
developments, would lead to the revaluation of certain 
currencies gave rise to some considerable movements of 
capital from country to country, with important effects on 
the volume of bank resources in the countries concerned. 

Great Britain. The approximate stability of the credit 
framework established after the inauguration of Sir Stafford 
Cripps's disinflation policy in the 1947-48 period was fully 
maintained during the first part of 1950, the inflationary 
effect of the rising trend of import prices being neutralized 
by higher productivity. Contrary to expectations, therefore, 
the banks' deposits fully reflected the downward pressure 
normally exerted in the early part of the year by the movement 
of tax money into the exchequer : the decline in the deposits 
of the London clearing banks (together these account for 
some 95% of all commercial bank resources in Britain) 
between January and June was nearly 100 million larger 
than during the corresponding period of 1949. 

In the second half of the year, however, a rise in internal 
prices, caused in the main by developments overseas, pro- 
duced a marked distortion of the credit structure. This, 
aided by an extensive movement of so-called " hot " money 
into London inspired by talk of a possible revaluation of 
sterling, caused a sharp expansion in the volume of 
bank resources. Net deposits (i.e., published deposits after 
deducting the duplicating item " balances in course of collec- 
tion ") showed a drop of nearly 50 million on an annual 
comparison at the end of June; at the end of October they 
were higher on the year by nearly 140 million. 

ELEVEN LONDON CLEARING BANKS 

( million) 

Oct. 1948 

6,040 

5,855 

485 

497 

802 

1,313 

1,475 

1,355 

243 

Although the total of bank resources remained fairly 
stable in Great Britain through the first half of 1950, there 
were considerable changes during this period in the way in 
which these resources were deployed. In particular the 
switch in bank lending from the governmental sector to 
the private sector of the economy, which had been in progress 
throughout 1949, was vigorously continued. In the five 
months to the end of May the rise in bank loans to industry 
and commerce was the largest in British banking history. 
Over the same period extensive repayment of official indebted- 
ness to the banking system found a reflection in a sharp net 
decline in the banks' holdings of money-market assets. With 
the upward turn in the total of bank resources in the second 
half of the year, however, the re-deployment of bank resources 
as between the governmental sector and the private sector 
was interrupted. By the end of October the figure for banks' 
loans to industry and commerce had receded some 50 
million from the record level reached at the end of June; on 
the other hand the amount of bank lending to the government 
had sharply increased. 

The striking reversal of well-established trends was not 
due to changes in government policies: the April budget was 
based on the principle that the disinflation policy operated 
through 1948 and 1949 should be continued and official 
credit policy during 1950 also followed the lines of previous 
years, no large-scale effort being made by the authorities to 
influence the volume of bank credit by open-market opera- 



Deposits 

Net deposits 

Cash . 

Call money 

Bill holdings 

Treasury deposit receipts 

Investments 

Advances . 

Acceptances, etc. 



Oct. 1949 


Oct. 1950 


6,050 


6,204 


5,868 


6,006 


499 


509 


556 


557 


1,162 


1,414 


744 


496 


1,517 


1,505 


1,466 


1,598 


261 


346 



tions and similar activities. The downward turn in bank loans 
in the second half of the year was due in large measure to 
a marked improvement in conditions in the London capital 
market. This enabled the nationalized industries and other 
industrial concerns to repay bank loans from the proceeds 
of new issues of their stock and more than neutralized the 
increased demand for bank finance from other industrial 
and commercial firms for carrying stocks which came in the 
wake of the rise in commodity prices. The expansion in bank 
lending to the government over the same period was due to 
seasonal factors and to the influx of capital from abroad. To 
the extent that the inflow of capital had the effect of swelling 
the London reserves of overseas central banks, the authorities 
supplied the sterling required by selling Treasury bills to the 
banks concerned; i.e., without recourse to the commercial 
banking system. But where the sterling proceeds of the 
capital transfer remained on deposit with the commercial 
banks, the authorities obtained finance to acquire the foreign 
exchange by borrowing from the commercial banking system. 

The possibility that the increased demand for bank loans 
for financing capital outlays would induce the banks to sell 
government securities in order to preserve a satisfactory 
relationship between liquid assets on the one hand and 
illiquid assets on the other was believed to have been the cause 
of the official decision to continue the process (begun in 1949) 
of enabling the banks to reduce their holdings of the inflexible 
Treasury deposit receipt and to enlarge their holdings of the 
flexible Treasury bill. The big expansion during the year in 
the volume of acceptance and similar business handled by 
the banks was due to the rise in prices, to revaluation rumours 
and to the wider use of sterling in international payments 
transactions. 

The Commonwealth. The replacement in 1949 of the 
Labour governments of Australia and New Zealand by 
governments with conservative views was followed in 1950 by 
legislative measures in both countries to curb governmental 
interference with the currency and credit policies of their 
respective central banks. A bill was introduced into the 
Australian parliament providing for the removal of the 
control of monetary policies from the federal treasurer to a 
reconstitute^ board of directors of the Commonwealth bank. 
The board was made responsible for the integration of its 
own policies with tfye financial and economic policies of the 
government; in the event of disagreement between the bank 
and the government, the matter was to be referred to the 
governor general of the Commonwealth and the course to 
be adopted decided upon after full consideration by the 
cabinet. The same bill made provision for the repeal of the 
Banking act, 1947, originally introduced by the Labour 
government of J. B. Chifley to nationalize the trading banks 
but never enforced. The Reserve Bank Amendment bill 
introduced by the New Zealand government vested control 
over the currency and credit policies pursued by the bank in 
its governor and board of directors. It stipulated that any 
interference with the bank's policies deemed necessary by the 
government in the public interest would require specific 
parliamentary approval. 

Inflationary pressures resulted in a considerable expansion 
in bank resources in most of the Commonwealth countries. 
In Australia the influx of capital from abroad, which was 
stimulated by revaluation rumours, combined with a rise in 
export incomes (caused by the commodity boom) to raise th j 
deposits of the trading banks by some A 200 million 1 o 
A 998 million in the 12 months to Aug. 1950. About hilf 
the additional resources were frozen in special accounts with 
the Commonwealth bank. About A 50 million was utilized 
to expand loans to trade and industry. New Zealand banks 
also witnessed a similarly steady though smaller increase in 
resources during the year. In South Africa financial 



86 



BANKING 



conditions were more stable than in the previous year and bank 
resources moved within narrower limits. The influx of capital 
from other parts of the sterling area continued, though at a 
diminishing rate; and this, with the general increase in 
business activity, led to a modest increase in bank deposits. 
Canadian bank deposits showed a fairly rapid expansion in 
the first part of the year. This was due to the capital invest- 
ment boom, to the inflationary effect of price increases in the 
U.S. and to a heavy inflow of American " hot " money 
stimulated by expectations that the Canadian dollar would be 
revalued to parity with the U.S. dollar. Towards the close of 
the year the dominion authorities took steps to restrict credit, 
including the raising of the bank rate. Simultaneously the 
Canadian dollar was freed to discourage the inflow of specu- 
lative funds. 

In India the banking year was largely uneventful, with total 
resources showing little net change. Pakistan continued to 
implement its scheme for building up a comprehensive 
banking system: the state-sponsored National Bank of 
Pakistan was set up and entrusted with the task of tilling gaps 
in existing banking facilities. Ceylon established a monetary 
board to administer and regulate its monetary and banking 
system. 

Europe. The policy of relaxing restrictions on bank credit 
followed by most European countries throughout 1949 was 
continued in the early months of 1950. With the development 
of inflationary pressures in the second half of the year, 
however, this trend was reversed. Changes ii the volume 
of bank resources were fairly small for France, Italy, the 
Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden and Norway. But bank 
deposits rose steadily in Switzerland, partly on account of the 
inflow of capital. In Belgium, by contrast, an exodus of capital 
caused by fears of devaluation forced down foreign exchange 
reserves and the volume of bank deposits. The deterioration 
in the German external payments situation led the Bank 
C^utscher Lander to impose severe credit restrictions late 
in the year. Preparations were made for the establishment 
of a new German central bank with the object of removing 
ultimate control over currency and credit policies from the 
Bank Deutscher Lander to the government. 

Middle East. Further steps were taken to implement the 
plan for converting the National Bank of Egypt into the 
state's central bank. The deteriorati9n in the internal 
economic situation created new problems, for bankers in 
Israel. In Iraq, there was a steady increase in the volume of 
money in circulation, but bank resources showed little change. 

(C. H. G. T.) 

United States. Banking developments in the U.S. during 
1950 were dominated by the gradual rise in business activity 
during the first part of the year, the sharp upswing in demand 
for credit after the outbreak of the Korean war and efforts 
to restrain inflationary credit expansion. New records were 
set in many banking magnitudes, such as total loans and 
investments of commercial banks, total loans, total privately 
held money supply, home mortgage indebtedness and 
consumer credit outstanding. In 1950 the privately held 
money supply, which included total bank deposits other than 
inter-bank and U.S. government deposits, and currency 
outside banks rose by $6,400 million to reach a new high 
level of about $176,200 million at the end of the year. Most 
of the increase was in demand deposits adjusted, in contrast 
to the preceding year when such deposits had shown little 
change. Currency outside banks declined by another $200 
million. Time deposits in commercial banks, mutual savings 
banks and postal savings system rose by about $300 million 
during the year. 

Factors responsible for the renewed increase in the privately 
held money supply included an increase of $11,300 million 
in loans of commercial and mutual savings banks and an 



increase of $1,900 million in holdings by such banks of state 
and local government obligations. These factors were offset 
in part by a decrease in holdings of U.S. government securities 
by the banking system amounting to $3,900 million, by a 
decrease during 1950 in the gold stock of $1,600 million and 
by other factors. Almost all the increase in the money 
supply came about in the second half of the year. 

The year saw such large expansion in private bank credit 
that several new peaks were reached by Dec. 31, 1950, in 
earning assets of all commercial banks. Total loans and 
investments reached a new record of $127 million, an increase 
of $7,000 million during the year. Total loans of all commer- 
cial banks rose almost $10,000 million to a new peak of 
$52,700 million. Holdings of other securities reached a 
record level of $12,200 million, after an increase of $2,000 
million. Holdings of U.S. government obligations by all 
commercial banks declined $4,700 million and stood at 
$62,300 million at the end of the year. On June 30, 1950, 
national banks, which numbered almost 5,000, held $82,400 
million of total deposits. State banks, which numbered 
somewhat more than 9,000, had total deposits of $61,400 
million. 

An act of congress, approved on Sept. 21, 1950, increased 
the legal maximum of insurance for each depositor to $10,000 
from the previous $5,000. A study by the Federal Deposit 
Insurance corporation, released early in the year, indicated 
that on Sept. 30, 1949, the 13,440 insured commercial banks 
reported 91 million accounts with total deposits of $139,000 
million. About 88 million accounts, or 96% of the total 
number, were fully protected under the $5,000 maximum 
coverage per depositor, while the insured deposits amounted 
to $62,000 million or 45% of total deposits. The study 
showed that at Sept. 30, 1949, there were about 2,250,000 
accounts of between $5,000 and $10,000, and that additional 
insured deposits with a coverage of $10,000 amounted to 
$10,600 million. 

Consumer credit expansion played a very important role 
in business developments during the year. By Dec. 31, 1950, 
total consumer credit reached a record height of about 
$20,000 million, an increase of $3,200 million from the end 
of Dec. 1949. (See CONSUMER CREDIT.) 

The decline in the U.S. gold stock, which had started after 
devaluation of the pound sterling and other currencies in 
Sept. 1949, continued at an intensified rate. At the end of 
Dec. 1950, the gold stock stood at $22,800 million, about 
$1,900 million less than the record of about $24,700 million 
reached just before devaluation of the pound. Most of the 
gold sold net by the U.S. to foreign countries was held and 
earmarked for the account of foreign monetary authorities 
at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, where gold under 
earmark for the account of foreign central banks and inter- 
national institutions amounted to more than $5,600 million 
on Dec. 29, 1950, as against $4,000 million on Sept. 30, 1949, 
The accelerated U.S. gold sales reflected in part a more rapid 
conversion into gold of dollar balances acquired by foreign 
nations, but chiefly the more rapid aquisition of dollars by 
foreign countries which resulted from the sharp increase 
in U.S. imports at very high prices after the outbreak of the 
war in Korea. 

During 1950 as a whole the gross federal debt declined by 
about $400 million to $256,700 million on Dec. 31, 1950. 
Total marketable obligations were reduced by $2,700 million. 
The amount outstanding of treasury notes rose sharply and 
that of certificates of indebtedness and marketable bonds 
fell, reflecting the issue of notes for certificates and bonds in 
exchange operations. Non-marketable public issues out- 
standing continued to rise, with increases of $1,300 million 
in United States savings bonds of all series including accrued 
discount and $1,000 million in treasury savings notes. 



BANK OF ENGLAND-BANK OF FRANCE 



87 



Redemptions of series E savings bonds exceeded sales after 
* May, however, and growing attention was being given to the 
problem of refunding the series E bonds when they would 
begin to mature in May 1951. Special issues, held by govern- 
ment trust funds and corporations, rose during the year by 
$700 million. 

The volume of bank debits of the banks in 333 reporting 
centres reached another high level in 1950. The annual rate 
of turnover of demand deposits, except inter-bank and 
government, showed a substantial increase, from 27-3 in 
Oct. 1949 to 30-7 in Oct. 1950 for New York city banks, 
and from 18-5 in Oct. 1949 to 20-9 in Oct. 1950 for banks 
in other leading cities. The increase in the velocity of the 
circulation of the privately held money supply as well as the 
increase in the quantity of deposits and currency financed 
the post-Korea increase in money expenditures throughout 
the economy. (J. K. L.) 

Mutual Savings Banks. For the year ended July 1, 1950, 
assets of the mutual savings banks in the United States 
increased by $1,181 million (5-6%) to a total of $22,293 
million, and deposits increased by $991 million (5-2%) to a 
total of $19,939 million. In the year ended July 1, 1949, 
the increases were $849 million or 4-2% and $739 million 
or 4 1 % respectively. On July 1, 1950, the combined surplus 
was $2,210 million, equivalent to 11-1% of deposits. On 
July 1, 1949, the combined surplus was $2,063 million or 
10-9% of deposits. Accounts increased by 345,115 (1-8%) 
to a total of 19,531,373 at July 1, 1950 On Dec. 1, 1950, 
there were 529 mutual savings banks with 212 branches in 
operation. There was a decrease of 2 banks and an increase 
of 14 branches during 1950. The combined assets of all 
mutual savings banks on July 1, 1950, were invested as 
follows: U.S. government securities 51 -91 %; other securities 
10-91%; mortgage loans 31-82%; cash and other assets 
5-36%. On July 1, 1949, the investment classification was: 
U.S. government securities 55-22%; other securities 1 1 -21 %; 
mortgage loans 28-18%; cash and other assets 5-39%. 

Savings Bank Life Insurance. At the end of Oct. 1950 
there were 259 savings banks in the states of Connecticut, 
Massachusetts and New York selling savings bank life 
insurance; of these, 82 were issuing banks and 177 were 
agency banks. The amount of savings bank life insurance in 
force and number of policies represented were: Connecticut 
$14,015,028 in force, representing 14,772 policies; Massa- 
chusetts $392,869,673 in force, representing 423,345 policies; 
and New York $171,752,816 in force, representing 124,445 
policies. Combined there was $578,637,517 in force, repre- 
senting 562,562 policies. (See also BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL 
SETTLEMENTS; BANK OF ENGLAND; BANK OF FRANCE; BUSI- 
NESS REVIEW; EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF WASHINGTON; 
FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM; INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECON- 
STRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT; INTERNATIONAL MONETARY 
FUND.) (HE. BR.) 

BANK OF ENGLAND. Problems arising from the 
important changes in the external payments position of the 
United Kingdom after devaluation of the pound in 1949 held 
the main attention of the bank throughout 1950. As adviser 
to the Treasury on currency and the institution responsible 
for the administration of the country's exchange control 
machinery, the bank played a large part in formulating and 
implementing the decisions taken by the government to meet 
the situation created by the improvement in Great Britain's 
current account payments, by the substantial influx of " hot " 
money into the country in the second half of the year and by 
other developments. It was also active in the negotiations 
which led to full British participation in the European 
Payments union set up by the Organization for European 
Economic Co-operation. 



Steps taken by the bank in connection with the decision to 
promote the wider use of sterling as an international currency 
included the partial relaxation of restrictions on the transfer 
of sterling securities between non-residents of the sterling area 
and the extension of an offer to countries inside the O.E.E.C. 
group to become full members of the sterling transferable 
account system. 

Movements in the bank's note circulation were on a slightly 
larger scale than in the previous year. But inflationary 
pressure in Britain having developed less rapidly than had 
been feared at the time of the devaluation of the pound, 
there was no marked change in the basic financial position 
of the bank. To meet the seasonal demand the total of notes 
in issue was raised in the summer by 50 million by increasing 
the fiduciary issue. Contrary to the usual practice, this was 
not reversed at the end of the holiday season. Early in the 
year the bank announced its intention to return to the prewar 
practice of holding its main reserve of subsidiary coinage on 
the issue department. Owing to the inability of the British 
and U.S. governments to agree upon the use to which Marshall 
aid counterpart funds should be put there was a considerable 
immobilization of money in the special account maintained 
by the bank to receive these funds until late in the year. 

The main items in the bank returns in October, with 
comparisons for 1949 and 1948 are given in the table. 
BANK OF ENOLAND 



l\sue Department 
Notes in circulation . 
Fiduciary issue 

Banking Department 
Public deposits . 
Treasury special account 
Bankers* deposits 
Other deposits . 
Government securities 
Other securities . 
Reserve of notes and coin 



Oct. 27, 1948 Oct. 26, 1949 Oct. 25, 1950 
( million) ( million) ( million) 



1,231 
1,300 

13 

20 

307 

93 

322 
37 
72 



1,259 
1,300 

17 

63 

298 

107 

403 

27 

47 



1,273 
1,350 

13 
266 
315 

89 
556 

67 

80 



The bank published a survey of United Kingdom overseas 
investment during 1938-48. (C. H. G. T.) 

BANK OF FRANCE. The restriction of credit, 
enforced since the close of 1948 to implement the government's 
anti-inflation policy v was to some extent relaxed in the early 
part of 1950. Tahelp to check the decline in business activity 
the discount rate was reduced and steps taken to encourage 
the commercial banks to grant more generous credit facilities 
to private enterprises. 

The rise in French prices, partly owing to developments in 
world commodity markets and partly to the inability of the 
government to eliminate the budget deficit, brought increased 
demand for currency. This, in conjunction with an increase 
in note hoarding, produced a considerable rise in the note 
circulation. An agreement concluded with the Treasury for 
the revaluation of the bank's gold stock (previously valued 
on the 1945 gold value of the franc) to take account of the 
postwar series of devaluations was implemented in August. 
The book profit on the transaction of Fr. 126,000 million was 
used to redeem French Treasury bills held by the bank, to 
reimburse a dollar loan obtained by the government in the 
U.S. in 1947 and to increase the state's autonomous redemp- 
tion fund. 

In the same month the bank agreed to participate in 
arrangements whercby^the franc proceeds of two new dollar 
loans secured by the French Treasury from U.S. banks would 
be used to ease the government's internal financing problem. 
The bank furnished the exchange stabilization fund at intervals 
during the year with considerable additional quantities of 
francs to finance purchases of gold and foreign exchange. 
The increase in lending to the state on this account largely 



BAPTIST CHURCH BASEBALL 



neutralized the contraction in the bank's advances to the 
government produced by the gold revaluation operation. 

BANK OP FRANCE 

Sept. 30, 1948 Sept. 29, 1949 Sept. 28, 1950 
(Fr. million) (Fr. million) (Fr. million) 
Assets 

Gold . . . 65,200 65,200 182,875 

Private discounts and ad 

vanccs . . 257,800 442,400 415,837 

Advances to state 711,700 715,200 717,042 

Liabilities 

910,600 
800 
191,300 



1,210,600 

200 

138,800 



1,467,425 

94 

156,837 



Notes 

Government deposits 

Other deposits . 

The bank introduced notes with denominations of 
Fr. 5,000 and Fr. 10,000 in July. Previously the largest note 
in circulation was valued at Fr. 1,000, an earlier issue of 
Fr. 5,000 notes having been withdrawn at the beginning of 
1948. Early in the year the form of the bank's weekly return 
was changed to provide more detailed information about the 
composition of the bill portfolio and the ownership of 
creditor accounts. (C. H. G. T.) 

BAPTIST CHURCH. The major event for world 
Baptists in 1950 was the eighth congress of the Baptist World 
alliance at Cleveland, Ohio, during July. The registration of 
45,000 from 48 nations was exceeded only by the 57,000 who 
had attended the sixth congress, Atlanta, Georgia, in 1939. 
Representing 18 million Baptists throughout the world, the 
congress demanded freedom of peoples evcrywher , and, under 
the conviction that all nations are guilty under God for war, 
called for the practice of religious good will and co-operation 
as the only assurance of peace. F. Townley Lord of London, 
England, succeeded C. Oscar Johnson, St. Louis, Missouri, 
as president. 

The Australian Baptists faced serious missionary handicaps 
resulting from the devaluation of the pound. After Youth 
month in' July, Australian Baptists announced that youth 
responds to adequate leadership, respects self-evident 
authority and prefers to choose its own allegiance. Edu- 
cational films emphasized Christian home life and churches 
held father-and-son and mother-and-daughter banquets. 

The assembly of the Baptist Union of Soutlj Africa, in 
September, resolved to establish a Baptist theological college 
in 1951 at Johannesburg to enjoy facilities of the University 
of the Witwatersrand. The union reported J4,391 members; 
700 baptisms in the European churches, 125 in the non- 
European and 1,168 in the Bantu. 

The Baptist Missionary society, reporting on the progress 
of work in Ceylon, announced that the enrolment at Carey 
Boys' college, Colombo, had increased during 1945-50 from 
300 to 1,000, and that the girls* schools such as those in 
Colombo, Matale and Ratnapura, had increased similarly 
in numbers. Protestant bodies discussed closer union in the 
island. The Baptist Missionary society of London also 
announced that the officers and staff of Whitewright institute, 
established in China in 1910, were all Chinese in 1950. 
During the year 30,500 people heard the gospel there. 

The Foreign Mission board of the Southern Baptist 
convention opened a theological seminary in Zurich, Switzer- 
land, with 30 students from 16 nations. All the trustees 
were European Baptists. The faculty was international 
the president Scandinavian, the professors Swiss, British and 
American. Sixty ministers and students attended the Euro- 
pean Baptist Ministers conference at the seminary in June. 

The Southern Baptist convention met in Chicago with a 
registration of 8,151 messengers from a membership of 
6,761,265. The Northern Baptist convention, meeting at 
Boston, changed its name to the American Baptist convention. 
The registration of 12,182 at the convention broke all records. 
A membership of 1,561,073 was reported. 



An extract from an address on personal freedom, printed 
in the Baptist Times, London, which called attention to the 
existence of police state conditions in the U.S.S.R. and else- 
where, drew a reply from the All-Union Council of Evan- 
gelical Christian Baptists in Russia denying the impution. 

(R. E. E. H.) 

BARBADOS. British colony, the most easterly of the 
Caribbean islands. Area: 166 sq.mi. Pop.: (1946 census): 
192,841; (1950 est.) 202,669. Language: English. Religion: 
Christian (c. 70% Anglican). Capital and chief port, Bridge- 
town (pop., 1948, 13,345). Administration: governor; 
executive council, 2 ex officio members and nominated 
members; executive committee, which introduces all money 
votes and initiates all government measures, consists of the 
members of the executive council ex officio 9 and 1 member 
of the Legislative Council and 4 from the House of 
Assembly appointed by the governor; legislature consisting 
of the Legislative Council, not more than 15 members 
appointed by the King, and the House of Assembly, 24 elected 
members. Governor, Alfred William Lungley Savage. 

History. The most important pieces of legislation passed 
during 1950 were probably the Adult Suffrage act, giving the 
franchise to men and women over 21 years of age without 
any property qualifications, and the Petroleum act, granting 
a prospecting license to the Gulf Oil company. The latter 
act renewed possibilities which had been debated for many 
years of establishing another major industry in the island 
besides the cultivation of sugar on which the economy of 
Barbados had largely depended for three centuries. 

Long known as a winter resort, Barbados witnessed during 
the year a considerable development in the summer tourist 
trade, the majority of the visitors being Venezuelans. The 
increased popularity of the colony for tourists at all times 
of the year was underlined by the beginning of operations 
by the Trans Canada airlines, which started regular scheduled 
flights from Montreal. To accommodate these and other 
long-distance planes a new runway 6,000 ft. in length was 
put into use at Seawell airport. 

Barbados is a country of expert cricketers and fervent 
followers of the game. John Goddard, the captain of the 
victorious West Indian team which toured Great Britain in 
the summer of 1950, is a Barbadian, and there were five other 
Barbadians in the team. When the ship bearing the captain 
and other returning members of the team reached Barbados, 
a public holiday was declared ; and the victors were officially 
welcomed by the governor. 

Finance and Trade. Currency: West Indian dollar ($4-80~l). 
Budget (1949-50): revenue $12,150,990; expenditure $12,095,842. 
Foreign trade (1949): imports $33,948,619; exports $22,341,775. 
Principal exports: sugar, molasses and rum. (P. H.-M.) 

BARLEY: see GRAIN CROPS. 

BASEBALL. Connie Mack, for 50 years manager of 
the Philadelphia Athletics, retired on Oct. 18, 1950, in his 
88th year. He had been associated with the game since 1884. 

In the top player deal of the year, the New York Yankees 
sent pitchers Duane Pillette and Don Johnson, second 
baseman George (Snuffy) Stirnweiss, outfielder Jimmy 
Delsing and $50,000 to the St. Louis Browns for pitchers 
Tom Ferrick and Joe Ostrowski and the assignment of two 
St. Louis players to New York's farm club at Kansas City, 
Missouri. The Giants claimed pitcher Jim Hearn from the 
Cardinals on waivers in mid-season and the right-hander, 
who had a 1 hill record with the St. Louis club, went on 
to post an 11 4 mark for the campaign. Late in June the 
Yankees recalled pitcher Edward (Whitey) Ford and he 
hung up nine victories against only one defeat to highlight the 
Bombers* drive towards the American league championship. 



BAUDOUIN- BAYAR 



89 



The major leagues' only no-hit game of the season was 
registered on Aug. 1 1 by Vern Bickford, Boston Braves' right- 
hander, who set down the Dodgers, 7 to 0. 

Major League Races. After a 35-yr. lapse, the Phillies 
captured the second National league pennant in their history 
with a dramatic, last-day victory over the Brooklyn Dodgers. 
Entering the final day of the season, the Phils held a one- 
game margin and were faced with the prospects of a three- 
game play-off for the title if Brooklyn should win the con- 
cluding game, thereby throwing the race into a tie. With 
Robin Roberts hurling a five-hitter, however, and Dick 
Sisler providing the pay-off blow with a three-run homer, 
the Phillies posted a ten-inning, 4-to-l triumph to win their 
first pennant since 1915. 

The Yankees nailed down their 17th American league 
championship on Sept. 29, backing into the title when the 
runner-up Tigers lost to Cleveland, thereby erasing their 
last mathematical chance for the flag. 

Individual Performances. Billy Goodman, Red Sox, ousted 
George Kell of Detroit as the American league batting 
champion with an average of 354. Stan Musial of St. Louis 
captured the National league honours with -346. Ralph 
Kiner retained his major league home run crown, clouting 
47 round-trippers for the Pirates. Al Rosen, rookie Cleve- 
land third baseman, led the American league with 37 homers. 

All-Star Game. Albert (Red) Schoendienst, St. Louis 
Cardinal second baseman, clouted a home run in the 14th 
inning to enable the National league stars to defeat the 
American league representatives, 4 to 3, in the mid-summer 
classic at Comiskey park in Chicago on July 11. 

World Series. In the lowest scoring series in history, the 
Yankees defeated the Phillies in four straight games to 
register their 13th world championship and mark their 
sixth win in the minimum number of contests. 

Attendance. Major league turnstile figures declined from 
20,215,365 in 1949 to 17,462,977 in 1950. ' (L. RB.) 

BASUTOLAND: see BRITISH SOUTH AFRICAN PROTEC- 
TORATES. 

BAUDOUIN (BAUDOUIN-ALBERT-CHARLES-LEOPOLD- 
AXEL-MARIE-GUSTAVE, DUKE OF BRABANT), Prince Royal of 
Belgium (b. Stuyvenberg castle, near Brussels, Sept. 7, 1930), 
elder son of King Leopold III (q.v.) and Queen Astrid. Just 
before he was five he lost his mother in a motor accident and 
was almost ten when Belgium was invaded by the Germans. 
With his elder sister Princess Josephine-Charlotte and his 
younger brother Prince Albert he was sent in May 1940 to 
Cahors, France; in June he reached Lisbon, but at the end 
of July he rejoined his father at Laeken palace where the 
royal family remained in seclusion. He accompanied his 
father during his internment in Germany (June 1944 May 
1945) and his subsequent voluntary exile in Switzerland. He 
was for the most part privately educated but during his 
father's stay at Pregny, near Geneva (1945-50), he attended a 
state college at Geneva. On Aug. 11, 1950, by a joint session 
of the Senate and the Chamber of Representatives, he was 
informed that parliament had granted him power to exercise 
the royal prerogatives, to which he answered in French and 
Flemish, " I accede to the wish of parliament." He took the 
oath to observe the constitution and the law. By the terms 
of his father's abdication he was to ascend the throne on 
Sept. 7, 1951. 

BAYAR, CELAL, Turkish statesman (b. Umurbey, 
near Bursa, May 15, 1884), the son of a Turkish immigrant 
from Bulgaria. To his father's advanced views he owed the 
unusual opportunity of education at a French school at 
Bursa. Later, imbued with the western outlook, he entered 




Prince Baudouin, the Prince Royal, saluting after placing a wreath 
on the tomb of the unknown warrior in Brussels, Nov. 1950. 

the Deutsche Orient Bank, a field which had hitherto been 
reserved to foreigners or Turkish subjects belonging to 
national minorities. After the Young Turk revolution in 
1908 he became secretary of the Committee of Union and 
Progress in^ Izmir, in which capacity he worked hard for 
Turkish nationalism. In the revolution of Kemal Atatiirk 
and the war against the Greek invasion he took an active 
part, placing himself at the head of the resistance movement. 
Disguised as an itinerant teacher, he toured the country 
co-ordinating activities. From Feb. 27, 1921, to Jan. 15, 
1922, he was minister of national economy for the first time. 
On March 6, 1924, he was appointed minister for exchange 
and rehabilitation of refugees. He resigned oh July 7 of 
the same year to become head of the newly founded I 
(Business) bank. On Sept. 9, 1932, he returned to the govern- 
ment as minister of national economy for the second time, 
became acting prime minister on Sept. 20, 1937, and suc- 
ceeded Ismet Inonii as prime minister on Oct. 25 of the 
same year. Following the death of Atatiirk (Nov. 1938) and 
the election of Inonii as second president of the republic, 
Bayar resigned on Jan. 25, 1939. Re-elected deputy, he 
became the leader of a minority within the Republican 
People's party who warned their colleagues against the 
dangers of a one-party system. In June 1945 he resigned 
from the R.P.P. and on Jan. 7, 1946, formed the Democratic 
party, which was permitted to win 62 seats in the elections 
on July 21, 1946, and which under his leadership secured 
an overwhelming victory in the elections of May 14, 1950. 
He was elected third president of the Turkish republic by 
the new parliament by 387 votes against 64 for Inonii. 



BECHUANALAND: 

PROTECTORATES. 



see BRITISH SOI/TH AFRICAN 



90 



BEEKEEPING BELGIAN COLONIAL EMPIRE 



BEEKEEPING. Speaking generally, 1950 was a disap- 
pointing year to British beekeepers. The large acreage of 
(and under the plough limited the foraging grounds to such 
an extent that perfect climatic conditions were necessary 
for real success. This proved far from realization. 

During the period of fruit blossom the weather was never 
ideal, and, just as at the time of later nectar flows, the nights 
were too cold for generous nectar secretion. A few apiarists 
were fortunate, however, and received encouragement by 
fair returns for their labour; but there is little doubt that the 
average yield from each colony fell well below 20 Ib. The 
quality of honey was much inferior to that which prevailed 
in the previous year. Light-coloured honey was not nearly 
so common as in an average season. More often it was 
medium to dark, and sometimes spoilt by honey dew. The 
density of most honeys was low, though sometimes with 
flavour and aroma of distinction. 

Poverty in the brood chambers was more marked than 
usual, consequently the allowance of sugar for winter feeding 
was insufficient, and fear was expressed that many colonies 
would not survive the winter. 

In some areas as often happens in a poor season, swarming 
became annoyingly excessive. On the removal of surplus 
many colonies were found to be either quecnless, headed by 
drone-breeder queens, or hampered by the presence of fertile 
workers. In the latter situation beekeepers found re queening 
difficult and many good young queens were lost. 

Beekeepers fortunately situated near ling-growing moors 
had high hopes of compensation from them, but again the 
weather was not too helpful and returns from the heather 
were meagre. 

Disease made its usual appearances in various parts of the 
country. A few districts suffered rather heavily, in some cases 
due to the ignorance of the beginner, but far too frequently 
the result of sheer carelessness on the part of beekeepers of 
some experience. Experts insisted that neither American nor 
European Foul Brood yielded to any treatment but the des- 
truction by fire of every comb, quilt, etc.. that had been in 
contact with a diseased colony. This should be followed by 
heavy disinfection of all hive parts with a strong solution of 
carbolic acid. A high percentage of colonies ! were again 
infested with the mites responsible for Acarine disease and 
teachers of apiculture again urged the timely use of the Frow 
remedy or oil of wintergreen. P (W. H. R.) 

BEER : see BREWING AND BEER. 







BELGIAN COLONIAL 


EMPIRE 


Country Population 


Capital, 


Principal Products 


Foreign Trade 


and Area (Feb. 28, 


Status and 


(1949) 


(Francsf million) 


(in sq.mi.) 1949 est.) 


Governor 


(including Ruanda 


(including Ruanda 






and Urundi) 


and Urundi) 


BF.LGIAN Native 10,914,208 


Ldopoldville ; 


Diamonds (carats) 




CONGO White 51,639* 


colony; governor 


9,884,000 


1949 


<XV4.974 (including 36,510 


general: Eugene 


Gold (kg.) . . 10,383 


Imports 10,346 


Belgians) 


Jungers 


(metric tons) 


(93 1,500 metric tons) 






Silver . 141 


Exports 11,155 






Copper (metal) 


141,399 


(836,700 metric tons) 






Tin (metal) . 


13,365 








Cobalt 


1,976 


1950 (six months) 






Manganese ore 


12,247 








Tungsten . 


169 


Imports 4,574 






Cadmium . 


25 


(438,000 metric tons) 






Zinc (concentrate 


) 109,263 


Exports 5,845 






Coal . 


152,370 


(407,800 metric tons) 






Palm oil 


121,226 




RUANDA (1948 est.) 


Nianza( Ruanda) 


Palm kernels 


80,034 




AND Native 3,386,362 


Kitega (Urundi) 


Gum copal . 


10,721 




URUNDI 


trust territory 


Cotton 


46,806 




20.120 


administered 


Coffee 


31,434 






with Congo 


Maize 


17.271 








Timber 


71,359 





BELGIAN COLONIAL EMPIRE. The Belgian 
colonial empire consists of the colony of the Congo in central 
Africa and the adjacent trust territories of Ruanda and 
Urundi. The accompanying table gives material relative to 
all territories administered by Belgium. Total area: about 
925,094 sq.mi. Total pop. (1949 est): about 14,352,200. 
Chief towns (white population only, Dec. 1948 est): 
L&>poldville (cap., 7,244); Elisabethville (6,240); Stanleyville 
(1,517); Costermanville (1,511). 

History. The 10-year plan for the Congo's economic and 
social development published in 1949 naturally formed the 
starting point for 1 950. Pierre Wigny, minister for the colonies, 
obtained approval for his schemes from the Belgian cabinet 
in February and visited London and Paris to obtain informal 
co-ordination from two governments with neighbouring 
colonial interests. Eugene Jungers, governor general of the 
Congo, expounded aspects of the programme to the annual 
meeting of the Congo government council at Leopoldville 
(July 17-22). 

Two important steps to raise Native standards were the 
opening of the first all-Native co-operatives of many types 
(planters, fishermen, artisans, etc.) under government super- 
vision and the creation of a savings bank in which Natives 
were for the first time allowed to deposit both personal and 
corporate funds. A decree was passed prohibiting polygamy 
after the end of 1950. 

Representations by the principal organization of white 
settlers (U.C.O.L.), asking for the exclusion of Natives from 
the nominated and consultative government council, were 
rebuffed by Jungers. Proposals to create a Congo Legislative 
Council, with powers comparable to those of the Belgian 
parliament, he referred to the government council, which 
rejected them. The government council, however, asked that 
it should be compulsory for the government to submit 
proposed decrees of importance to the council or its standing 
committee and to justify before its members any failure to 
introduce such legislation as the council might twice request. 
At the same time the council reaffirmed the governor general's 
duty to issue urgent decrees on his own responsibility. 

Under the 10-year plan the colony's 44,000 European 
population required to be doubled. A propaganda campaign 
was opened in Belgium to attract professional skill to the 
Congo, especially engineers, agricultural technicians and 
doctors. Plans were approved for a new airport 20 km. east 
of Leopoldville, and arrangements made for the Belgian air 
force to do much of its training in the Congo. Additional 
hydro-electric plants were erected, chiefly in the Katanga 



Road, Rail and 
Waterways 
(including Ruanda 

and Urundi) 

Roads (1949): 

116,303km. 

Railways (1948): 
4,747 km. 

Waterways (1948): 

25,412km. 

(including 12,284 

km. for barges of 

40 tons only) 



Motor vehicles 

(excluding Ruanda 

and Urundi 

Dec. 1949): 



Budget 
( Francs t '000) 

Belgian Congo 

(1949) 

Revenue 4,562,602 
Expenditure 4.460,764 

(1950 est.) 

Revenue 4.032,220 
Expenditure 4,008,982 
Index number of 
the cost of living 
(July 1935-100) 
(July 1950-258) 



* Including Ruanda and Urundi. t Although the Congolese franc waj technically an independent currency 
1949 was equally devalued by 12 34% to the U.S. dollar. 



Ruandi- Urundi 
(1949 actual) 
Revenue 232,062 

Expenditure 347,504 
Cars. . 8,000 (1950 est.) 

Commercial Revenue 276,919 

vehicles 12,000 Expenditure 225,164 
it was equal to the Belgian franc and in Sept 



BELGIUM 



91 




Youngsters of the Belgian Congo carrying light-weight models 
which they have made of river steamers. 

province and the neighbourhood of Stanleyville. In both these 
areas there was an extension of private building; elsewhere 
postwar construction had roughly caught up with the housing 
shortage. Public works absorbed the increased cement output. 
Work went forward in the construction of a military base at 
Kamina in the Lualaba province, west of Katanga. 

Among many new commercial ventures were the first 
margarine factory and the equipment of silk-spinning plant. 
The largest trade exhibition ever held in the Congo, with 250 
Belgian and 100 other exhibitors, took place in July at 
Elisabeth vi lie. Navigation on the upper Congo was handi- 
capped by the abnormal growth of papyrus on Lake Kisale, 
for a time delaying transport from Katanga. 

In October a 4 % Congo loan of 60 million Swiss francs, to be 
repaid in ten annual instalments from the end of 1959, was float- 
ed. Other financial developments included the raising of the 
official rate for " free " gold sales from the Congo from 64,000 
to 66,000 Belgian francs a kilogram. A number of Natives in 
the Kivu province and Ruanda-Urundi were arrested on a 
charge of illicitly extracting and exporting alluvial gold. 

The activities of a Czech sculptor making terracotta heads 
and busts revived macabre rumours that meat-tins trade- 
marked with a negro's head were filled with kidnapped 
Natives. A large-scale riot at Leopoldville in June resulted. 

Ruanda-Urundi. In February the U.N. Trusteeship council 
approved the administration of this territory, but recom- 
mended steps to abolish flogging. They rejected the claim of 
Mwambutsa, mwami (king) of Urundi, to the legal sover- 
eignty of 60,000 inhabitants of the Bugufi district of Tangan- 
yika. Accompanied by his brother and three other chiefs, 
Mwambutsa visited Belgium in July (as the mwami of Ruanda 
had done the year before). He was received by the regent 
and subsequently by King Leopold and Queen Elisabeth. His 
tour outside Brussels included Antwerp, Ghent and Namur. 

Education. Belgian Congo (Jan. 1949): European schools 44, pupils 
6,470; Native schools 26,293, pupils 878,972. Ruanda-Urandi (Jan. 
1949): state schools 2, pupils 1,240, Native teachers 21 ; Roman Catholic 
schools 3,549, pupils 289,835, Native teachers 4,749; Protestant schools 
437, pupilf 34,322, Native teachers 638. (H. D. Z.) 



BELGIUM. Kingdom in western Europe bounded S.W, 
by France, N. by the Netherlands and E. by Germany and 
Luxembourg. Area (incl. some German frontier localities 
annexed on April 15, 1949) 11,782-5 sq.mi. Pop.: (1947 
census) 8,512,195; (1948 est.) 8,602,611. Language (1930): 
Flemish (Dutch) 42-92%, French 37-56%, German 0-85%, 
Dutch and French 12-92%, German and French 0-83%. 
Religion: mainly Roman Catholic; Jewish 35,000. Chief 
towns (pop., 1948 est.; first figure including suburbs, second 
figure commune only) : Brussels (q. v., cap., 1 ,296,687, 1 85, 1 1 2) ; 
Antwerp (chief port, 794,280, 266,636); Liege (573,176, 
156,664); Charleroi (445,229, 26,262); Ghent (442,792, 
166,797); Namur (215,069, 31,637); Bruges (200,850, 52,984). 
Ruler, King Leopold III (^.v.); regents in 1950, Prince 
Charles and (from Aug. 11) Prince Baudouin (^.v.); prime 
ministers in 1950, Gaston Eyskens, Jean Duvieusart (^.v., 
from June 8) and Joseph Pholien fy.v., from Aug. 15). 

History. Belgian politics in 1950 were wholly dominated by 
the royal question. The bill, already passed by the Senate, to 
authorize a referendum on the desirability of King Leopold's 
resuming his prerogatives was debated in the Chamber of 
Representatives throughout January and finally passed (117 
votes to 92) on Feb. 8. The referendum, at which voting was 
compulsory, was to be purely advisory. The king had 
indicated beforehand that if he received less than 55% of the 
votes cast he would withdraw in Prince Baudouin's favour. 
The Socialists, with some Liberal support, maintained that 
only a Leopoldist vote of 66% or 70% in the country as a 
whole, with at least a bare majority in each of the three 
regions Flanders, French-speaking Wallonia and Brussels- 
would justify his return. 

After a vigorous campaign of posters, leaflets and wall- 
slogans the referendum passed off quietly on March 12. 
It showed a 57-68% majority for the king (2,933,745 against 
2,151,099). But whereas Flanders produced a 72% Leopoldist 
result, the Walloon vote was 57-8% hostile and Brussels 
polled 51*8% against the king. Summoning the Social 
Christian (Catholic) premier, Gaston Eyskens, and the presi- 
dents of the two houses of parliament to his home at Pregny, 
near Geneva, King Leopold issued a statement showing that 
while he would not take action in advance of parliament's 
verdict, he himself interpreted the results as a signal for his 
recall. 

The Social Christian majority of the government was now 
anxious to summon a joint session of the two houses to end 
the regency. The Liberals, however, withdrew their eight 
representatives from the two-party cabinet, which resigned 
on March 18. The Socialists gave notice that they would 
oppose the king's return by every means, including a general 
strike. A series of 24-hr. ** spontaneous warning strikes " 
was already occurring in the mining areas of Wallonia, and 
a similar protest strike of a day paralysed the Antwerp docks 
on March 20. 

Two days later the 81 -year-old Count Henri Carton de 
Wiart, a former Catholic premier, was instructed by the 
regent to explore the possibilities of a new government. 
He called on March 23, for the first time since 1914, a meeting 
of ministers of state (privy councillors), but made no progress 
towards reconstructing the coalition. He gave up the attempt 
next day. Already fresh strikes were occurring in Wallonia 
and Brussels. The regent caused general surprise by asking 
Albert Deveze, the outgoing Liberal vice premier and minister 
of defence, to form a cabinet. After a week's attempts to 
bring about a " solution of concord " and a chilly interview 
with King Leopold, Deveze on April 4 desisted. 

Paul van Zeeland, the outgoing Social Christian foreign 
minister and former premier, was now called in. By April 7 
he claimed to have formed his government, but difficulties 
occurred with the moderates of his own party. The regent 



92 



BELGIUM 



refused to approve his suggested cabinet list on April 12, 
and it was understood that King Leopold himself doubted 
at this stage the wisdom of recovering the throne as the 
nominee of a single party. Van Zeeland and the king's 
secretary, Jacques Pirenne, went to Geneva to see King 
Leopold, who (by a recording made in Switzerland) broad- 
cast to his people on April 15 for the first time since 1940. 
His message contained a suggestion, previously mooted both 
by Liberals and by Socialists, that he might return to the 
throne but ** delegate the exercise of his powers temporarily " 
to his 19-year-old heir. 




The three prime ministers of Belgium in 1950. Left to right, Lias ion 
Eyskens, Jean Duvieusart and Joseph Pholien. 

At the suggestion of Paul-Henri Spaak, the Socialist 
ex-premier, three-party talks were held to discuss hov this offer, 
criticized by the extrcmer Leopoldists, might be implemented. 
The opposition's misgivings lest the king should ultimately 
resume his original powers from Prince Baudouin were 
increased when a further visit of van Zeeland to Geneva 
produced a refusal from the king to leave Belgium after 
transferring his prerogatives. The Socialists withdrew from 
the negotiations, and after fresh friction with the Liberals 
Eyskens and van Zeeland jointly persuaded the regent to 
grant a dissolution. 

Elections were held on June 4. By now Belgium had 
passed 1 1 weeks under a caretaker administration. Parlia- 
ment had not met since March 7. No budget had been passed. 
The final stage of Benelux was still held up, as well as the 
ratification of the European payments agreement. Even inter- 
national defence decisions affecting Western Union and the 
North Atlantic treaty remained tentative while Belgian 
attention was concentrated upon the domestic royal question. 
The electoral contest, with this as the main issue, was luke- 
warm, all parties having virtually exhausted their funds and 
their arguments. 

The Social Christians gaining 47-68% of the votes (just 
10% below the Leopoldists' results in the referendum), 
returned with 108 out of 212 scats in the Chamber the first 
clear parliamentary majority since 1914. The Socialists had 
77 seats, Liberals 20, Communists 7. Jean Duvieusart, 
50-year-old minister for economic affairs in the Eyskens 
government, formed a new all-Catholic cabinet of eight 
Flemings and seven Walloons. Duvieusart visited King 
Leopold and, having announced his intention of calling a 
joint session of the two houses to repeal the Regency law, 
obtained a vote of confidence from each house separately. 

The joint session began formally on July 6, but the real 
debate did not start till July 12. Noisy Socialist obstruction 
protracted the joint session. But on July 20, the bill ending 
the regency passed by 198 votes to none, the Socialists, 
Communists and almost all the Liberals having walked out. 
In the early morning two days later time and place being 
kept secret King Leopold, Prince Baudouin and Prince 
Albert landed at fevfcre military airport and drove straight 
out to Laeken palace. The route was closely guarded by 
armed gendarmerie and troops. 

A few hours later King Leopold broadcast to the nation, 



sent messages to parliament, confirmed the Duvieusart 
cabinet in office and summoned to a Crown council the 
minister of state. Count Hubert Pierlot, the wartime Catholic 
premier, declined to attend. The Socialists had already 
resigned their honours. The Liberals left without meeting 
the king, and their executive issued a statement refusing 
political co-operation with him and urging his " voluntary 
and honourable abdication." On the other hand, an immense 
quantity of flowers, chiefly from Flemish supporters of the 
king, began to arrive at the palace contrasting with turbulent 
counter-demonstrations in Brussels in which Spaak and 
other Socialist leaders were prominent. 

A campaign of sabotage by explosives, chiefly directed 
against railway and telephone lines, and widespread strikes 
in Wallonia, no longer confined to 24 hours, were described 
by Spaak in the Chamber as " having the character of an 
insurrection, though they might be the beginning of a revo- 
lution." The flag of Walloon separatism was raised in 
Liege, Charleroi and elsewhere, and within a week 500,000 
men were on strike, including dockers and ship repairers in 
Antwerp and textile operatives in Ghent. In Brussels almost 
all trams and taxis were forced off the streets, cafes were shut 
and a small crowd of hooligans with stink-bombs, fire- 
crackers and anti-Leopold whistles compelled the larger 
stores to close. Six persons, including a Socialist senator, 
were injured in street fighting. 

Sabotage blocked most railway lines- and some main roads. 
In Liege, where a demonstrator had lost his foot, the city was 
hung with black flags and a state of emergency proclaimed. 
Gas was cut off here and water was only intermittent; food 
shops alone were kept open for two hours a day. On July 30, 
gendarmes breaking up a prohibited meeting at Grace- 
Berleur on the outskirts of Liege, fired and killed three men. 
Max Buset, the Socialist party chairman, declared that unless 
decisive steps were taken, there might be civil war the follow- 
ing day. In defiance of the government preparations had 
already been made for a " march on Brussels" on Aug. 1, 
by 100,000 persons from the Walloon mines and factories. 

The cabinet sat almost continuously through the night of 
July 30-31. By 8 P.M. an agreement in principle had been 
reached between the party leaders, the government and the 
king's representative. The prime minister was to broadcast 
the actual text two hours later. Its basis was that the king 
should hand over his powers to Prince Baudouin at once and 
abdicate on the prince's 21st birthday, Sept. 7, 1951. He 
was not, however, obliged to return into exile. King Leopold 
now revived an already rejected condition that he might at 
his own discretion resume full powers from Prince Baudouin. 
The broadcast was cancelled, and it was not until 6.30 A.M. 
on Aug. 1 that the king was persuaded to accept the solution 
agreed the previous day. In a subsequent open letter to the 
prime minister he made it clear that he yielded only to the 
threat of being left without a government at all. 

Socialists and Liberals had now to call off the march on 
Brussels and damp down Communist agitation for a republic. 
Edgar Lalmand, the Communist party secretary, and another 
Communist deputy were temporarily arrested for organizing 
a prohibited public meeting. More serious were the reactions 
of the extreme Leopoldists, who felt themselves betrayed 
by the moderates of the Catholic party, some of whose 
homes were attacked with small bombs. Baron van der 
Straten-Waillet, the party chairman, after a series of stormy 
party meetings, resigned his position. It was now the turn 
of the Leopoldists to demonstrate in Brussels, and of Catholic 
Flanders, not free-thinking Wallonia, to talk of separatism. 

The bill transferring powers to Prince Baudouin provoked 
some fresh parliamentary scenes, but passed both houses in turn 
(160 votes to 127 and 121 to 22). On Aug. 1 1 a joint morning 
session of the two houses, interrupted by a smoke-bomb 



BELGIUM 



93 




'W 1 - r/K 

<? ii (/-a, f^> 

on /*/y W, A* 1 10 w IM 

Ir to <4) am/ % a <m * 

(5|I Ilif ow Mi <t 

rlilrr t ^ ' * f ^> 



94 



BENTON 



thrown by a Leopoldist army officer, resolved that the 
royal prerogative should henceforth be exercised by the 
prince royal Baudouin. The same afternoon he took the 
oath before the two houses and the principal notables of the 
realm. A Communist, Mien Lahaut, the party chairman, 
interrupted the ceremony with a cry of Vive la Rfyublique ! 
(a week later he was shot dead at his home in Seraing by 
two unidentified men). 

Prince Baudouin's first political act was to ask van Zeeland, 
the strongest Leopoldist in the previous cabinet, to form a 
new government. This he did on Aug. 15, but opposition 
of the moderates forced van Zeeland, while remaining foreign 
minister, to yield the premiership to Joseph Pholien, a 66- 
year-old Catholic senator. Except for a new non-political 
minister of defence, Colonel fidouard De Greef, the govern- 
ment was composed, like its predecessor, entirely of members 
of the Social Christian party, but all the senior ministers of 
the late cabinet, apart from van Zeeland, were eliminated. 
The Chamber and Senate passed a vote of confidence in the 
new government (107 to 78 and 82 to 61) before going into 
recess. 

Defence. When Parliament resumed, Colonel De Greef 
introduced on Nov. 7, in face of Socialist opposition, a bill 
calling up conscripts for two years at the age of 19, instead 
of for one year at 20. This confirmed pledges given by 
Pholien in his first weeks of office, when he also undertook 
to organize reserve divisions, train a home gua d against 
airborne attacks and establish a special force of frontier 
guards. Earlier in the year it had been announced that 
the Belgian navy was to be trebled and the air force expanded. 
A battalion of 1,000 volunteers was enrolled for service in 
Korea. 

Industry and Unemployment. Unemployment in the last 
week of January reached a figure of nearly 340,000 (including 
120,000 temporarily out of work), but this was reduced in 
April by a pick-up in the textile industry, favoured by the 
removal of Dutch import restrictions, and again in June 
by an improvement in agriculture and building. Retail 
trade was assisted by panic buying of foodstuffs in the 
summer, prompted by war rumours following the invasion 
of Korea. By September, when a 6-week dock strike was 
brought to an end, unemployment was down to 172,000, 
and industrial activity stood at a level of 133-1 (1936-38- 
100). Steel output, which had been cut back for some months, 
went ahead with world re-stocking in view of rearmament, 
and a government policy of investment in roads, airport 
installations and other public works came into play. 

(H. D. Z.) 

Education. (1948-49) Elementary: infant schools 4,064, pupils 
272,264; primary schools 8,733, pupils 770,822; adult schools 356. 
Secondary, state: lower-grade (athtntes) 117, pupils 53,272; higher 
grade (tcoles moytnnes) 140, pupils 39,362; '* free" (Catholic) schools 
458. pupils (1946) 65,918. Teachers* colleges: infant 39, students 
1,223; elementary 81, students 8,460; secondary 41, students 841. 
Universities 4, students 16,723. 

Agriculture and Fisheries. Main crops ('000 metric tons, 1949; 
1950 est. in brackets): wheat 596 (590); barley 247; oats 587; rye 258 
(250); potatoes 2,047; sugar, raw value 344. Livestock ("000 head, 
Jan. 1950): cattle 2,761, of which cows in milk 859; sheep 121; pigs 
1,361; horses 257; goats 51; poultry 18,000. Meat production ('000 
metric tons. 1948; 1949 in brackets): total 187 (260), of which beef 
and veal 103 (122), pork 82 (136). Fisheries: total catch ('000 metric 
tons, 1948; 1949 in brackets) 70*9 (68-3). 

Industry. Industrial establishments (Jan. 1948): 248,128; persons 
employed 1,000,010. Fuel and power (1949; 1950, six months in 
brackets): coal ('000 metric tons) 27,852 (14,179); manufactured gas 
(million cubic metres) 1,632 (729-6); electricity (million kwh.) 8,160 
(4,002). Raw materials ('000 metric tons, 1949; 1950, six months, in 
brackets): pig iron 3,744 (1,756); steel ingots and castings 3,840 (1.767); 
copper smelter 133 (65); zinc 177 (84); lead 79 (37); tin 9-1 (5-5); 
aluminium 2-3 (!!). Manufactured goods ('000 metric tons, 1949; 
1950, six months, in brackets): cement 2,928 (1,501); woven cotton 
fabrics 60 (30)- cotton yarn 84 (45); wool yarn 36 (19); rayon cloth 
5 (3); paper 264-6 (145-1). 



Foreign Trade. (Belgo- Luxembourg Economic union, million francs, 
1949; 1950, six months, in brackets): import 81,720 (44,195); export 
79,788 (39,291). Main sources of imports (1949; 1950 in brackets) 
U.S. 18% (17%); France 10% (11%); Netherlands 9% (10%); U.K. 9% 
(10%). Main destinations of exports: Netherlands 15% (24%); 
Western Germany 11% (6%); U.K. 9% (7%); France 8% (11%). 
Main imports (1949): machinery and mechanical apparatus 9-6%; 
cereals 7- 1 %; meat and dairy products 5-9%. Main exports (1949): 
iron and steel manufactures 31-2%; wool and cotton manufactures 
14-4%; railway equipment 5-9%. 

Transport and Communications. Roads (1949): 6,648 mi. Licensed 
motor vehicles (bee. 1949): cars 226,961; commercial 132,987. Rail- 
ways (1949): 3,209 mi.; passenger-mi. 4,071 million; freight net ton-mi. 
3,520 million; freight carried ('000 tons) 60,132. Shipping (July 1949): 
number of merchant vessels over 100 gross tons 215; total tonnage 
435,656. Total length of navigable waterways 967 mi. Air transport 
(1949): number of flights (arrivals) 10,417; passenger-mi. 120 million; 
cargo net ton-mi. 3,25 1 ,000 ; air mail carried (metric tons) 662. Telephones 
(1949): subscribers 438,157. Wireless receiving sets (1949) 1,374,400. 

Finance and Banking. (Million francs) budget: (1950) revenue 
57,810, expenditure 64,431; (1951 est.) revenue 58,208, expenditure 
63,745. National debt (July 1949; July 1950 in brackets): 244,627 
(250,521). Currency circulation (Sept. 1949; Sept. 1950 in brackets): 
91,100 (90,000). Gold and foreign exchange (million U.S. dollars, 
Sept. 1949; Sept. 1950 in brackets): 952 (781). Bank deposits (Aug. 
1949; Aug. 1950 in brackets): 69,800 (68,300). Monetary unit: Belgian 
franc with an exchange rate of Fr. 140-00 to the pound and Fr. 50-50 
to the U.S. dollar. 

BENELUX: see BELGIUM; NETHERLANDS; LUXEMBOURG. 

BENTON, WILLIAM, United States senator and 
publisher (b. Minneapolis, Minnesota, April 1, 1900), 
graduated from Yale university in 1921. In 1929, in partner- 
ship with Chester Bowles, he founded the advertising agency 
of Benton and Bowles. Benton retired from the agency in 
1936, and in 1937 became vice president of the University 
of Chicago on a part-time basis. At his instance the university 
acquired Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., in 1943, He financed 




Senator \\iiiuun /fvi/.-:?, ,i , .-// His wife, before setting out for a 
helicopter tour of Connecticut during his 1950 election catnpaign. 

the company, became chairman of its board and shared its 
ownership with the university. He launched it into the 
classroom motion-picture field and served as chairman of 
Encyclopaedia Britannica Films Inc. During World War II, 
in collaboration with Paul Hoffman, he helped to found the 
Committee for Economic Development, and he was active in 
inter-American affairs. Benton was appointed assistant 
secretary of state by President Truman on Aug. 31, 1945, 
and served until Sept. 30, 1947, He developled the first 
United States peacetime programme of international informa- 
tion and educational exchange and took responsibility for 
U.S. participation in the United Nations Educational, 
Scientific and Cultural organization. In Dec. 1949 Benton 



BERLIN 



95 



was appointed a senator from Connecticut, where he had 
lived for 17 years, by Governor Bowles, to succeed Raymond 
E. Baldwin, who had resigned. His first year in the senate was 
marked by his proposal of a 4t Marshall plan of ideas"; 
by his vigorous espousal of the Hoover commission recom- 
mendations on government reorganization and by his 
activities on behalf of small business. On Nov. 7, 1950, he 
was elected to the senate for two more years. 

BEQUESTS: see DONATIONS AND BEQUESTS. 

BERLIN. Capital of the German Reich from 1871 to 
1945, Berlin was still by 1950 the largest city of Germany. 
Area: 343-6 sq.mi. Pop.: (1939 census) 4,321,500; (1946 
census) 3,179,200 or 24-4% less. From June 6, 1945, to June 
24, 1948, Berlin was administered by an inter-Allied govern- 
ment authority (in Russian, Kommandatura) consisting of the 
commandants of the four sectors of Berlin. After June 24, 
1948, when the Soviet commandant proclaimed the dissolution 
of the Kommandatura, Berlin was in fact divided into two 
opposing administrations. The three western sectors (pop., 
1950 census, 2,142,391) in 1950 were under the authority 
of the three following Allied commandants: Great Britain, 
Major General G. K. Bourne; United States, Major General 
Maxwell D. Taylor; France, General Pierre Carolet. In the 
Soviet sector (pop., mid- 1950, 1,179,000) the civil adminis- 
trator was Serghey A. Dienghin (who on June 7 succeded the 
military commandant, Major General Aleksandr G. Kotikov). 
There were also two rival German city governments and two 
lord mayors: Professor Ernst Reutcr, appointed on Dec. 7, 
1948, Oberburgermeister by a city assembly elected by the 
population of the three western sectors; Fritz Ebert, appointed 
on Nov. 30, 1948, provisional Oberburgermeister of the 
Soviet sector by a meeting summoned by the S.E.D. 
(Communist) party. 

History. During 1950, two city councils and two lord 
mayors still functioned. The fiction of unity was, however, 
maintained by all four occupying powers. Western Berlin 
remained outside the western federal republic and elections 
in the eastern Democratic republic did not include eastern 
Berlin. 

The Eastern German government, which collaborated 
closely with the Soviet authorities, made no large-scale 
attempts to capture western Berlin such as led to the airlift 
in 1948-49. Whitsuntide demonstrations were a fiasco in this 
respect. Pinpricks such as hold-ups on the international 
highway from Berlin to Western Germany and in barge traffic 
on rivers and canals were intermittent and with as little 
justification as formerly. 

Communist attempts to interfere with the Dec. 3 election 
in the western sectors were unsuccessful. Their proposals for 
postponement until " free democratic elections " could be 
held throughout the whole city, in March 1951, were rejected 
by both the western Berlin government and the three 
western Allied commandants. These proposals, similar to 
those unsuccessfully put forward in June, were made on Nov. 
26, in a letter to the four commandants and the German 
administrations in western and eastern Berlin. They would 
have opened a way to Communist control since they demanded 
withdrawal of all occupation forces. Soviet troops and 
German Volkspolizei would still be on the outskirts of the 
city but the nearest Allied troops would be 100 mi. away. 

Western Sectors. More than 90 % of the 1 ,664,09 1 electors 
in western Berlin refused on Dec. 3 to obey the Eastern 
German government's instructions to boycott the municipal 
elections. Having received 653,974 votes or 44-7% (instead 
of 848,100 or 64-5% on Dec. 5, 1948) the Social Democrats 
remained the largest party. The Christian Democrats 
increased their vote from 253,496 (19 -4%) to 360,829 (24 -6%) 




German youth in front of the Russian war memorial in fieri in, during 
the youth rally at Whitsun, 1950. 

and the Liberals or Free Democrats from 214,224 (16-1%) 
to 337,477 (53-0%). 

Grave economic problems continued to worry the city 
authorities and western Allies. Basically they were political 
since this formef capital could only flourish in a united 
Germany. Any measures taken meanwhile could only be 
palliatives, What was needed was a substitute for markets 
denied to western Berlin in the east. Foreign and western 
German orders had in the meantime helped to restore normal 
economic and political conditions. The labour force in the 
three western sectors amounted to 1,168,000 men and women, 
with about 30% either unemployed or in makeshift jobs. 
The city budget was Dm.(w) 1,500 million, with a deficit of 
Dm. 655 million. But for charges resulting from World 
War II, this was about the same as the normal budget before 
1933 but without the former sources of wealth. Federal 
republic aid amounted to Dm. 540 million annually. Invest- 
ment needs in 1950-51, according to city authorities, totalled 
Dm. 1,134 million. Of this it was estimated that Dm. 160 
million could be met from public and Dm. 319 million from 
private sources. This left Dm. 650 million to be supplied from 
E.R.P. and G.A.R.I.O.A. (Government Appropriation and 
Releases in Aid of Occupied Areas) funds. 

Great strides in industrial production however were made 
during the year. In January this was valued at Dm. 95 million, 
and in September at Dm. 175 million (42-7% of 1936). One 
important achievement was the completion of the electric 
power station which made the western sectors independent of 
Eastern German supplies. * 



96 



BERMUDA-BETTING AND GAMBLING 



The exchange rate of western and eastern marks varied from 
1:8 to 1:4-5. In November it was Dm.(w) l=Dm.(o) 5. 
Resulting price differences created serious problems to the 
western sectors. The prolonged attempt to ruin western 
Berlin bakers by cheap bread in the eastern sector was one 
outstanding instance. 

Western Berlin's position as an outpost of democracy 
behind the ** iron curtain " received greater consideration 
from the Federal republic in 1950. On Feb. 3 H. Vockel took 
up residence as official representative in Berlin of the Bonn 
government. On March 24 the federal parliament decided 
that the federal administrative court and certain other federal 
organs should be transferred to western Berlin and on April 
17 a Bundeshaus was opened by Konrad Adenauer. 

The new western Berlin constitution was promulgated on 
Oct. 1, in the presence of President Theodor Heuss, members 
of the federal government and parliament and the three 
western commandants. When, on Aug. 29, the constitution 
was approved by the three western commandants it was stated 
that western Berlin would have the status of a Land and a city, 
but would not be legally recognized as the 12th Land of the 
federal republic. In a speech on Nov. 28 Adenauer declared 
however that he would do everything to secure this recognition. 

A number of exhibitions and congresses held in western 
Berlin during 1950 attracted world attention. Among them 
were a motor car show (June 4) and an international exhibition 
of industry (Oct. 1-14). The latter drew more than a million 
visitors and was a special attraction during the fortnight 
preceding the Eastern German election. The International 
Congress for Cultural Freedom (June 26) brought to Berlin 
world-prominent anti-Communist spokesmen, and on Oct. 24 
a Freedom Bell was unveiled in the tower of the Schoneberg 
Rathaus (present headquarters of the western Berlin city 
council). The ceremony was performed by General Lucius 
D. Clay, former U.S. military governor in Germany and 
president of the organization " Crusade for Freedom " which 
presented the bell. 

An exhibition dedicated to the achievement of Germans 
from territories east of the Oder-Neisse line was opened by 
Jacob Kaiser, federal minister of all-German affairs (Nov. 24). 
He maintained that the problems raised in this issue could be 
settled within a European framework, but added that 
** Germany cannot and should not renounce this territory." 

Soviet Sector. Indications of food and other shortages 
were shown by the manner in which eastern Berliners took 
every opportunity to cross over into western sectors to buy 
food, though prices there were much higher because of the 
low rate of the eastern mark. Indicative of the political feelings 
of eastern Berliners was their response to the invitation from 
western Berlin authorities to show whether they favoured a 
united Berlin on the basis of free and secret elections by 
sending in their used ration cards for September to the 
Schoneberg Rathaus. From an electorate of 850,000, as many 
as 375,712 responded (Oct. 3-10). 

About 60,000 western Berliners worked in the eastern 
sector and were paid in eastern marks, but had to pay most 
of their bills in western marks. This was a great hardship 
since the western sector authorities could compensate only in 
part for the loss. Communists attempted by all kinds of 
pressure to get these people to transfer their homes to the 
Soviet sector. 

Greatest activity during the year was in clearing away 
rubble and in building; not so much private dwellings as 
enormous public structures. Many historical monuments 
were destroyed or removed elsewhere. Berlin Schloss was 
taken down to make place for huge tribunes where hundreds 
of thousands of spectators could watch demonstrations on the 
great parade-ground of the Lustgarten. The monument of 
Frederick ttfe Great, formerly on Unter den Linden, was 



removed to Potsdam; and a new Soviet embassy replaced on 
Unter den Linden the former one, destroyed during World 
War II. (J. E. Wi.) 

BERMUDA. British colony, c. 300 small islands in the 
western Atlantic about 580 mi. east of Cape Hatteras in 
North Carolina. Area: 21 sq.mi. Pop.: (1939 census) 
34,027, incl. 11,481 white; (1948 est.) 36,169, incl. 13,173 
white. Language: English. Religion: Christian. Chief 
towns: Hamilton (cap., c. 3,500); St. George (c. 1,300). 
Administration: governor; executive council, 4 official and 3 
unofficial members; Legislative Council of 3 official and 6 
unofficial members and House of Assembly of 36 elected 
members. Governor, Lieut. General Sir Alexander Hood. 

History. The Admiralty announced that for reasons of 
economy it had decided to close the dockyard by the end of 
March 1951. It was stated that Bermuda would continue 
to be the headquarters of the America and West Indies 
station but that in future ships of the station would be 
maintained by ships from the Home Fleet and refits and 
repairs would normally be carried out in the United King- 
dom. The colonial legislature set up a permanent joint 
committee to handle problems arising out of the dockyard's 
closure. Another problem that faced the colony was the 
replacement of its cedar trees largely destroyed by disease; 
the director of agriculture stated that it would be necessary 
to spend more than 1 million on re-afforestation. On the 
credit side there was a record tourist season and work began 
on a new civilian airport at Kindley Field. A census was 
held, of which the results were still awaited. 

Finance and Trade. Currency: Bermuda pound (at par with sterling). 
Budget (1949): revenue 1,885,548; expenditure 1,706,587. Foreign 
trade (1949): imports 7,182,178; domestic exports 40,451; re- 
exports 902,670. Lilies and lily bulbs were the only important domestic 
exports, the economy of the colony being primarily dependent on 
the tourist industry. (J. A. Hu.) 

BETTING AND GAMBLING. In 1950 the Royal 
Commission on Betting, Lotteries and Gaming, which was 
appointed in 1949 under the chairmanship of H. U. Willink, 
completed the hearing of evidence. Its report was expected 
in 1951. 

A vast amount of material had been presented for the 
consideration of the royal commission, and at the end of 1950 
it was still not possible to provide a complete and accurate 
picture of the extent of gambling in Great Britain. There was 
no evidence as to the number of bookmakers engaged in 
business, what number of people they employed or how large 
was their turnover in money. No evidence was presented to 
show how large the betting industry really was: the total 
amount of money involved, the number of people employed 
and the social and economic effects of gambling were all 
matters of guesswork. 

Those who control the totalizators on racecourses and dog 
tracks are obliged by law to disclose their turnover, and from 
the duty paid by pool promoters it is possible to assess the 
amount spent on pools during a year. There are no statistics 
for the business carried on by bookmakers. They operate in 
competition with the pools and totalizators, off the course 
and on ths course, legally and illegally, and they are not 
obliged to publish accounts. 

The only official statistics for betting in Great Britain are: 

1950 1949 1948 

( million) 

Totalizator at racecourses: . . 25-5* 25-8* 26-3* 
Totalizator at dog tracks: . . 70 -5f 85-6* 99-5* 
Pools (all forms) :. . . . 52 '3f 64 f 61 | 

SOURCES: * Race Course Betting Control board, t Customs and Excise 
return. J Home Office. 

These statistics show the continued decline in betting that 
was apparent in 1949. The changing economic situation may 



BEVIN 



97 



have contributed to this, for the excess money of the years 
immediately after World War II was absorbed in the higher 
cost of living and the more plentiful supply of consumer 
goods. The taxation imposed onnhe totalizator at dog racing 
tracks may have diverted money to bookmakers operating 
off the course, where better prices can be offered. 

Despite the slight decline in turnover on pools, 1950 would 
be remembered for its record-breaking pool prizes. In a 
period of less than two months, from Sept. to Nov. 1950, a 
series of winners drew sums ranging from 68,420 to 104,417. 
Three of the wins were of over 100,000 and there were three 
of over 90,000. At the peak win it was decided by the pool 
concerned to limit future prizes to a maximum of 75,000. 
By the end of the year this new maximum had not been won. 
These wins created great interest and it is possible that the 
increased participation in football pools during the months 
of Nov. and Dec. 1950, compared with the same period in 

1949, was not unconnected with a potential prize of 75,000. 
The fact remains that during 1950 there was slightly less 

active interest in betting, and that those participating were 
spending less than in previous years. With over 70% of the 
adult population indulging in a regular gamble it was not 
possible to assess whether this decline was of a temporary or 
permanent nature. In horse-racing the attraction remained 
constant. In dog racing the decline in interest closed a 
number of tracks. In 1948 there were 209 licensed totalizators, 
The number was reduced to 127 in 1949; and at March 31, 

1950, it had fallen to 120 and the number of pools had 
fallen from 135 in 1948 to 54 in 1950. Those pools which 
dropped out represented a small fraction of the total business. 

In Australia there was no sign of a decline in betting, which 
was carried on by more than 80% of the population. In three 
of the six states there was a government lottery every month 
(every week in Western Australia), where the prizes ran as 
high as 15,000 tax free. Only in Victoria and South Australia 
were lotteries forbidden. The betting turnover for the whole 
country was over 250 million a year. In New Zealand the 
interest in betting was as great as in Australia. The govern- 
ment ran ten lotteries each year and also took a large percen- 
tage from the totalizator at race courses. In India and 
Pakistan there were no lotteries but football pools, based 
on the British games, had been started. South Africa, in 
contrast, had made all dog racing and football pools illegal. 

Europe. The Netherlands had joined Norway and Sweden 
in sponsoring state-owned football pools based on the results 
of British games. There was little interest in betting as a 
commercial organization in these countries. (H. C. LN.) 

United States. Gambling, both in terms of money and 
in incidence, was much reduced during 1950. This was 
chiefly because of political pressure and investigations which 
sent many professional gamblers into hiding or caused them 
to reduce their operations. Early in the year the Brooklyn 
district attorney, Miles McDonald, began an investigation 
of alleged " protection pay-offs " by gamblers to New York 
city police. Continued investigation and prosecutions in 
New York led to the sentencing of Frank Erickson, popularly 
considered one of the biggest U.S. bookmakers, to a two-year 
prison term. Erickson pleaded guilty to conspiracy and 
bookmaking. 

The murder in April of Charles Binaggio, Kansas City, 
Montana, politician, and his assistant, Charles Gargotta, 
was generally reported to be attributable to warfare within 
a gambling syndicate which was nation-wide in scope. Largely 
as a result of this, the U.S. Senate in May appointed a 
committee to investigate nation-wide crime, with Senator 
Estes Kefauver, Tennessee, Democrat, as chairman. This 
committee's early findings linked gambling more than any 
other form of crime to political corruption. The committee 
travelled to Miami, Florida, to Los Angeles, California, to 

E.B.Y. 8 



New York and twice to Chicago, Illinois. At the year's end 
it was in Tampa, Florida, with New Orleans, Louisiana, 
next on the list. Much violence and corruption was attri- 
buted to the investigation; prospective witnesses disappeared 
and, in Chicago, two investigators employed by the com- 
mittee were killed. The revelations of this committee were 
thought to have had some influence on the November 
elections, contributing to the defeat of some Democratic 
candidates in Chicago and New York. 

Few corrective laws were passed, though in December 
President Harry S. Truman signed a bill prohibiting the 
inter-state shipment of gambling slot machines. However, 
efforts to legalize gambling were generally unsuccessful. 
California and Arizona voters, in the November elections, 
refused amendments that would have made gambling in 
various forms legal. Massachusetts voters turned down a 
proposed state lottery. The proposal that bookmakers be 
licensed, made early in the year by Mayor William O'Dwyer 
of New York, was opposed by Governor Thomas E. Dewey, 
and no further action was taken on it. 

Many gambling houses closed, and many more reduced 
their staffs because of diminished play. It was a moot point, 
however, whether this entrenchment was caused more by 
fear of arrest or by increased cost of living. The betting 
totals at the nation's race tracks, where betting was legal, 
fell by an estimated 10%; betting away from the track was 
thought to have been reduced by as much as 50% from 1949 
totals. There was less betting on sports events. Forms of 
gambling remained the same, with almost the only develop- 
ment a revival of interest in keno in the south and southwest. 
This represented little more than a substitution of keno for 
bingo games, however, and the two games arc very similar, 
both being forms of lotto. (A. H. MD.; M. ML.) 

BEVIN, ERNEST, British statesman (b. Winsford, 
Somerset, March 9, 1881), became national organizer of the 
Docker's union in 1910 and in 1921 secretary of the newly 
formed Transport and General Workers' union. From 
1925-40 he was a member of the general council of the Trades 
Union congress and in 1937 was chairman. In May 1940 he 
became minister of labour in Winston Churchill's coalition 
government and entered the House of Commons for Central 
Wandsworth. He became secretary of state for foreign 
affairs in the Labour government in July 1945. In 1949 he 
signed the North Atlantic treaty and the statute of the Council 
of Europe on behalf of the United Kingdom. In Jan. 1950, he 
attended the first Commonwealth Foreign Ministers' con- 
ference at Colombo; during his visit he received an honorary 
doctorate of laws from Ceylon university. On his return 
journey in February he visited Egypt and Italy to confer with 
the premiers and foreign ministers of those countries; in 
Cairo he was received by King Farouk and in Rome he was 
received by President Einaudi and had an audience with the 
Pope. On Feb. 23, the foreign minister was elected M.P. 
for East Woolwich, and on Feb. 28 was re-appointed foreign 
secretary. In March he had discussions with the French 
foreign minister, Robert Schuman, when the latter was in 
London in connection with President Vincent Auriol's state 
visit. In April he went to Strasbourg to attend a meeting of 
the European Committee of Ministers and to Paris to attend 
an O.E.E.C. council meeting. During May he had several 
discussions with the U.S. secretary of state, Dean Acheson, 
including one on the question of an Austrian peace treaty at 
which Robert Schuman was also present. The British foreign 
secretary also attended the meetings of the Atlantic Treaty 
council, conferred with the Benelux foreign ministers and 
received the U.N. secretary general, Trygve Lie. On three 
occasions during the year, in March, April anjl June, he 
underwent surgical treatment; on June 5, the prime minister 



98 



BHUTAN-BIOCHEMISTRY 



visiting the Sphinx in 
Jan. 1950 during his return journey 
from the Commonwealth foreign 
ministers* conference in Colombo. 

denied rumours that he would be 
replaced. The foreign secretary 
attended the Consultative council 
of the Brussels treaty powers at 
The Hague on Aug. 1 and took 
part in the meeting of the com- 
mittee of ministers at Strasbourg 
which began on Aug. 3. On Sept. 
7, he sailed for New York where 
he conferred with Dean Acheson 
and Robert Schuman on Sept. 12 
and attended a meeting of the 
Atlantic council before the open- 
ing of the U.N. general assembly 
on Sept 19. In early December 
he had discussions with the 
Egyptian foreign minister on 
Anglo-Kgyptian political differen- 
ces. He went to Brussels for the 
fifth meeting of the North Atlantic 
Treaty council on Dec. 18-19 and 
of the consultative council of the 
Brussels treaty on Dec. 20. While there he r M further talks 
with Acheson and Schuman. 

BHUTAN. Semi-independent state in the eastern Hima- 
layas lying between Tibet and India. Area: c. 18,000 sq.mi. 
Pop. (no census ever taken, 1947 unofficial est.): 300,000. 
Language: a dialect of Tibetan. Religion: mainly Buddhist. 
Capital, Punakha. Ruler, Maharaja Jigme Wangchuk. 

By virtue of the treaty of friendship between the union of 
India and Bhutan, the text of which was presented to the 
Indian Constituent Assembly on Dec. 14, 1949, India in 
1950 became responsible for the external relations of Bhutan 
but undertook to exercise no interference in the internal 
administration of the state, which in effect acceded to India. 
There was at one time the thought that Bhutar. might attain 
to the status of Nepal, but in fact the new arrangement 
with India represented a continuance of the relations which 
existed between Bhutan and the former Fritish government 
of India. On the transfer of power in India in 1947 Bhutan 
at once entered into a stand-still agreement with India pending 
the conclusion of negotiations which came about in 
1949. 

A mountainous state with a population mainly of Tibetan 
origin, Bhutan was disturbed by events in Tibet in the 
latter part of the year; but, although there was the bugbear 
of imperfectly defined boundaries, the position of this by 
no means easily accessible country under the Indian umbrella 
did not cause its people great anxiety. The system of govern- 
ment continued to be that of a secular autocracy, the ruler's 
possession of absolute authority being tempered by the 
considerable powers retained by the leading chiefs. (E. HD.) 

BILLIARDS AND SNOOKER. These games con- 
tinued to flourish during the season 1949-50: Walter Donald- 
son won the world's professional snooker championship, 
beating Fred Davis by 51 frames to 46 (each player now had 
two victories to his credit in this event). The United Kingdom 
professional billiards title went to the 26-year-old John 
Barrie, of Wisbech, who beat K. Kennerley, of Birmingham. 
Willie Smith, the 64-year-old Leeds veteran, displayed fine 
form but just lost to Barrie in the semi-final. 

The AVuv of the World 1,500 snooker tournament (pro- 
fessional) was won by Joe Davis, who also carried off the 




" Sporting Record Masters " snooker tournament. Joe 
Davis retired from championship play in 1947. During the 
season he took his total of centuries at snooker to 373. 

In the amateur sphere, the billiards championship was 
secured by the brilliant Stourbridge player, Frank Edwards, 
for the second year running. Alfred Nolan, of Newcastle, 
a fine young player, won the amateur snooker championship 
with a victory over Gary Owen, of Great Yarmouth, who was 
however thought to have a professional future. (R. Ho.) 

United States. Willie Hoppe, a world billiards champion 
as far back as 1906, again won the world three-cushion 
championship in 1950. Willie Mosconi regained the world 
pocket-billiard title and set a world tournament record for 
a 4^ ft. by 9 ft. table with a grand average of 18 34. Mosconi 
and Irving Crane, who took the national title, tied for world 
honours, Mosconi winning the play-off to gain his fifth 
world title. (P. BR.) , 

BIOCHEMISTRY. Intracellular Distribution of 
Enzymes. Progress was made during 1950 in studying the 
relationship between cell structure and cell chemistry. 
Investigators developed centrifugation procedures which 
permitted the separation of four cell fractions from tissue 
homogenates. The four fractions were: (1) cell nuclei; (2) 
microscopically visible sub-cellular bodies (mitochondria); 
(3) sub-microscopic particles (microsomes); and (4) a soluble 
protein fraction. An important feature of the fractionation 
technique was the use of hypertonic or isotonic sucrose 
solutions as the suspending medium. 

Using mainly rrfice and rat liver and kidney it was shown 
that the enzymes which convert glucose to lactic acid are in 
the soluble fraction of the cytoplasm. The oxidation of 
pyruvic acid and of fatty acids is carried out by enzymes which 
are components of the large sub-cellular particles the 
mitochondria. The mitochondria also contain enzymes which 
can transfer the energy released during the oxidation of 
pyruvic acid and fatty acids into high energy phosphate ester 
bonds. The energy stored in these phosphate ester bonds can 
later be used to synthesize compounds needed by the cell. 
Assays of these cell fractions showed that such enzymes as 
succinoxidase, oxaloacetic oxidase and isocitric dehydrogenase 
which catalyse the aerobic oxidation of glucose are in mito- 
chondria. However, large amounts of isocitric dehydrogenase 



BLISS BOLIVIA 



99 



also occur in the soluble protein fraction. Cytochrome c, a 
soluble conjugated protein, also occurs in the mitochondria; 
it was the first protein that had been extracted in a soluble 
form from what was considered to be the insoluble portion 
of the cell. These results emphasized the importance of 
mitochondria as the centres of respiration in the cell. 

Amino Acid Requirements of Man. Using diets containing 
known amounts of the various amino acids W. C. Rose and 
his co-workers established the minimum amino acid require- 
ments for man. The balance between N intake and N excre- 
tion was used as the criterion for the adequacy of various diets 
fed to adult men. On a diet lacking an essential amino acid 
the amount of N excreted was more than was consumed in 
the diet. On a complete diet the amount of N excreted was 
equal to the amount of N consumed. The essential amino 
acids and the tentatively recommended daily intake (which 
is twice the minimum daily requirement) were found to be: 
tryptophane, 5g. ; phenylalanine, 2 2g. ; lysine, 1 6g. ; 
threonine, l*0g.; valine, l'6g.; methionine, 2-2g.; leucine, 
2 2g. ; and isoleucine, 1 4g. The adult man does not need the 
remaining amino acids including histidine or arginine. That 
he can synthesize all the histidine he needs was unexpected. 

Hormones. ACTH, which is produced by the pituitary 
gland and which functions by stimulating the production of 
cortisone by the adrenal glands, was shown by C. H. Li to be a 
protein of molecular weight about 20,000. Subsequently, 
Li showed that small peptide fragments of molecular weight 
as low as 1,200 retain their biological activity. If the structure 
of these fragments could be determined and the fragments 
synthesized it would aid studies of the mechanism of hormone 
action and immeasurably supplement the limited amount of 
ACTH. This was desirable since even the partial synthesis of 
the steroid cortisone was so complex that it would probably 
long remain prohibitively costly on an industrial scale. 

Numerous steroid compounds were tested without success 
for cortisone activity. The tissues of the body cannot elaborate 
cortisone from closely related compounds even by the intro- 
duction of ketone or hydroxyl groups or a double bond at 
C 4 :C B in the cortisone nucleus. The adrenal gland itself 
appears to be the site of the enzymes that synthesize the active 
compounds. The many steroids that are found in the gland 
are possibly intermediate compounds which are retained 
within the gland and are not released upon stimulation until 
they have been converted into cortisone or the closely related 
Compound F. This conclusion was based on the fact that 
dehydrocortisone (Compound A) is almost devoid of physio- 
logical activity in the human being and on the fact that only 
cortisone and Compound F are found in the urine. It was 
also found that perfusion of the adrenal gland results in the 
release only of Compound F and not of any of the other 
steroids known to be in the gland. 

Experiments by W. C. Stadie and his co-workers cast doubt 
on the earlier suggestion from C. F. Cori's laboratory that 
insulin acts by relieving the inhibition caused by pituitary or 
cortical hormones on the hexokinase reaction. This reaction 
in which glucose is enzymically converted into glucose-6- 
phosphate, is obligatory in the metabolism of glucose. 
Stadie found that neither insulin nor adrenal cortical extracts 
affected the rate of the hexokinase reaction in extracts from 
depancreatized cats. He also obtained a similar negative 
result with muscle extracts from rats made diabetic with 
alloxan. Stadie suggested that the earlier work on the effect 
of insulin on the hexokinase reaction was misleading because 
no correction had been made for the presence of glycogen or 
glycogen breakdown products which interfere with the usual 
methods of measuring the hexokinase reaction. (See also 
ARTHRITIS; PHYSIOLOGY.) (L. M. K.) 

BIOLOGY : see BACTERIOLOGY ; BIOCHEMISTRY ; 



BOTANICAL GARDENS; BOTANY; ENDOCRINOLOGY; GENETICS; 
MARINE BIOLOGY; PALAEONTOLOGY; PHYSIOLOGY; ZOOLOGY. 

BIRTH STATISTICS: see VITAL STATISTICS. 
BISMARCK ISLANDS: see TRUST TERRITORIES. 

BLISS, SIR ARTHUR, British composer (b. Lon- 
don, Aug. 2, 1891), was educated at Rugby school and at 
Pembroke college, Cambridge. His studies at the Royal 
College of Music, London, under Sir Charles Stanford, 
Ralph Vaughan Williams and Gustav Hoist were inter- 
rupted by World War I during which he was wounded and 
mentioned in dispatches. His " first period " may be said to 
have extended from 1918 to 1922, when his composition, 
mainly for voice and small instrumental ensembles, showed 
affinities to that of " Les Six " (Auric, Durey, Honeggcr, 
Milhaud, Poulenc and Satie) and Igor Stravinsky; his best 
known work of this time was A Colour Symphony (1922). 
In 1921 he taught composition at the R.C.M. After writing 
theatre music in California for a while, he composed Pastoral 
(1928), settings of poems by Ben Jonson, John Fletcher, 
Politian, Theocritus and Robert Nichols. Bliss's " grand 
manner " the use of dramatic harmonies and clearly stated 
rhythms was already apparent in Morning Heroes (1930) a 
work for orator, chorus and orchestra in memory of his 
brother, killed in action; in April 1950 this work was again 
performed with Sir Ralph Richardson as orator. Music for 
Strings (1935), first performed at Salzburg, had, too, an elegiac 
character. In 1935 Bliss wrote the music for the H. G. Wells 
film Things to Come. Later he composed the music for three 
Sadler's Wells ballets: Checkmate (1937), Miracle in the 
Gorbals (1944) and Adam Zero (1946) In 1939 his Pianoforte 
Concerto was first performed, at the Carnegie hall in connec- 
tion with the New York World fair, by Solomon and the New 
York Philharmonic orchestra conducted by Sir Adrian Boult. 
From 1942 to 1944 Bliss was director of music of the British 
Broadcasting corporation. In 1948 he produced his first opera 
The Olympians (with libretto by J. B. Priestley). In the 1950 
Birthday Honours, Bliss was knighted. At Edinburgh, on 
Sept. 1, the Griller quartet gave the first performance of his 
Quartet No. 2. 

BOLIVIA. Larld-locked republic in central South 
America and one of the highest inhabited areas of the world. 
Area: 416,040 sq.mi. Pop.: (1900 census) 1,816,271; (mid- 
1949 est.) 3,990,000. Estimated racial distribution: Indian 
52%; mestizo 28%; white 13%; Negro 0'2%; unspecified 
6-8%. Language: Spanish, but the Indians speak Quechua 
andAymard. Religion : predominantly Roman Catholic. The 
legal capital is Sucre (pop., 1946 est., 32,000); the actual seat 
of government is La Paz (pop., 1 946 est., 30 1 ,000). Other chief 
towns (pop., 1946 est.): Cochabamba (80,000); Oruro 
(50,000); Potosi (40,000). President of the republic, Mamerto 
Urriolagoitia. 

History. Both the political and economic history of Bolivia 
continued to be strongly influenced by its pre-eminent industry 
which is mining. The latter included about 16% of the world 
production of tin, which was in 1950 being exported in almost 
equal amounts to the United States and the United Kingdom. 
Miners' unions, with memberships estimated at about 
310,000 were especially active in political affairs during the 
year and represented the principal strength of the two more 
aggressive minority parties, the leftist Partido de la Izquierda 
Revolucionaria and the rightist Movimiento Nacionalista 
Revolucionario. Extensive strikes, political feuds that were 
sometimes violent and a revolution in force which disrupted 
mine operations in many areas during 1949 tended to abate 
during 1950. 



100 



BOOK COLLECTING AND BOOK SALES 



Despite political tension, 1950 marked many notable 
advances in Bolivia. The new petroleum industry produced 
more than 600,000 bbl. Improvements in primary education, 
now compulsory, were believed to have reduced adult 
illiteracy to about 75% as compared with an estimated 85% 
in 1945. The Ministry of Health established the first clinics 
in six frontier areas which had never before had health 
services. (C, M. Wi.) 

Education. (Schools, 1944): rural 1,513, pupils 110,000; elementary 
1,740, pupils 144,056; secondary 55, pupils 17,496. There were univer- 
sities at Cochabambu, La Paz, Ororo, Potosi and Sucre. 

Agriculture. Bolivia continued to be dependent on imports of food- 
stuffs. Main crops included maize, barley, wheat, rice and potatoes. 
Livestock (1946 est.): cattle 3,039,000, sheep 4,289,000, goats 1,809,000. 
Forest products: rubber (1949 exports, about 2.000 short tons) and 
cinchona bark. 

Mineral production. Exports (1949, short tons): tin 38,166; lead 
29,048; copper 5,593; /inc 19,432; antimony 11,326; wolfram (WO a 
content) 1,701 and silver (6,622,900 oz.). 

Foreign Trade. (1949) exports $107,100,000; imports $71,400,000. 
Tin accounted for about two-thirds of the exports. 

Transport and Communication. Railways (1950): 1,608 mi. Several 
lines were under construction in 1950, including two from Brazil and 
Argentina, respectively, to Santa Cruz. Roads (1949): 15,420 mi. of 
which 4,008 mi. improved. About 7,300 motor vehicles were in opera- 
lion in 1947. More than 50% of the 8,300 telephones in 1948 were in 
La Pa/. Wireless receiving sets (1950): 150,000. 

Finance. Budget (1950 cst.): balanced at 2,783 million bolivianos. 
Internal debt (Nov. 1949): 2,405 million bolivianos; external debt 
(Dec. 1947): $60,280.923, plus arrears of interest totalling $74,244,100. 
Notes in circulation (Aug. 31, 1950): 2,822 million bolivianos. Mone- 
tary unit: boliviano with an official exchange rate >f 1-65 U.S. cents 
per boliviano or 1 169-68 bolivianos. (J. W. Mw.) 

BONAIRE: see NETHERLANDS OVERSEAS TERRITORIES 

BOOK COLLECTING AND BOOK SALES. 

The year 1950 was not a conspicuous one in the auction 
rooms of London or New York. In London the effect upon 
the market of the devaluation of the pound was at once 
apparent, and there was a marked rise in the price of books 
or manuscripts which were likely to be bought for or sold to 
America. In spite of this the number of notable sales was 
small and for the most part was made up of miscellaneous 
collections of books of average quality which at times became 
tedious in their similarity. Among the better s^les in London 
were further portions of Sir Leicester Harmsworth's enormous 
library: the sale of his collection of Americana, which began 
in 1949, reached the letter H (it was being <;old in alphabetical 
order). Some of the rare items in this Held illustrated more 
than anything else the effects of devaluation, and an increase 
was shown on the very high prices reached at the important 
sales of Americana in the middle 1920s, when Harmsworth 
was a heavy buyer himself. Perhaps the most interesting sale 
in London during the year was that of Lord Malmesbury's 
Hurn Court library, which was sold in three portions. It had 
been collected by two owners and their descendants over a 
period of 200 years; the books were in fine state and well 
bound; nearly all subjects were covered, including art, 
science, literature, travel, atlases and coloured plate books of 
flowers and birds; and prices at this sale were distinctly high 
because an undisturbed library of this calibre always encour- 
ages spirited bidding. 

Another feature of the year's sales was the high price 
realized by a few fine 16th- and 17th-century books of English 
literature: a first edition of the Mirrourfor Magistrates (1559) 
sold for 580; the first editions of Vaughan's Silex Scintillans 
(1650) and Olor Iscanus (1651) for 260 and 150 respectively 
(the former copy fetched 68 in the Huth sale in 1919 and 
the highest auction price that a copy of the latter had previ- 
ously made was 56 in 1923); and a copy of Lyly's Euphues 
(two parts 1581-82) fetched 680, having realized 120 in 
1932. The % popularity of bird and flower books continued to 
flourish, although there was a marked fall in the works of 



John Gould, whose large folios with their brilliant coloured 
plates of birds appear too frequently. The interest shown in 
genuine specimens of books with fore-edge paintings was 
unabated and a fine example from the Edwards of Halifax 
bindery, with paintings on the reverse sides of the vellum, sold 
for the remarkably high price of 240. Since World War II 
Boswell and Johnson had been steadily regaining the favour 
that they held in the boom of 1928-29, and high prices were 
realized by three of their works: 215 for a copy of Boswell's 
anonymous and trifling poem The Cub at Newmarket (1762) 
165 for Johnson's Miscellaneous Observations on Macbeth 
(1745); 155 for an uncut copy in original wrappers of 
Johnson's Plan of a Dictionary (1747); and 480 for Boswell's 
Life of Johnson (1791) with the original leaf on conjugal 
infidelity. 

Towards the end of the year a few quite outstanding books 
were sold in London. These belonged to the Marquess of 
Bute, a selection of whose library had already been sold 
privately to a London bookseller. The most important book 
of the sale was an illustrated English incunable. The Con- 
templacyon of Synners, printed by Wynkyn de Worde in 1499 
and bound in contemporary stamped English calf; it fetched 
3,800. An imperfect copy of Caxton's edition of Gower's 
Confessio Amantis (1483) sold for 2,900. The first book 
printed in Paraguay, Nuremberg's Diferencia (1705), fetched 
1,800. Among manuscripts and autograph letters were a 
15th-century illuminated Parisian missal of fine quality 
which realized 5,000 and a most important series of 177 
letters from Darwin to Sir Charles Lyall relating to the 
Origin of Species, which fetched 5,200. 

In New York the most notable sale took place at the end 
of the year when the first portion of Lucius Wilmerding's 
library, comprising the English literature and colour-plate 
books, was sold. His English books consisted of first editions 
of famous works in English literature, mostly rebound in 
morocco, and many of the " high spots " beloved by book 
collectors for now nearly 100 years were included. The 
general impression was that the English books, particularly 
those of the 17th century, sold very well. On the other hand, 
most of the prices of the colour-plate books showed a marked 
fall. The French books and bindings in this remarkable 
library were to be sold in 1951. 

During the year certain activities took place in the anti- 
quarian book trade which are worth recording. The Inter- 
national League of Antiquarian Booksellers held their 
second conference in Paris in September. The American 
association, which had sent an observer to the previous 
conference, applied for membership and was elected to the 
league. In England the Antiquarian Booksellers' association 
held a second series of lectures for its members; and for the 
second time since its foundation in 1906 a woman was 
elected its president. For the first time in England a series of 
broadcasts devoted to book collecting was given by the 
B.B.C. Certain regulations controlling the import and 
export of rare books continued to hamper trade between 
countries, but it was hoped that the committee set up to 
advise on the policy to be adopted by the government in 
controlling the export of works of art, including books, 
would be able to make recommendations for easing 
controls. 

The ascendancy of the American university library over the 
private collector in nearly all fields of book collecting, which 
had been evident in the market since 1939, was again marked 
in 1950. Its influence was shown in an increasing number of 
booksellers' catalogues by the quoting of library holdings and 
by the ranging of books under subjects to attract the library 
research worker. More than one American librarian during 
the year publicly declared the debt of U.S. libraries to the 
British antiquarian book trade. (C. D. M.) 



BOOK PUBLISHING BOTANICAL GARDENS 



101 



BOOK PUBLISHING, During 1950 book publishers 
in Great Britain produced 17,072 titles of which 5,334 were 
reprints and new editions. It was considered that the 1950 
total, slightly larger than the 1949 total of 17,034 titles and 
slightly smaller than the 1937 total of 17,137 titles, which was 
the highest figure ever recorded, might indicate that book 
publishing had attained its full rate of output after ten years 
of restricted production. 

The period April 1949-March 1950, after nine years of 
paper rationing, was the first year in which British book 
publishers were wholly free from the governmental control of 
their chief raw material. Reviewing that first year of freedom, 
the Publishers' association in a report issued in March 1950 
said: " After a decade of restraint of output on the one hand 
and unprecedented ease of selling on the other, they [the 
publishers] discovered themselves free once more as individual 
publishers and as a trade to exercise the old virtues and the 
old vices, to enjoy advantages and to ignore or take arms 
against dangers which since 1939 had lost much of their 
reality.*' 

The two most fundamental problems, this report stated, 
were 4 * a perceptible though not yet alarming " fall in the sale 
of individual titles and the disquieting and consistent rise in 
the costs of production. In Nov. 1950 paper, once \^d. a 
pound, was 10^7. a pound, printing was four times what it 
was in 1938 and the rise in binding costs was higher still. By 
contrast, the published prices of many categories of books in 
1950 were only one and a half times what they had been before 
World War 11. The reason for this apparent anomaly was that 
publishers, during the years of restricted output, had been able 
to sell every copy of every book they could manufacture. 
Risk, the costliest factor in book publishing, was absent; but 
once output was no longer restricted and supplies became 
greater than the demand, the risk returned. 

The pattern of book publishing suddenly took on a new 
shape: at the beginning of the year the papermakers had 
complained of a rapid and unexpected change from the 
seller's to the buyer's market, but by the summer of 1950 the 
position had reversed itself once more. The world shortage 
of raw materials and the heavy demand for Scandinavian pulp 
by the U.S. brought about a dramatically sudden and sharp 
deterioration in the paper supply situation in Britain. In 
November the president of the Publishers' association stated 
that the " drastic and dangerous reduction " in the amount 
of paper available for book production and an impending 
shortage of strawboard for bookbinding which was scarcely 
less serious might mean that once more many books would 
be out of print for long periods. 

Despite all these difficulties the publishing business con- 
tinued quarter by quarter to beat all previous records in the 
volume of business done. The amount of trade done by 
publishers in 1949 had reached the unprecedented figure of 
34,297,252 (the prewar average annual total was approxi- 
mately 10 million). During the first six months of 1950 
publishers' total sales amounted to 16,683,895, an increase 
by more than 834,000 on the turnover of the corresponding 
period of 1949. Since the book-trade business had invariably 
been greater in the second half of the year than in the first, 
there was little doubt that the 1950 total would surpass the 
1949 record. An analysis of publishers' output made by the 
Bookseller showed the average price of books published 
during the first six months of 1950 to be \2s. whereas in the 
following six months it was \2s. 3d. These statistical averages 
are based on titles only : many of the books most in demand 
cost much less than \2s. each. One of the most welcomed 
results of increased production facilities was the restoration 
during the year of several famous series which offered the 
world's greatest literature in attractive volumes for 45. 6d. or 
5$. each. (E. SE.) 



United States. New books and new editions issued in the 
United States in 1950 were up 130 over the total of 1949, an 
increase of 1 %; but the 1950 total of 1 1,022 was only slightly 
below the record of 1940 when 1 1,328 titles were issued, and 
about 10% more than the 1930 total. Fiction, representing 
17% of the year's output, showed the largest net increase of 
the year, followed by juveniles, general literature and technical 
books. The largest net decreases were for the categories of 
domestic economy and business. About 13% of the titles 
handled during the year were imports. Pocket books showed 
an increase of 281 new titles over the 1949 total of 659. 

Heading the best-seller list for fiction in 1950 based on 
trade sales alone, was The Cardinal by Henry Morton 
Robinson, the only novel on the list with a religious theme. 
Second was Joy Street, by Francis Parkinson Keyes, which 
did not appear in the bookstores until the last month of the 
year. Third to tenth on the list, in that order, were Across the 
River and into the Trees, by Hrnest Hemingway; The Wall, by 
John Hersey; Star Money, by Kathleen Winsor; The Parasites, 
by Daphne du Maurier; F/oodru/e, by Frank Yerby; Jubilee 
Trail, by Gwen Bristow; The Adventurer, by Mika Waltari; 
and The Disenchanted, by Budcl Schulberg. 

The list of nonfictional best sellers for the year, based on 
trade sales alone, was topped by Betty Crocker's Picture Cook 
Hook, followed in second place by The llah\\ a book of 
humorously captioncd photographs. 

One publishing innovation of the year was Simon & 
Schuster's experimental issuance of new titles in full-priced 
hard-cover and low-priced ($1) paper-covered editions 
simultaneously. This was done with The Cardinal, leading 
fictional best-seller of the year, with encouraging results. 
Among booksellers, however, as shown after questioning 
by the American Book Publishers council, the preference 
was for a one-year lag between first editions of fiction and 
hard-cover reprints, and for a year and a half between hard- 
cover and paper-bound reprints. Price news in the pocket- 
book field included the issuance of giant-sized reprints at 
35 cents instead of the usual 25 cents, a notable example 
being the two-volume reprint of Robert H. Sherwood's 
Roosevelt and Hopkins. (X.) 

BORNEO: see BRITISH BORNEO; INDONESIA. 

BOTANICAL GARDENS. The year 1950 was one 
of the wettest for several decades and was in marked contrast 
to 1949 which was one of the driest and hottest. Growth in 
practically all gardens was luxuriant, though the flowering 
of many sun-loving plants was not up to normal standards. 

The large influx of Himalayan seeds received late in 1949 
and early in 1950 from the collections in Nepal of O. Polunin 
and in Bhutan of G. SherrifiF and F. Ludlow, caused great 
activity in the propagation departments of all botanic gar- 
dens, and the damp summer was favourable to the growth of 
seedlings from this region. By the end of October several 
interesting plants had already flowered from among the bulbs 
and tubers sent back from Bhutan, notably Lilium Wallt~ 
chianum and a new species of Codonopsis. 

The strikes in the printing industry affected considerably 
the usual publication of reports and information from the 
Royal Botanic garden at Kew and other gardens. Part I of 
the Kew Bulletin for 1950, however, contained an important 
further contribution from E. M. Marsden-Jones and W. B. 
Turrill, the keeper of the Herbarium at Kew, dealing with 
their researches on Silene nwritima and S. vulgaris. This 
part contained an account of their genetical experiments 
involving plants from the French Alps. W. B. Turrill was 
also president of the botany section of the British Association 
for 1950 and delivered an address on experimental methods 
in taxonomy. Representatives of the main botanic gardens 



102 



BOTANY 



in Great Britain attended the International Botanic congress 
at Stockholm held in July. The discussions held there on 
nomenclature of plants were of particular interest and 
importance. 

A brief report of the tour in Australia in 1949 of the 
director of the Royal Botanic gardens, Kew, Sir Edward 
Salisbury, is contained in part I of the Kew Bulletin for 1950. 
He was able to make recommendations for the establish- 
ment of a botanical garden in Western Australia and to 
inspect a potential site, which he said would serve admirably 
to establish a collection of the extremely rich and scientifically 
interesting native flora. 

At the Cambridge Botanic garden, H. Gilbert-Carter 
retired from the post of director and university lecturer in 
botany after many years' service. He marked his year of 
retirement by the publication of a valuable Glossary of the 
British Flora (Cambridge, 1950). J. S. L. Gilmour, the 
director of the Royal Horticultural society's gardens at Wisley, 
was appointed to succeed him. At Edinburgh, Roland E. 
Cooper retired from his post as curator after long service 
and was succeeded by E. E. Kemp. The new Peatwall garden 
in the Edinburgh Botanic garden attracted much attention, 
and proved particularly favourable for the establishment of 
difficult species of Himalayan Primulas and Meconopsis. 

(P. M. S.) 

United States. The secretary of agriculture, Charles Bran- 
nan, dedicated a memorial tree (Cedrus Seodara) on the 
grounds of the National arboretum in Washington, D.C., 
during the 50th anniversary of the American Association of 
Nurserymen in July, while the Morris arboretum in Philadel- 
phia started extensive studies in breeding rhododendrons and 
azaleas. Plants and Gardens, publication of the Brooklyn 
Botanic garden, reached nearly 10,000 subscribers during the 
year. The Long Island Agricultural and Technical institute 
at Farmingdale, New York, began to conduct a few studies 
in plant materials on the 400-ac. W. R. Coe estate in Brook- 
ville, now under its general supervision. The American 
Association of Botanic Gardens and Arboretums withdrew 
its affiliation with American Institute of Park Executives and, 
at the close of the year, was urlattached to any other organiza- 
tion. (See also HORTICULTURE.) . (D. W.) 

BOTANY. The most notable event of 1950 was the 
seventh International congress held at Stockholm, July 12-20, 
ten years later than originally proposed, under the presidency 
of Professor C. Skottsberg. F. T. Wahlen spoke on " Botany 
and World Husbandry " and pointed out the relationship 
between botanical science and world energy and the import- 
ance of achieving a better balance between consumption and . 
production. At the second plenary session F. Verdoorn 
spoke on ** The History of International Botanical Con- 
gresses " and F. W. Went on " The Effect of Climate on 
Plant Growth and Distribution " describing the work done 
at Pasadena, California. The presence of a delegation from 
the U.S.S.R. naturally aroused great interest. The Soviet 
delegates described new work on graft hybrids and claimed 
it confirmed T. D. Lysenko's view that the chromosome theory 
of heredity was erroneous. The authors and titles of the 
Soviet communications were: I. E. Glyschenko, ** Hybridiz- 
ation of Plants by Grafting "; K. S. Sukhor, " The Directed 
Influence of the Pathogenic Viruses on Plants"; N. V. 
Turbin, ** New Experiments Elucidating the Nature of 
Fertilization"; V. N. Stoletov, "The Nature of Hybrid 
Plants "; P. A. Baranov, " Cultivated Plants during Extreme 
Conditions of Life"; and V. N. Sukachev, "On the 
Exploration of the Vegetation of the Soviet Union." It was 
evident that the Michurin influence was still paramount in 
the U.S.S.R* 
The section on nomenclature did much useful work in 



clarifying and improving the international rules, particularly 
with regard to the naming of hybrids and methods of typifi- 
cation. Botanists were co-operating with horticulturists in 
formulating a code for plants of horticultural origin. Pro- 
posals for a list of Nomina Specifica Conservanda were rejected 
by a large majority. 

It was agreed that future international botanical congresses 
should be held alternately in Europe and outside Europe at 
three- or four-year intervals and that the next one should be 
in Paris in 1954. It was also decided that a bureau of plant 
taxonomy and nomenclature should be set up and that an 
international society of plant taxonomy should be established. 
After the congress there were a number of excursions, those 
to Lapland being particularly popular and well attended by 
taxonomists and ecologists. 

The fifth International Congress for Microbiology was 
held at Rio de Janeiro, Aug. 17-24. It included an exhibition 
on microbiology, parasitology and hygiene and another on 
the life and works of Louis Pasteur. Aspects of medical 
mycology received attention as the gravity of granulomas in 
South America and the frequency of other fungal diseases 
had given to mycology a special importance there. It was 
decided to hold the next congress in Rome in 1953. 

W. B. Turrill gave the presidential address to the botany 
section of the British Association meeting at Birmingham in 
August. He spoke on " Modern Trends in the Classification 
of Plants," saying that plant taxonomy was tending towards 
a synthesis of the older methods based on external mor- 
phology with those due to newer developments in the know- 
ledge of plants. Anatomical techniques made it possible to 
determine incomplete specimens; associations of chemical 
compounds threw light on taxonomy where attention to 
single substances might lead to error; and cytological studies 
might provide valuable evidence, though there might be 
danger if the cytologist did not take proper care in identifying 
and preserving the specimens on which his work was based. 
Genetical research was giving the greatest assistance to 
taxonomy especially in proof or disproof of hybrid origin. 
Thus many so-called species of Centaurea had been proved 
by analysis and synthesis to be hybrids. 

At a joint discussion on " The Present Position of the 
Theory of Continental Drift," which aroused much interest, 
Professor R. D'O. Good gave the main features of Angiosperm 
distribution that were difficult to explain without assuming 
that the chief land masses were once closer together. 

At a joint meeting on " Cytology and Genetics in relation 
to the Classification of Plants and Animals," L. Sachs gave 
an account of the combination of a study of gross mor- 
phology with a detailed chromosome investigation in the 
Triticinae, a subtribe of Gramineae, and there was an import- 
ant discussion on the rehabilitation of derelict areas at which 
W. J. Rees talked on " The Vegetation of Derelict Areas " 
and W. B. Newton on "The Afforestation of Opencast 
Mining Areas." 

At the Linnean society there was a joint discussion with 
the Systematics association on biometrica and systcmatics. 
R. Melville spoke on the discrimination between taxonomic 
groups in which the morphological characters overlap by 
the determination of mean values with their standard devia- 
tions of probable error and the use of Cartesian co-ordinates 
for the definition of leaf-shape. Simple mathematical treat- 
ment of co-ordinate systems enabled related series of shapes 
to be obtained which could be compared with those occurring 
in nature. At a discussion at the Linnean society on succulent 
plants, E. M. Delf gave an account of their principal biological 
features. Professor T. A. Bennet-Clark described their 
physiology, mentioning their very low rate of transpiration 
per unit area of assimilating surface and saying that their 
most striking feature was biochemical, carbohydrates being 



BOWLS-BOXING 



103 



converted into organic acid in the dark, the acid disappearing 
and carbohydrate re-forming on illumination. 

In the " Biological Flora of the British Isles," D. A. Webb 
dealt with the " mossy " saxifrages (Saxifraga L. Sect. 
Dactyloides Tausch.). He recognized only four species in the 
British Isles: S. caespltosa L.; S. Harttt D. A. Webb; S. 
hypnoides L.; and S. rosacea Moench; with many interspecific 
hybrids. S. Hartii is confined to the island of Arramore in 
County Donegal. In the same series (" Biological Flora ") 
V. C. Chapman described Halimione portulacoides (L.) Aell., 
and J. R. Sealy and D. A. Webb gave an account of Arbutus 
Unedo L., which was confined to Kerry but formerly had been 
much more abundant in Ireland. 

The Scottish Seaweed Research association reported that 
the survey of the seaweed resources of the sublittoral zone 
had been continued in the Shetlands, Outer Hebrides, Teree, 
west Kyntyre and Arran. They had considered the possibility 
of introducing foreign buoyant types such as Macrocystis 
into British inshore waters and sporelings were being culti- 
vated from spores flown from British Columbia. Further 
methods had been developed for the harvesting of seaweeds 
and for investigating the chemical composition and properties 
of seaweeds and seawater. 

W. A. P. Black studied the seasonal variation in weight and 
chemical composition of common British Laminariaceae and 
found that it should be possible to predict the approximate 
composition in future years. E. J. H. Corner produced 
44 A Monograph of Clavarla and Allied Genera," the first of a 
series to be published by the Annals of Botany company. 
This gave detailed accounts of the developmental morphology 
of these fungi as well as diagnostic descriptions and some keys. 
The author considered that a number of natural groups could 
be separated from the old groupings under Clavaria, Lac/mo- 
cladium, etc., and recognized 27 genera instead of the custo- 
mary 11 or 12. 

E. Gaumann's important work " Principles of Plant 
Infection," originally published in German in 1943, appeared 
in an English translation by Professor W. B. Brierley and 
several assistants. It gave an account of the general theories 
and principles of plant pathology and surveyed the whole 
biological problem of infection. 

A. R. Gemmell showed that fruiting was more frequent in 
monoecious than dioecious mosses, that sterile species 
produced very few varieties, that dioecious mosses were more 
widely distributed than monoecious or sterile forms and that 
a species was more likely to be widely distributed in propor- 
tion to the number of varieties produced by it, even if the 
range of the varieties was excluded. The outbreeding system 
was the operative factor: it allowed the display of one mutant 
against a variety of genie backgrounds, thus leading to 
greater genetic diversity and hence to greater versatility. 

C. Leighton Hare described the structure and development 
of Eriocaulon septangular -e. The seedling showed a clear 
correlation with environmental conditions, possessing a 
peculiar anchoring device which secured it to the substratum 
before the radicle appeared. C. Thomas described a new 
orchid, Epipactus cambrensis, from Kenfig Barrows, Glamor- 
gan. T. G. Tutin described species pairs in Anthoxanthum, 
Dactyl is and Phleum in which the members of each pair 
differed in chromosome numbers (one diploid, the other 
tetraploid) and had somewhat different ecological preferences 
and geographical distributions. (See also HORTICULTURE.) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. R. S. Adamson and T. M. Sailer, Flora of the Cape 
Peninsula (Capetown and Johannesburg, 1950); F. W. Andrews, The 
Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (Arbroath, 1950); 
D. I. Arnon and L. Machlis, Annual Review of Plant Physiology, vol. I 
(Stanford, Connecticut, 1950); M. L. Fernald, Gray's Manual of 
Botany, 8th ed. (New York, 1950); E. Gaumann, Principles of Plant 
Infection (London, 1950); Eric Hulten, Atlas of the Distribution of 
Vascular Plants in N.W. Europe (Stockholm, 1950); C. R. Metcalfe and 



L. Chalk, Anatomy of the Dicotyledons (Oxford, 1950); H. J. Scoggan. 
The Flora of Bic and the Gaspe Peninsula, Quebec, National Museum 
of Canada Bulletin, no. 115, Ottawa, 1950. (A. W. E.) 

BOWLS. In 1950, 2,117 clubs were affiliated to the 
English Bowling association. In the national championships 
held at Paddington B. C., Aug. 14-22, J. Thompson (North 
Shields West End) won the singles, L. H. Pipler and E. P. 
Baker (Poole Park, Dorset) the pairs, Hereford the triples 
and Richmond Park Hampshire, the rinks. 




Women bowler^ ttikinx /><;// in f/ic unmti'nr naiinnnt < "hu 
which were held at Wimbledon in Aug. 195U. 

The International tournament for the News of the World 
trophy, played at Queens Park, Glasgow, on July 5-7 was 
won by Scotland. England beat Australia in the test match 
at Oxford by 35 shots (1 18-83). 

Devon won the Middleton cup for the third successive 
year, thus creating a record. The London and Southern 
Counties Bowling association gold badge was won by 
G. F. Trieb (Mansfield), and the Lonsdale tournament by 
F. E. Thompson (Barnes Lonsdale). The National Welsh 
B. A. singles was won by A. Thomas (Daffen-Llanelly), the 
pairs by Ivor Davies and F. L. Cottle (Sophia Gardens, 
Cardiff) and the rinks by Newport Athletic. The Scottish 
B. A. singles was won by J. C. Irving (Lockerbie), the pairs 
by W. Elliot and E. Winning (Catrine) and the rinks by 
Crosshouse. The Irish B. A. singles was won by S. J. Thomp- 
son (Willowfield), the pairs by Musgrave and the rinks by 
Leinster. Mrs. Buckland (Surrey) won the English Women's 
B. A. championship. (See also EMPIRE GAMES.) (J. W. FR.) 

BOXING. Four British championships changed hands 
during 1950. The main event of the year was the defeat of 
Bruce Woodcock on Nov. 14 by Jack Gardner, a 24-year-old 
small-holder and former guardsman from Market Har- 
borough in Leicestershire, who had previously been an 
amateur champion. 

Gardner's ability to " swallow " punches which would 
have knocked the senses out of most of his adversaries 
brought him through his early trials as a professional. Hi& 



104 



BOY SCOUTS 




Jack Gardner (right) xcen during his contest with Bruce Woodcock 
in Nov. 1950, in which he became the British and Empire heavy- 
weight champion. 

victory over the Welshman Johnny Williams, a young man of 
immense talent but short of the desired stature for a heavy- 
weight, was the bitterest, most savage and most discussed 
fight of the year. A gash sustained a month beiore above his 
high, prominent cheek-bone had interfered with Williams's 
preparation for the fight with Gardner; and he was too often 
out of distance with his left-hand leads. After six rounds 
Gardner, who was using his feet and weaving, slipping leads 
and riding punches in something like the style of a champion, 
was well in front. Williams had not only the cut under his 
left eye opened but also one under his right eye and finally 
saw that his only chance was to go for a knock-out: in a 
savage assault he cut and blacked both Gardner's eyes, 
lacerated his mouth and had him reeling helplessly against the 
ropes. Gardner's capacity for 4t taking it " was established 
then if ever it was, and his earlier advantage won him the fight. 
Williams collapsed and was taken to hospital suffering from 
nervous and physical exhaustion, narrowly defeated on points. 

Woodcock was proved to have gone back a long way when 
he and Gardner met for the championship t . When his left 
eye was closed, it appeared that his right eye had been 
sightless since his calamitous light with the American Joe 
Baksi in 1947; he was blind when he surrendered, but he had 
already been well outpointed. 

Freddie Mills, like Gardner a man of magnificent physique and 
an iron frame, lost the world light-heavyweight championship to 
the American Joey Maxim. He then retired, and Don Cockill de- 
feated Mark Hart for the vacant Britishchampionshipatl2st.71b. 

The middleweight championship changed hands twice: 
first Albert Finch won it from Dick Turpin; then Randolph 
Turpin, Dick's young brother, knocked out Finch, who had 
had to waste to make the weight and was so weak at 1 1 st. 
8 Ib. that this defeat could be disregarded in a survey of his 
prospects in the cruiserweight class. Randolph Turpin, a 
22-year-old natural middleweight, was a great and ruthless 
puncher but neglected the methods of softening up an 
opponent and boxing for the winning opening. 

Eddie Thomas did not have to defend his welterweight 
championship in 1950, but Terry Ratcliffe, the former 
amateur champion, seemed likely to develop into a strong 
challenger. Billy Thompson retained the lightweight chanv 
pionship against the challenge of Tommy McGovern. 
Danny O'Sullivan, the bantamweight champion, was badly 
punished by, the Spaniard Luis Romero, in a European 
championship match. There was no British flyweight 



champion. Since the retirement of the Ulsterman Rinty 
Monaghan, Terry Allen won the world and European titles 
and later lost both to Dado Marino (Hawaii) and Jean 
Sneyers (Belgium). (L. WD.) 

United States. An attempt by Joe Louis to regain the world 
heavyweight championship title from Ezzard Charles, 
Cincinnati Negro, highlighted boxing during 1950. Charles 
won in 15 rounds in New York, on Sept. 27, and became 
recognized as champion in the United States. 

Four new champions were produced. In addition to Sandy 
Saddler, the Harlem Negro who on Sept. 8, in New York, 
lifted the world featherweight championship from Willie Pep 
(Hartford, Connecticut), they were: Dado Marino, Hawaii, 
in the flyweight class; Vic Towecl, South Africa, in the 
bantamweight class; and Joey Maxim, Cleveland, Ohio, in 
the light-heavyweight class. 

Jake La Motta, the world middleweight champion, suc- 
cessfully defended his title against Tiberio Mitri, Italy, in 
New York (July 12), and against Laurent Dauthuille, France, 
at Detroit (Sept. 13). 

Marino acquired the world flyweight title on Aug. 1 by 
winning a 15-round decision over Terry Allen, Great Britain, 
at Honolulu. Toweel succeeded Manuel Ortiz, El Centro, 
California, as world bantamweight champion, by winning a 
15-round decision in a bout held on May 31 at Johannesburg, 
South Africa. (J. P. D.) 

BOY SCOUTS. Scouting in Great Britain and the 
Commonwealth continued to make progress during 1950. 
In Britain membership amounted to 471,364. The figure of 
43,771 adult leaders showed an increase of 2,287 on the 
previous year; but despite this a headquarters committee on 
manpower requirements placed the deficiency of scout 
leaders at 25,400. 

More than 6,000 British scouts went abroad and more 
than 3,000 scouts from 21 countries visited the United King- 
dom: a record number for a year in which no world jamboree 
was held. Area jamborees attended by overseas scouts were 
held in Herefordshire, Nottinghamshire, Lancashire and 
Perthshire. A contingent of 1,300 scouts made the Holy 
Year pilgrimage to Rome; and a specially selected party of 
eight King's scouts with a scout commissioner represented 
the United Kingdom at the American jamboree at Valley 
Forge, Pennsylvania. 

During the year it was announced that 42 1 % of scout 
groups were ki open," while 28-1 % were sponsored by the 
Church of England, 6-7% by the Methodist Church, 3-8% 
by the Roman Catholic Church, 10-9% by schools and 
hospitals and the remainder by other churches and organiza- 
tions. In September the Air Ministry agreed to recognize 
air scout troops which reached a sufficient standard and to 
help them wherever possible. (RLN.) 

United States. In 1950 the crusade to " Strengthen Liberty," 
which was inaugurated in 1949, was continued, with emphasis 
on patriotism, good citizenship and the traditions of America. 
A " Report to the Nation " on scout service throughout the 
country was presented to President Harry S. Truman by 12 
representative scouts. A similar report was made to the 
United Nations on the service to scouting abroad. After a 
conference with civil defence officials in Washington the 
scouts adopted a plan of co-operation with local, national 
and civil defence agencies. 

The Boy Scouts of America was formed as an organization 
in 1910 and the 40th annual meeting of the National council 
was held in Philadelphia on June 29 and 30. This was 
followed by a jamboree at Valley Forge attended by 47,163 
boys and leaders. The speakers at the jamboree included 
General Dwight D. Eisenhower and President Truman. 

Membership on Sept. 30, 1950, was 2,603,424 men and 



BRAZIL 



105 



i>oys organized in 75,639 units. There were 1,920,946 boys 
and 682,478 leaders. The world scout membership was 
4,416,306 in 46 countries (1949 census). (L. W. B.) 




The chief scout, Lord Rowallan, seen with Southern Rhintesian cubs 
at Urn tali during his visit to Africa in 1950. 

BRAZIL. Largest of the Latin American republics, 
the United States of Brazil has a common frontier with all 
South American countries except Ecuador and Chile. Area: 
3,286,170 sq.mi. (48-3% of the whole of South America). 
Pop.: (1940 census) 41,236,315; (mid-1949 est.) 49,350,000. 
The nationality of the population as shown by the 1 940 census 
was: Brazilian-born 39,822,487, naturalized 122,735, foreign 
1,283,833, nationality unknown 7,260. Among the foreign- 
born residents there were c. 354,300 Portuguese, 285,000 
Italians, 147,900 Spaniards, 141,600 Japanese, 71,000 Ger- 
mans, 41,000 Poles and 245,000 citizens of other countries. 
Among the Brazilian-born population, about half was of 
European stock; the remainder included 8,744,400 mulattoes 
(21%), 6,035,700 Negroes (14-6%), 5,500,000 Indians and 
mestizos ( \ 3 %), and 250,000 Asiatics. Language : Portuguese. 
Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic (94-4%), with over 
one million Protestants of various denominations and 
110,750 Jews. Capital, coterminous with the federal district: 
Rio de Janeiro (1949 est.) 2,091,394. Other chief towns 
(pop., 1940 census): Sao Paulo (1,253,943); Recife (327,753); 
Salvador or Baia (293,278); Porto Alegre (262,694); Belo 
Horizonte (179,770); Belem (166,662); Santos (159,648). 
President of the republic in 1950, Eurico Caspar Dutra. 

History. 1950 was a lively year for the Brazilians. The 
world football championship was played in Brazil, in an 
atmosphere of frenzied excitement, during June and July. 
Presidential elections were held in October. Throughout the 
year inflation continued to increase. To finance schemes for 
the development of the country's natural resources, large 
sums were allocated by the government and substantial loans 
raised at home and abroad. In the second half of the year 
Brazil's primary products fetched ever-rising prices in the 
markets of the world. The Labour courts were inundated 
with claims for higher wages but there was an absence of 
labour disputes. 



The year began with a message from President Dutra, 
who expected a record budgetary deficit of 70 million, about 
half of which would consist of funds needed for financing the 
Suite* plan to increase national production. Salic expenditure 
would cover health, food, transport and power. The develop- 
ment of transport was considered the principal key to econo- 
mic progress, and this part of the budget provided for improve- 
ments in railways, roads, pipelines, harbours, river navigation, 
the merchant navy and airways. There were to be large 
investments in the development of hydro-electric power and 
in the exploitation of petroleum deposits and the building of 
refineries. Agriculture was to be encouraged and modernized. 
The campaign for better health would include measures for 
rendering the tropical regions habitable. The president 
recognized that the government could not indefinitely issue 
more money to meet the annual deficits. Already, living 
costs in the cities had doubled since 1945 and were four times 
as high as in 1939. Inflation in the past few years hud had the 
effect of stimulating urban industry and the growth of cities, 
with a consequent decline in agricultural production. Presi- 
dent Dutra hoped that the Salie plan would counteract this 
tendency. During 1950, however, inflation was unchecked. 
As in the past, Brazilian industrialists and merchants con- 
tinued to over-price their goods, earning excessively high 
profits. After vanishing because of real or alleged scarcity, 
foodstuffs returned to the shops at inflated prices. Wages 
were moved upward. 

By means of a stringent control of imports, and a substan- 
tial increase in exports, Brazil's commercial debt of $130 
million to the U.S. was almost entirely liquidated by the end 
of the year. This satisfactory achievement was facilitated by 
the rise, during the first half of the year, of about 100% in 
the price of coffee, for which the U.S. was Brazil's principal 
customer. Great resentment was caused, however, by the 
publication of the report of a U.S. committee which, under 
the chairmanship of Guy M. Gillette, senator from Iowa, 
investigated the reasons for the rise in coffee prices. The 
Gillette report accused Brazil (and Colombia) of having 
speculated in coffee; recommended that E.C.A. funds should 
not be used for the purchase of coffee; and suggested that 
coffee sales should be subject to control and to a profits tax. 
Coffee prices remained firm during the second half of the year, 
and it was estimated that the world demand for coffee would 
exceed the available supplies in the immediate future. 

Brazilian trade with Europe was greatly favoured by the 
spectacular rise in the world price of another important local 
product, cotton, which came into exceptional demand as a 
consequence of the outbreak of war in the far east and of the 
subsequent restrictions imposed by the U.S. government on 
the export of cotton. Many bi-lateral commercial agreements 
were signed, and extensive use was made of barter arrange- 
ments with other countries because of the lack of foreign 
currency. Trade was resumed with Japan for the first time 
since World War II . 

Trade between Brazil and the United Kingdom was a 
disappointment to exporters in both countries. During the 
remaining term of the 1949 Anglo-Brazilian trade agreement, 
which expired in the middle of 1950, Brazil was unable to 
supply the total quantities of rice and sugar required by 
Britain, and Britain was unwilling to pay the Brazilian price 
for cotton with the result that the full quota was not taken up. 
Brazil therefore had an unfavourable trade balance with the 
U.K. and possessed insufficient sterling for the importing 
of British non-essential goods. On Sept. 18 the two govern- 
ments exchanged notes establishing new trade schedules for 
the 12 months ending June 30, 1951. The notes provided for 
U.K. exports to Brazil to the value of 33 million and for 

* The Suite plan for the development of Bra/il over the period 1949-53 was 
approved in June 1948, the word salt? being coined from the initial letters of 
the words xaudt (health), atimentacao, transport? and fncrttia. 



06 



BREAD AND BAKERY PRODUCTS 



razilian exports to the U.K. totalling 51 million. The 
rincipal Brazilian exports were to be raw cotton (1 8,650,000), 
rffec, cocoa, timber, hides, rice and meat. The chief British 
cports were to be petroleum (11,460,000), machinery for 
sxtile industries and passenger automobiles. The import 
f British textiles was strongly opposed by the local manu- 
icturers and a minimum amount of sterling was therefore 
[located for this purpose. The volume of trade on either side 
as to be subject to agreement on price and quality and to 
le maintenance of a reasonable equilibrium in sterling 
ayments. The British negotiators pointed out that one of 
ic main obstacles to an expansion of Brazilian exports to 
;erling countries was the high price of local products because 
f the non-devaluation of the cruzeiro. In November the 
ritish chancellor of the exchequer announced that the 
razilian authorities were about to devote 10 million of 
ieir sterling resources towards the liquidation of commercial 
ebts owing to firms in the U.K. and that Brazil hoped to 
ntle the remainder of those arrears early in 1951. 

In the period Jan.-June 1950 Brazil had a favourable overall 
ade balance. Exports were Cr.$ 9,097 million and imports 
'r.$ 7,966 million, the comparative figures for the same period 
i 1949 being Cr.$ 8,156 million and Cr.$ 10,423 million. 

In September the Brazilian government offered a sum of 
'r.$ 50 million as the country's contribution to the war effort 
i Korea. This sum was to be placed at the disposal of the 
LN. for the purchase in Brazil of exportable surpluses of 
>odsturTs, raw materials or manufactured ^oods. The 
3vernment emphasized that any offer of military assistance 
ould be impracticable because of the great distance sepa- 
iting Brazil from the scene of operations. 

In July Brazil's wartime dictator, Getulio Vargas (q.v.) t 
scepted nomination by his so-called Brazilian Labour party 
*artido Trabalhista Brasileiro) to stand as presidential 
mdidate in the October election. It had long been apparent 
mt Vargas was preparing a new bid for power, though the 
nly propaganda issued by his supporters was the slogan 
He will come back," plastered on walls throughout the 
>untry. Meanwhile " the father of the poor " (as he styled 
imself) had been living quietly in retirement in southern 
razil. Every rise in the cost of living increased his prestige 
rcd he was aware that a majority of the poorer people, 
>membering the labour laws which he made during his 
ictatorship, would probably welcome *rm return. Vargas 
egan his new campaign in August, when h'e was cheered by 
uge crowds in Sao Paulo. He began his first electioneering 
jeech with the cry: " Workers of Brazil!" and he promised 
lat, if elected, he would introduce more social legislation. 
here were rumours that the Brazilian Labour party was 
reiving financial support from President Juan Peron of 
Tgentina, but no evidence was produced to support these 
isertions. Vargas duly defeated his three rivals at the polls 
n Oct. 3. The president-elect then made several statements 
n the policy that he would pursue during his five years in 
ffice. Regarding social welfare, he said: 

** It has become necessary that a national, systematic plan be 
ndertaken to raise the nutritional and living standards of the working 
usscs. Before anything else we must raise their purchasing power, 
icrcasc the minimum wage, establish the worker on the soil and 
caic an organization which will handle all social welfare.** 

He drew the attention of all farmers to the need for intensi- 
/ing agricultural production. He stated that he would 
repress the illicit gains of the speculators and the exaggerated 
rohts of 30% and 40% and correct the scandalous tax 
yasion." Vargas said that he was prepared to co-operate 
'ith the U.S. " on condition that they help us to solve our 
roblems according to our own interests" and that he 
ivoured foreign investments " provided they come to 
D-operate in the development of our existent basic industries 
nd in the creation of new industries.** He affirmed that 



under his government Brazil would continue to support the 
western nations. Vargas also announced that he intended to 
maintain the parity of the cruzeiro, and he added, in defiance 
of the Gillette report: "We must obtain from coffee the 
maximum of foreign currencies, selling it abroad at the best 
prices obtainable." (G. P.) 

Education. Schools (1947): primary 58,502, teachers 112,412, pupils 
4,336,437; secondary 1,004, pupils 302,000; industrial 213, apprentices 
53,000; vocational 2,700, pupils 200,000. Institutions of higher edu- 
cation 305, students 25,000, professors 4,500; state universities 7; 
private (Catholic) universities 3. Illiteracy (1947): approximately 57%. 

Agriculture. Main crops ('000 metric tons, 1948; 1949 in brackets): 
coffee 1,341 (1,184); cotton 331 (369); rice 2,648 (2,980); maize 5,650 
(5,700); sugar, raw value, 1,751 (1,732); cocoa 125 (161); tobacco 116 
(118); beans 1,170 (1,245); cassava 12,610; nuts (1949) 32,109. Live- 
stock ('000 head): cattle (Dec. 1948) 50,178; sheep (1948) 16,000; 
pigs (Dec. 1949) 23,881; horses (Dec. 1948) 6,928; chickens (1948) 
60,000. 

Industry. Registered industrial establishments: (1943) 80,633. 
Fuel and power: coal ('000 metric tons, 1949; 1950, six months, in 
brackets) 2,112 (930); consumption of gas in Rio de Janeiro and Sao 
Paulo (million cu. metres, 1949) 198; consumption of electrical energy 
in Rio de Janeiro and SiXo Paulo (million kwh, 1949) 2,712; crude oil 
('000 metric tons, 1949; 1950, six months, in brackets) 14 (16). Raw 
materials ('000 metric tons, 1949; 1950, six months, in brackets): pig- 
iron 499 (331); steel ingots and castings 608 (361); manganese ore 
(1948) 472; gold (fine ounces, 1949) 119,179. Manufactured goods: 
cotton piece-goods (million yards, 1948) 306-1; cement ('000 metric 
tons, 1949; 1950, six months, in brackets) 1,248 (623). 

Foreign Trade. (Million cruzeiros, 1949; 1950, six months, in brac- 
kets) imports 20,648 (7,966); exports 20,153 (9,097). Main sources of 
imports (1949): U.S. 43%; U.K. 13%; Argentina 11 %. Main destina- 
tions of exports: U.S. 50%; U.K. 9%; Argentina 8%. Main imports: 
machinery and apparatus (excluding vehicles) 26 %, petroleum products 
10%, wheat 9%, vehicles 7%. Main exports: coffee 58%, raw cotton 
10%, cocoa beans 5%, hides and skins 3%. 

Transport and Communications. Roads (1949): 64,294 mi. Licensed 
motor vehicles (Dec. 1949): cars 133,386, commercial 169,225. Rail- 
ways (1949): 22,136 mi. including state railways 19,229 mi.; passengers 
carried (1948) 308-6 million; livestock (1948) 4-2 million; freight 
carried ('000 tons, 1948) 33,933. Shipping (July, 1949): number of 
merchant vessels of 100 gross tons and over 342; total tonnage 724,951. 
Air transport (1948): mi. flown 38 million; passengers flown 946,000; 
cargo and baggage carried 26,791 metric tons; airmail carried 712 tons. 
Telephones (1949): 484,300. Wireless licences (1945): 629,794. 

Finance and Banking. (Million cruzeiros) budget: (1949-50) revenue 
17,917, expenditure 20,727; (1950-51 est.) revenue 20,394, expenditure 
21,356. Internal funded federal debt (Dec. 1948): 10,410. Currency 
circulation (June 1949; June 1950 in brackets): 18,050 (20,800): Gold 
and foreign exchange (million U.S. dollars, July 1949; July 1950 in 
brackets): 680 (609). Bank deposits (June 1949; June 1950 in brackets): 
33,420 (36,990). Monetary unit: cruzeiro with an exchange rate of 
Cr.$ 52-42 to the pound and Cr.$ 18-72 to the U.S. dollar. 

See B. H. Hunnicutt, Brazil: World Frontier (London, 1950). 

BREAD AND BAKERY PRODUCTS. In 1950, 
for the first time since World War II. Great Britain saw some 
real relaxation of wartime regulations with respect to flour 
and bread. In the first place the official rate of flour extraction 
at last was reduced from 85% to 81 % so that, with the ad- 
mixture of imported white flour, bread was now made from 
flour of 80% extraction. This permitted a whiter flour to be 
made, although the colour was still inferior to that prevailing 
in prewar days. This in turn resulted not only in whiter but 
also in bolder and generally more pleasing bread: the baker 
had found it almost impossible to produce a really pleasing 
loaf of attractive size and structure with the low-grade dark 
flour prevailing when the extraction rate was 85%. 

Thus the public could now have a whiter loaf and further- 
more have it sliced and wrapped, if they wished, in fact 
bakers had claimed that bread sales were dropping very 
markedly now that other foods were in freer supply and that 
some improvement in bread quality was urgently wanted. 
Since the government's White Paper (issued in 1945) on the 
postwar loaf had suggested that nutritional requirements 
were likely to be met by an 80% extraction, an official 
instruction to mill to this length was the obvious step, as 
soon as the dollar position permitted it. 

Good work continued to be carried out by the Research 



BREWING AND BEER 



107 



Association of British Millers and by the newly formed 
Baking Industries Research association (both the flour 
milling and the baking industries had become scientifically 
minded); and similar research bodies were already functioning 
in other parts of the Commonwealth. Great interest centred 
round the substances used for maturing and bleachjng flour; 
and a careful watch was being kept on the use of substances 
which appear to retard staling, generally known as " bread 
softeners." As fats became in freer supply, it was probable 
that bakers would revert to prewar practice and use a quantity 
such as 4 Ib. a sack, which would make the loaf more attrac- 
tive and more palatable. The lower extraction and whiter 
flour had also benefited the makers of cakes, pastries and 
biscuits, although with 80% extraction it was still impossible 
to produce articles as good as would have been liked. 

A secondary but also important result of the reduced 
extraction rate was that a larger quantity of the by-products 
of milling (bran, sharps, etc.) could now be used to feed 
animals and poultry, which would allow more meat, poultry, 
eggs and milk to be supplied. 

Of technical interest was the introduction of pneumatic 
conveying of the various stocks in flour mills; the use of a 
more precise method for judging and hence controlling flour 
colour; and the employment of new processes in the bakery 
to replace the time-honoured method of greasing baking 
tins. Finally, attention was being paid to cleanliness and 
hygiene in all food manufacture. This last reflected the 
publication of model by-laws for the guidance of local 
authorities. (See also WHEAT.) (D. W. K.-J.) 

BREWING AND BEER. The downward trend in 
beer output from the peak production in 1945-46 continued 
during 1950. Although the number of standard barrels of 
beer produced for the first ten months of the year was 
13,775,130 compared with 13,509,318 for the corresponding 
months of 1949, the number of bulk barrels was lower, being 
21,035,241, as compared with 21,993,984. The cause of the 
decline was stated by R. H. Butler, chairman of the Brewers' 
society, at the annual banquet of the Allied Brewery Traders' 
association on March 20 to be the excessive beer duty. 
Such high taxation kept the price of beer at a level which 
beer drinkers could ill afford. He doubted whether it was 
realized that they were paying nearly four times as much in 
duty as in 1939, Similar protests were made on behalf of the 
retail section of the licensed trade. It was pointed out in 
particular that the duty on a pint of average strength was over 
8d. making the price to the retailer Is. Id. Retailers considered 
that a reduction in the duty of 3*/. or 4d. a pint was necessary 
if the downward trend in consumption was to be reversed. 

The budget, however, brought no relief in the form of 
reduced duty. Instead, the chancellor of the exchequer asked 
the brewing industry to increase the strength of all its beers 
by three degrees. The duty was adjusted to enable this to be 
done without any additional duty being incurred. The effect 
of this was to bring the average strength of beer up from about 
80% of its pre-war level to little over 90%. The provisional 
receipts from the beer duty in 1949-50 were 263,086,000 or 
nearly 4 million less than the estimate. The chancellor's 
estimate of revenue from the duty in 1950-51 was 
253,900,000. An output of approximately 25 million bulk 
barrels would be needed to bring in this amount. This was 
roughly a million barrels less than the figure for 1949-50. 

Exports to hard-currency countries increased slightly in 
1949-50 from 69,000 standard barrels in the year ended 
Sept. 30, 1949, to 71,000 standard barrels in the following 
12 months. Total exports, however, declined from 347,000 
standard barrels to 344,000, the fall being mainly accounted 
for by decreased supplies abroad, to War Office hospitals and 
to naval, army and air force institutes. 



Following the increase in the budget strength of all beers 
came a modification, a few weeks later, of the system of 
licences for barley and malt. Whereas brewers and maltsters 
had been obliged since the Malt (Restriction) order was 
made in 1940 to restrict their purchases to current needs, 
they were now licensed to buy barley or malt (or both in certain 
cases) without restriction as to quantity. The delay in 
bringing malting barley on to the market caused by the 
stormy weather at harvest time, combined with the removal 
of the maximum price limit, caused prices of the 1950 crop to 
rise to a disturbing extent. Although the crop was smaller 
than expected, there appeared to be no reason for assuming 
that there was a serious shortage or that it would be impossible 
to meet brewers* requirements in full. 

The first permanent licensed house to be built or completely 
rebuilt since the outbreak of World War II was opened in 
January. This house, " The Fox," Felpham, Sussex, was 
rebuilt on the site of an old inn built in the first half of the 18th 
century and having associations with William Blake, the 
poet and painter. The new house bore much evidence of 
the progressive architecture and the high appreciation of 
craftsmanship characteristic of and implicit in the many 
fine new inns built by the brewing industry during the three 
previous decades. At the end of the year the completion of 
the roof and chimneys of the *' Festival Inn," Poplar, London, 
was celebrated. This inn was built by the owners as part of 
the " Lansbury scheme " and of the " live " architectural 
exhibit during the Festival of Britain. 

Brewers were almost the only manufacturers still operating 
on a local basis and among the very few who distributed 
their own product. There was no " middle man," generally 
speaking, in the licensed trade. As a result, the relations 
between the wholesale and retail sections had always 
been of a special character and particularly close and 
friendly. A practice of ironing out difficulties by free, if 
informal, discussion by representatives of both sides had 
existed for many years. During 1950, however, the trade 
reached a new objective by extending its system of local 
panels of wholesalers and retailers to cover the whole country. 
The primary purpose of the panel was to afford a ready 
means of ctyscussion between the wholesaler and the retailer 
of all subjects of common interest. The panel could also 
arbitrate, when the need arose, in individual disputes. 

The great ramifications of the brewing industry were 
shown at the Brewers' exhibition at Olympia, in London, 
during the first fortnight in October. A great range of 
brewing plant, much of it of a strikingly novel character, 
was displayed. Special interest was shown in new or improved 
machines for yeast rousing, motorized malt turning, racking, 
automatic bottle-crating, loading, filling, crowning, labelling, 
conveying, glass and cask washing and bottle cleaning and 
pasteurizing. The Bottled Beer competition, which in prewar 
days was an outstanding feature, was held again after a 
lapse of 11 years. There were 580 entries with a total of 
nearly 14,000 bottles. Nearly 100 entries came from the 
Commonwealth. (X.) 

United States. Beer and ale sales in the United States for 
the fiscal year ended June 30, 1950, totalled 84,202,618 bbl., 
the third highest production on record for a fiscal year. The 
highest figure was 86,992,795 bbl. in 1948. 

Bottled and canned beer accounted for 70-8% of the 
nation's total consumption, compared with a rate of about 
25% in 1934 and prior years. Early in 1950 the results of a 
nation-wide consumer survey made in 1949 by Crossley, 
Incorporated, were published, which showed that 52-4% 
of the adult civilian population of the U.S. were consumers 
of beer and ale. 

The brewing industry in 1950 enjoyed an abundance of 
raw materials particularly malt, the basic ingredient, and 



108 



BRIDGES 




The new steel bridge over the n </ Khun- <u I /////</// 

destroyed in \\\*rld MV/r 



Netherlands^ which was opened in May J950. The old bridge of similar design wa.\ 
II during the attack by British airborne-troops in 1944. 



corn, used as a malt adjunct. Purchases of agricultural 
products were estimated at nearly $300 million mainly for 
malt, corn products, rice and hops. Purchases of containers, 
labels and various items of supplies and equipment, and the 
cost of services and transport were also important contribu- 
tions to the national economy. 

The industry pay roll reached a peak in 1949, with weekly 
earnings for production workers averaging $69-25, as com- 
pared with averages of $53 57 for all foods and $54 90 for 
all manufactures. 

Federal excise, at $8 a barrel, and special taxes on malt 
beverages for the fiscal year 1950 totalled $672,084,794, 
bringing the cumulative total since the end of prohibition 
(April 7, 1933) tQ $7,502,692,208, State and local taxes 
and licence fees in fiscal year 1950 were estimated at $215 
million, raising the cumulative figure for that revenue to 
about $2,515 million. Combined public revenues since 1933 
had thus passed the $10,000 million mark, (See also HOPS.) 

(E. V. LH.) 

BRIDGES. The policy of limiting the number of roads 
and bridges under construction was continued in Great 
Britain during 1950; and of the bridges constructed only a 
few are worthy of special note. 

Construction was advanced on the viaducts to bypass 
Neath, in Glamorganshire, on the main road from Cardiff to 
Swansea. There were two bridges: the smaller consisted of 
1 1 spans, with a total overall length of 970 ft.; the larger had 
16 spans, with a total length of 1,610 ft., including a 300-ft. 
span over the river Neath, where the bridge was 90 ft. above 



the high-water level. Both viaducts were composed of plate 
girder spans with dual roadways each 22 ft. wide and canti- 
levered footpaths and cycleways on each side. 

Progress was made with the structural steel-work required 
for a pontoon bridge to replace the similar structure which 
had served for 70 years as the approach from street-level to 
the Liverpool floating landing-stage: it was to carry two lines 
of heavy vehicular traffic, with footpaths on each side; the 
roadway was to float between two masonry walls and rise 
and fall with a maximum 30-ft. range of tide; and the 
pontoons towards the shore end would ground at low water 
on a paved ramp between the walls. The structure was 
designed to deal with tidal conditions and considerable wave 
action, while combining articulation with the maximum 
stability under moving vehicles. There were to be six pontoon 
rafts and seven suspended spans of 41 ft. 8 in.; the bridge 
would have a total length of 551 ft. 2 in. 

A pioneer aluminium structure was completed for the 
North of Scotland Hydro- Electric board in connection with 
their Tummel Garry scheme. This was a lattice girder 
footbridge with a 172 ft. 6 in. main span and two cantilever 
end-spans each 69 ft. long. 

Belgium. A bridge over the Meuse at Sclayn was opened 
to traffic by Auguste Buisseret, the Belgian minister of public 
works, on Feb. 10, 1950. This prestressed bridge, having two 
main spans of 206 ft. each, was an important engineering 
structure and also remarkably beautiful: duality has always 
presented great difficulty to the bridge-designer, and few 
bridges cdnsisting of two equal main spans have an entirely 
satisfactory appearance. 



BRIDGES 



109 



Germany. Progress was made in the construction of a new 
bridge over the Port canal at Heilbronn, to replace the 
notable structure built in 1931 by the Wayss and Freytag 
company and destroyed in 1944. The design for the new 
bridge was like that of the old, but the constructional methods 
were based on more modern practice. The clear span was 
351 ft., the width between parapets 41 ft.; there were four 
three-hinged arch ribs, prestressed by steel wires having an 
ultimate strength of 227,200 Ib. a sq.in. (the amount of pre- 
stress in the wires was calculated to be approximately 
1 25,000 Ib. a sq.in.). 

Portugal. Progress was made in the construction of the 
Vila Franca bridge over the Tagus. The bridge comprised 
five fixed spans of 102 m. each and had an overall width of 
roadway and footway of 12 m. The spans were of structural 
steel of stiffened arch-construction; the cost of the steel super- 
structure amounted to 480,000. The permanent steelwork 
was erected on a service span and floated into each opening 
in turn. 

Sweden. Sweden had a large programme, including several 
structures of exceptional size and interest. Bridges on which 
progress was made included one over the Skuru channel at 
Skuru in the county of Stockholm, This had an overall length 
of 935 ft., a width of 80 ft. and a main span of 258 ft. The 
three principal spans were of reinforced concrete arch- 
construction. 

The bridge over the bay of Lulefjardin at Lulea was planned 
to have an overall length of 2,980 ft., a width of 43 ft., two 
spans of approximately 287 ft. and five spans of approximately 
274 ft., with a large number of smaller approach-spans, as 
well as an opening channel of approximately 99 ft. clear width; 
the large spans were each to be carried by two bow-shaped 
lattice girders. 

The bridge over Lake Malaren at Hjulsta had a total length 
of 1,710 ft., a width of approximately 20 ft. 9 in. and 11 steel 
girder spans of approximately 125 ft.; there were also two 
navigation channels of about 1 15 ft. each clear width provided 
by means of a lattice-girder swing bridge. 

Finland. The Rovaniemi bridge for the Finland state 
railways was nearing completion in 1950. It was to carry a 
road and a railway and to consist in the main part of three 
70-m. continuous steel lattice-girder spans, with approaches 
of three 35-m. and four 16-m. spans. 

Iceland. Pjorsa bridge was constructed with a stiffened 
steel arch-structure of 83-m. span carrying a 4 1-m. roadway. 

Egypt. The new railway bridge over the Nile at Kafr el 
Zayat, on the main line between Cairo and Alexandria, was 
opened at the beginning of the year. It has six fixed steel 
girder spans each 70 m. long and a swing span 70 m. long; 
the piers and abutments were founded on caissons sunk under 
compressed air. 

Gold Coast. Progress was made with the construction of a 
structural steel bridge to replace the Ancobra bridge on the 
Gold Coast railways. The main span was 170ft., and the 



new bridge was so designed that traffic would in fact be 
stopped only for a period of three weeks while the old bridge 
was being dismantled and the new one erected. 

Australia. Two bridges were constructed over the Swan 
River estuary, near Perth: one with an overall length of 
737 ft., the other with an overall length of 380 ft., both with 
a deck width of 72 ft. 3 in. The individual span between the 
piers was 62 ft. in the shorter bridge and 61 ft. in the longer. 
The deck construction consisted of welded stfcel plate girders 
with square bars welded on to the top flanges to transfer the 
shear at the junction between the girder and the concrete 
deck slab, thus providing a composite structure in which the 
concrete slab provided the compression-flange of the girders 
(this resulted in a very large saving in cost). 

New Zealand. Considerable progress was made during the 
year with an ambitious programme of construction. This 
included the Tuki Tuki bridge, with an overall length of 
1,080 ft., consisting of 12 reinforced concrete girder spans 
of 80 ft., with two end-spans each of 60 ft. and a roadway 
width of 24 ft. Another fairly large bridge constructed was 
that over the Kokotahi river, having an overall length of 
1,015 ft. and consisting of 13 reinforced concrete girder spans 
of 70 ft. and two end-spans each of 52 ft. 6 in. in length and 
12 ft. in width. A new harbour bridge was projected for 
Auckland. 

Thailand. Construction proceeded with three large bridges 
of structural steelwork. The Rama VI bridge was of cantilever 
construction and comprised two spans of 80 m., two spans of 
100 m. and a central span of 120 m.; it was designed to carry 
a single rail-track, a 6-m. roadway and two footways 
1 5 m. wide. Surat bridge comprised one span of 80 m. and 
two spans of 60 m., with accommodation similar to that of 
the Rama VI bridge, but with one footway only. Bandara 
bridge was of cantilever construction, comprising two spans 
of 80 m. and a central span of 100 m., with a single rail-track 
and a footway. (W. A. FT.) 

United States. The new $14 million suspension bridge of 
2,800-ft. main span over the Tacoma narrows west of Tacoma, 
Washington, was opened to traffic on Oct. 14, 1950, to replace 
the slender $6-4 million structure that collapsed on Nov. 7, 
1940, as a result of aerodynamic oscillations during a 42- 
m.p.h. wind. The piers were salvaged from the original 
construction and altered to support the new structure, which 
was widened to four lanes and was provided with deep 
stiffening trusses and slotted roadways. The new 2,800-ft. 
span is the third longest in the world. A 56-m.p.h. wind in 
June 1950 caused vertical oscillations of 42 in. in the deck of 
the 4,200-ft. span of the Golden Gate bridge at San Francisco, 
California. This was the largest amplitude oscillation recorded 
since motion-recording instruments were installed on the 
biidgc in 1946. 

Construction was speeded in 1950 on the $40 million 
Delaware River Memorial bridge near Wilmington, sched- 
uled to open by July 1, 1951. The project length of 3 mi. 



The new road bridge over the river Meuse at Sclayn. Bel.trinm, which wa\- completed in 1950. 



110 



BRITISH ARMY 



included a suspension bridge of 2,150-ft. main span. 

Construction progressed in 1950 on the $44 million Chesa- 
peake Bay bridge, 2 1 ,286 ft. long, connecting the east and west 
shores of Maryland near Annapolis. The structure includes 
a suspension bridge of 1,600-ft. main span and a through 
cantilever bridge of 780-ft. main span, in addition to smaller 
deck cantilever spans and simple truss spans, all to carry a 
two-lane roadway, 28 ft. wide. The foundations for the deep- 
water piers presented the most difficult problem, requiring 
a novel pier design and using 17,500 tons of steel H-piles, 
half as much steel as in the four-mile-long superstructure. 

The $27 million Mystic River bridge, a two-level structure 
more than two miles long from Charlestown to Chelsea, 
Massachusetts, was completed in 1950. The main span is a 
through cantilever. 

The Penrose Avenue bridge at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
with a cantilever main span over the Schuylkill river, was 
constructed in 1949-50 at a cost of $12 million, to speed 
industrial traffic along the Delaware river below Philadelphia. 

The new cantilever bridge over the Mississippi river at 
Memphis, Tennessee, carrying four lanes of highway traffic, 
was completed in Dec. 1949. It took 4^ years to build and 
cost $14 million. 

The $6,880,000 four-lane highway bridge over the 
Mississippi river at East St. Louis, Illinois, was completed in 
1950. The 964-ft. central cantilever span is the longest span 
over the Mississippi. 

One of the biggest bridge-replacement jobs in the U.S. in 
1950 was the construction of a modern railway bridge over 
the Ohio river at Cairo, Illinois, by the Illinois Central 
railroad at a cost of $6-4 million to replace a 60-year-old 
single-track bridge. (D. B. S.) 

BRITISH ARMY. In 1950 began the revival of the 
army. During the transition years after the double victory 
of 1945 over Germany and Japan there had been the inevit- 
able disorganization caused by demobilization. The army 
had difficulty in maintaining a strength sufficient to perform 
piecemeal the tasks still imposed on it in every quarter of the 
world. 

The Communist aggression in Korea and the resolve of the 
United Nations to resist it brought a government decision 
at the end of August that the term of compulsory service 
under the National Service acts must be extended. Under the 
amended law national servicemen who were with the colours 
on Oct. 1, 1950, or were called up after that date had to 
serve for two years instead of for 1 8 months. By this extension 
of the term of national service the strength of the army in 
March 1951 and thereafter would be 55,000 higher than it 
would have been without it. A parallel increase was being 
obtained in regular service troops by substantial improve- 
ments in pay. From Sept. 1, 1950, the weekly rates for 
private soldiers, non-commissioned officers and warrant 
officers ranged from 2 95. a week for the newly enlisted 
regular private to a maximum of 8 Ms. 6J. a week for the 
warrant officer class I. On the same date commissioned 
officers received increases of pay, the initial basic rate of 
pay of the second lieutenant becoming 175. 6J. a day and 
of a colonel on promotion 3 1 3s. The effect on recruiting 
of the pay increases was considerable: during September and 
October 7,500 men enlisted, double the recruitment rate in 
the corresponding period of 1949. 

Other measures taken during the summer and autumn 
were: the recall to the colours of regular reserves, the total 
for the navy and the army being 356 officers and 7,018 other 
ranks; the suspension after Aug. 1 of release from service 
of regular officers wishing to retire, short service com- 
missioned ofljjcers, regular other ranks (except those dis- 
charged on pension), men on short service engagements and 




Men of the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders seen a( Lyneham, 
Wiltshire^ on Sept. 75, 79.50, before leaving by air for Korea. 

men wishing to purchase their discharge on other than 
compassionate grounds; and the enlistment of short service 
volunteers for a term of 18 months. The formation was 
begun of a supplementary reserve. Its purpose was to have 
ready the specialists, either as individuals or in units, required 
to complete the national army as a balanced force. In 
December an appeal was launched for volunteers to join the 
S.R. which had vacancies in 130 trades and occupations. 

In October, in consequence of the prime minister's policy 
statement in September, the War Office announced the 
revival of three famous divisions, the 3rd Infantry and the 
6th and llth Armoured. Commanders were appointed 
and headquarters set up. Two of these, the 3rd Infantry and 
the llth Armoured, were to reinforce the British Army of 
the Rhine in Germany. In December a change was made 
in the organization of the 15 regional brigades to which all 
regular infantry regiments belonged for enlistment, training 
and the posting and records of soldiers. The use of one 
battalion in each brigade as a training battalion was dis- 
continued and new brigade training centres were set up. 
The battalions so released became operational units, an 
addition of 15 regular infantry battalions to the field army. 

The authorized strength of the army, after the presentation 
of supplementary estimates to parliament in December was 
522,000. At Dec. 31, 1950, troops were on field service or 
garrison duty in Austria, Cyprus, east Africa, Germany, 
Gibraltar, Hong Kong, Korea, Malaya (incl. Singapore), 
Malta, Suez Canal zone, Trieste, British West Africa and the 
West Indies. In Korea the 27th Infantry brigade (1st battalion, 
the Middlesex regiment, and 1st battalion, the Argyll and 
Sutherland Highlanders) arrived from Hong Kong at the 
end of August and were at once engaged in the Pusan bridge- 
head. The brigade was later designated 27th Commonwealth 
Infantry brigade when completed by the arrival of a battalion 
of the Royal Australian regiment. In the first week of 
November the 29th Independent brigade (the Royal North- 
umberland Fusiliers, the Gloucestershire regiment, and the 
Royal Ulster Rifles) arrived from Britain. They, too, were 
soon in action. The 8th Hussars with armoured fighting 
vehicles and artillery, engineers, signals and other ancillary 
troops made the two brigades effective field formations. 
Centurion tanks went into action for the first time against 



BRITISH BORNEO BRITISH GUIANA 



111 



the Chinese Communist invaders. To Nov. 25, British 
casualties were 51 killed or died of wounds, 175 wounded and 
5 missing. (See also ARMIES OF THE WORLD.) (H. W. LE P.) 

BRITISH BORNEO. British-administered territories 
in Borneo consist of the colonies of North Borneo (including 
the island of Labuan) and Sarawak, and the protected state 
of Brunei. Areas: North Borneo, 29,387 sq.mi.; Sarawak 
c. 50,000 sq.mi.; Brunei 2,226 sq.mi. Pop.: North Borneo 
(1947 est.) 331,000, incl. 66,000 Chinese: Sarawak 
(1947 census) 546,385, incl. 691 Europeans and 145,158 
Chinese (17-4%); Brunei (1947 census) 40,657. Language: 
various, Malay serving as a lingua franca. Religion: Moslem 
and pagan. Administration. North Borneo: governor; 
executive council, 3 ex-officio and 6 nominated members 
(2 official and 4 unofficial); Legislative Council, 3 
ex-officio and 19 nominated members (9 official and 10 
unofficial). Sarawak: governor; Supreme Council; Council 
Negri (legislature). Brunei: Sultan-in-council ; general 
administration, other than matters affecting the Moslem 
religion, is conducted by the British resident. Govern- 
ors: North Borneo, Sir R. Hone; Sarawak, A. F. Abell 
(also high commissioner for Brunei). British resident, Brunei : 
E. E. F. Pretty. 

History. In both North Borneo and Sarawak 1950 opened 
with the appointment of new governors; in North Borneo 
Sir R. Hone succeeding Sir E. Twining and in Sarawak 
A. F. Abell succeeding the late Duncan Stewart who was 
assassinated in Dec. 1949. For this crime two Malay youths 
were executed and nine others sentenced to imprisonment. 
All were members of a small secessionist society. Sir Ahmed 
Tajudin, sultan of Brunei, died at Singapore on June 3 and 
was succeeded by his brother, Omar Ali Saifudin. 

In North Borneo the first Legislative Council was opened 
in Jesselton on Oct. 31. On the same date an executive 
council was established. Previously the territory had been 
administered by the governor with an advisory council. 
In Brunei, also, steps were taken in political development 
by the appointment of six representatives nominated by the 
divisional councils to the Council Negri (the legislature). 
Steps were also taken to unify the judiciary of North Borneo 
and Sarawak and to constitute a joint court of appeal. 

In both territories the heavy task of reconstruction after 
the wartime occupation by the Japanese was continued. 
Considerable progress was also made in surveying and 
promoting the development of natural resources. In Brunei 
the output of oil from the reconstructed fields continued to 
expand: it had reached over 3 million tons in 1949. Marshall 
aid funds (40,000 U.S. dollars) were made available to the 
Sarawak government for road development. With the high 
prices ruling for rubber, timber and other raw materials 
trade was buoyant throughout the area. In North Borneo 
the assessment of war damage claims was completed by 
September and payment of annual instalments of the awards 
started. R.A.F. aircraft, on training flights from Singapore 
to Borneo, helped to transport officials and parachuted 
supplies to remote inland villages. 

Finance and Trade. Currency; Straits dollar ($1=25. 4d.). Budget 
estimates, 1950: North Borneo, revenue $15,720,094 and expenditure 
$20,673,206; Sarawak, revenue $17,152,624 and expenditure 
$19,493,795. Principal exports: rubber, sago, oil (Sarawak 3,302,880 
tons, 1949) and timber. Trade returns, 1949: North Borneo, imports 
$32 million and exports $38 million; Sarawak, imports $110 million 
and exports $188 million. (K. G. B.) 

BRITISH COUNCIL. At the end of 1950, the 
British Council was represented in 36 foreign countries; in 
Australia, New Zealand, India, Pakistan and Ceylon; and in 
20 British colonies. The council supplied material and services 
to the United States, Canada, South Africa and other coun- 



tries in which it was not represented. In the United Kingdom 
it provided services for people from overseas through 26 
offices and centres and 7 students* residences. During the 
year it ceased to work in Hungary, Czechoslovakia and 
Bulgaria because the governments of these countries made 
unfounded allegations about the nature of its activities and 
compelled it to close its offices and centres. 

Grants-in-aid voted by parliament for the council for the 
financial year 1950-51, after allowing for estimated receipts 
of 366,000, were 3,233,700, made up of 2,226,000 for work 
in foreign countries, 826,450 for work in the Commonwealth 
and 181,250 for services for colonial students. 

The council was represented on the United Kingdom 
delegation at the general conference of U.N.E.S.C.O. at 
Florence in June, 1950, when the chairman of the council, 
Sir Ronald Adam, was appointed a member of the executive 
board. It was also represented on the cultural committees of 
the Brussels Treaty Powers and of the Council of Europe, 
to act as the principal agent of the British government in 
the operation of cultural conventions between Britain and 
other countries. 

For the year 1950-51, the council awarded 220 scholarships 
for study in the United Kingdom to graduates from 58 
countries including, for the first time, Basutoland, India, 
Israel and Pakistan. Through the council 14 overseas coun- 
tries awarded 55 scholarships to British students. In co-opera- 
tion with voluntary organizations, the council developed a 
wide variety of services for the 4,000 British colonial students 
in the United Kingdom, for whose accommodation and 
welfare it became responsible on Jan. 1. In London, Hans 
Crescent house was opened as a residence for 200 and a 
cultural and social centre for all those in the London area. 

The annual report of the council issued in September 
recorded that during the year to March 31 it arranged the 
studies in the United Kingdom of 3,419 people from overseas, 
118 overseas lecture tours by British experts and 64 tours of 
fine art, book and other exhibitions; and sponsored 25 
theatre and music tours, including those of the Sadlers* Wells 
ballet in the United States and Canada, and of the Stratford 
Memorial Theatre company in Australia. It sent 2,201 prints 
of educational and documentary films to 66 countries, and 
sponsored 2f recordings of British music and poetry. 

(R. F. AM.) 

BRITISH EAST AFRICA: see KENYA; SOMALILAND, 
BRITISH; TANGANYIKA; UGANDA; ZANZIBAR. 

BRITISH EMPIRE: see COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS, 
BRITISH EMPIRE GAMES: see EMPIRE GAMES. 

BRITISH GUIANA. British colony, on the northeast 
of the continent of South America between Venezuela, 
Brazil and Surinam. Area: r. 83,000 sq.mi. Pop.: (1946 
census) 369,678, excl. c. 6,000 Amerindians in remote 
districts; (1949 est.) 414,306. Language: English, various 
East Indian languages also spoken. Religion (1946): Anglican 
Communion 85,329, Roman Catholic 43,474, Hindu 1 15,574, 
Moslem 29,351, other non-Christian, 3,055. Principal towns 
(pop., 1948 est.): Georgetown (cap., 82,563); New Amster- 
dam (11,930). Administration: governor; executive council, 
3 ex officio, and 5 non-official members; Legislative Council, 
3 ex officio, 1 non-official nominated and 14 elected members. 
Governor, Sir Charles Campbell Woolley. 

History. Important developments in agriculture and 
forestry took place during 1950. It was announced in January 
that the Colonial Development corporation would undertake 
the exploitation of 500 sq.mi. of forest in the Bartica 
triangle. Later, the corporation started the erection of a 
$5 million sawmill. In May, the two U.S. experts who had 
studied the mechanization of rice production in the colony 



112 



BRITISH HONDURAS-BRITISH S.A. PROTECTORATES 



reported that considerable expansion of the industry was 
possible. They believed that 368,000 ac. could be devoted 
to rice growing compared with the 77,000 ac. which were 
already being utilized for this purpose. Abnormal rainfall 
at the end of 1949 and the beginning of 1950 caused serious 
flooding in coastal lands and necessitated widespread relief 
measures. A serious blow to heavy industry in the colony 
came in August when Anaconda British Guiana Mines Ltd., 
announced its intention to suspend its gold mining explor- 
ation and development activities. At the end of the year, a 
commission headed by Sir John Waddington arrived in the 
colony to consider all matters connected with the franchise. 

A revision of the colony's 10-year plan was made public in 
September. In submitting it to the governor, the economic 
adviser pointed out that of British Guiana's allocation of $12 
million under the 1945 act, some $9 million had, in fact, 
been spent or committed so that only $3 million remained 
available for new schemes. In addition to this, however, 
British Guiana could count on drawing about $3 million 
from its accumulated general revenue surplus; ahd to this 
it was proposed to add $10 million by way of a new colony 
loan to be raised in 1951. Unfortunately, even this would 
not supply enough capital for proposed new or remaining 
schemes. 

Finance and Trade. Currency: West Indian dollar ($4-80-l). 
Budget (1950 cst.): revenue $20,881,728; expenditure $20,491,606. 
Foreign trade (1948): imports $50,927,886; exports $46,246,564. 
Principal exports: sugar, rum, bauxite, rice, timbe% diamonds. 

(P. H.-M.) 

BRITISH HONDURAS. British colony in central 
America bounded by Mexico and Guatemala. Area: 8,867 
sq.mi. Pop.: (1946 census) 59,220; (1948 est.) 63,148. 
Language: English, Spanish and Indian dialects. Religion: 
mainly Roman Catholic. Chief towns (pop., 1946): Belize 
(cap., 21,886); Stann Creek (3,414). Administration: gover- 
nor; executive council, 3 c*.v officio and not more than 5 
unofficial members; Legislative Council, 2 ex officio and 10 
unofficial members. Governor, Sir Ronald Garvey. 

History. The year opened in an atmosphere of political 
excitement as a result of the devaluation of the British 
Honduras dollar on Dec. 31, 1949, to the rate of $4-00 to 
the pound sterling. Previously, the local dollar had been at 
parity with the U.S. dollar and, alone among British colonial 
currencies, was so left when the pound sterling was devalued 
in Sept. 1949. This position proved uhtenable and the 
change in value was essential in the interests of the colony's 
economy. Owing to the traditional local dependence on 
United States sources of supply, the cost of living was bound 
to be adversely affected by such a change, but the United 
Kingdom government made a special grant of $450,000 for 
the year for subsidies to cushion the effects of devaluation, 
particularly for the poorer classes. 

Devaluation, however, cleared the way for a greatly 
accelerated programme of development. The Colonial 
Development corporation, which had suspended all its plans 
between Sept, and Dec. 1949 had pressed ahead in 1950 
with a number of schemes such as the building of a hotel 
in Beli/e, the production of lacatan bananas, a ramie 
project and an animal husbandry scheme. A number of 
commercial investors, both British and American, embarked 
on schemes for the production of bananas, coconuts, tannic 
acid, pineapples and citrus. The timber industry enjoyed a 
qualified revival, and, in particular, there was an export 
market in the British Caribbean colonies for all dressed pine 
of reasonable quality that could be produced. A partial 
hold-back on exports was, however, imposed by the govern- 
ment to provide for local needs. In the chicle industry, 
United States buyers were again taking all first grade gum 
that could bfc produced. 



British Honduras was granted a sugar export quota of 
25,000 tons a year by the United Kingdom government and 
plans were on foot for the development of sugar production 
to meet this quota. A preliminary sum of 50,000 was given 
to the colony by the United Kingdom government for this 
purpose. Several colonial development grants were made 
to British Honduras during the year. A development 
commissioner was appointed and a 10-yr. development plan 
was in the final stages of preparation. There were no signifi- 
cant developments in the dispute with Guatemala over 
British Honduras. The government of Guatemala maintained 
its closure of the frontier. 

Finance and Trade. Currency: British Honduras dollar ($BH 4 00- 
1 sterling). Budget (1950 est.): revenue $2,630,617; expenditure 
$2,906,675. Foreign trade (1949): imports $5,990,264; exports 
$4,564,847. Principal exports: timber, chicle, grapefruit (fresh and 
juice). (p. H.-M.) 

BRITISH LEGION: see EX-SERVICEMEN'S ORGAN- 
IZATIONS. 

BRITISH SOUTH AFRICAN PROTECTOR- 
ATES. The three territories in southern Africa which are 
not part of the Union of South Africa: Basutoland, Bechu- 
analand Protectorate and the protectorate of Swaziland, 
generally referred to as the High Commission Territories in 
South Africa. 

Area Population 

(sq.mi.) (1946 census) Capital 

Basutoland . . r. 11,716 560,000 Maseru 

Bechuanaland . < . 275,000 245,000 Mafeking 

Swaziland . . 6,704 187,000 Mbabane 

Administration: High commissioner for Basutoland, the 
Bechuanaland Protectorate and Swaziland (who is also high 
commissioner for the United Kingdom in the Union of 
South Africa) responsible to the secretary of state for common- 
wealth relations; resident commissioners in each territory. 
High commissioner, Sir Evelyn Baring; resident commis- 
sioners; (Basutoland) A. D. Forsyth Thomson, (Bechuana- 
land Protectorate) E. B. Beetham, (Swaziland) W. F. Mac- 
Kenzie (acting). 



BRITISH SOUTH AFRICAN PROTECTORATES 




History. Swaziland. An eight-year development plan for 
the territory framed in 1948 after an agro-economic survey 
was approved, and colonial development funds to carry it 
out were made available. Conservation of the soil and meas- 
ures to prevent erosion formed a notable part of the plan. 
Negotiations were completed whereby the Colonial Develop- 
ment corporation purchased about 100,000 ac. of afforestable 
grassland in the high veld catchment area of the Great Usutu 



BRITISH WEST INDIES 



113 




The only natives of the Bamangwato who attended a meeting called 

in March 1950 by Sir Evelyn Baring, British high commissioner, to 

discuss the British government's decision regarding their chief, 

Seretse Khama. 

river. This land was to be planted with suitable fast-growing 
conifers and in due time a large forestry industry would be 
established within the territory. For the first four years a 
sum of 1,177,000 was provided for the project. 

Asbestos remained by far the most valuable export. In 
1949 the lO-yr.-old Havelock mine exported a record total of 
33,967 short tons of asbestos valued at 1,223,486. Nearly 
20,000 head of slaughter stock valued at 258,069 were also 
exported. 

The old advisory council of 10 elected Europeans received 
statutory recognition and was reconstituted. The system of 
native administration was reformed with the approval of 
the paramount chief. 

Bechuanaland Protectorate. A disturbing event, which 
attracted much public attention within the territory and 
abroad, was the banishment of Seretse Khama (</.v.), chieftain- 
elect of the large Bamangwato tribe numbering 100,000. 
Acute controversy had arisen on his marriage in London to 
Ruth Williams. Eventually the United Kingdom government 
decided to withhold recognition of Seretse as chief for a 
period of not less than five years, during which he would not 
be allowed to live within the protectorate without special 
permission. Seretse visited his country in April but with 
his wife and daughter returned to England in June. A 
white paper (Cmd. 7913) was published explaining the 
reasons for the decision. The former regent, Tshekedi Khama, 
was also prohibited from living in the Bamangwato tribal 
reserve but he remained in the protectorate. For the imme- 
diate future direct rule was introduced but increasing 
responsibility was promised to a council of leading tribesmen. 

Basutoland. Remarkable progress was made in the cam- 
paign against soil erosion which had become a grave threat 
in this mountainous territory. Of the 830,000 allotted to 
Basutoland for its 10-yr. plan of development one-third was 
earmarked for agriculture, more specifically for soil conserva- 
tion. In the densely populated lowlands some 227,000 ac. had 
been terraced by the end of 1948 and in the mountains 
203,000 ac. had been protected by grass buffer strips; in 
addition about 260 earth dams had been constructed to seal 
off gullies. Grazing control was successfully introduced and 
rigidly enforced by many of the tribal chiefs. Above 8,000 ft. 

E.i.Y. 9 



the land was almost entirely given over to grazing for cattle, 
sheep and goats, the chief exports being wool and mohair. 
Because a considerable proportion of the cattle were of poor 
quality attempts were made to persuade the people to reduce 
the numbers and improve the strain. There was the usual 
annual exodus of 50,000 migrant labourers to work in the 
gold mines of the Witwatersrand. (J. LN.) 

Education. Literacy estimates and schools for native children, with 
the numbers attending, were in 1948: 



Basutoland 
Bcchuanaland 


Literacy 

32% 


Primary 
865 (79,437) 


Intermediate 
57 (6,730) 


Secondary 
7 (871)* 


Protectorate 
Swaziland 


20% 
13% 


147 (15,773) 
173(10,893:) 


5 (573) 
4 


1 (34)| 
3 (203) 



* Combined secondary and teachers* training. In addition one high school has 
132 pupils, technical education is provided in two institutions and a small private 
university for Basutos, the students taking external University of South Africa 
degrees, is maintained by the Roman Catholic mission at Roma, t In addition 
one primary teacher training centre has 60 students and the Bamangwato tribal 
administration opened a targe secondary school at Moeng. J Total includes 
pupils in intermediate schools. f In addition a native trades school provides 4-yr. 
courses. 

Schools for European children were maintained as follows in 1948: 
Basutoland 6 primary; Bechuanaland Protectorate 9 primary (225 
pupils); and Swaziland 4 primary (520 pupils) and 3 secondary (68 
pupils). 

Finance and Trade. Currency: South African (SA sterling). 



Basutoland 
Bechuanaland 
Protectorate 
Swaziland 



Budget cst. 1950-51 
Revenue* Expenditure! 



Foreign Trade 1949 



882,065 

456,355 
452,095 



910,463 

469,452 
471,364 



Imports 
2,244,117 

1,314.733 



Exports 

1,275,437 

1,159,868 
1,627,074 



* Deficits of Basutoland and Bechuanaland met from accumulated surpluses. 
Grant-in-aid to be made to Swaziland by the United Kingdom to cover total 
deficits for 1943-50 of 42,495. t Excluding Colonial Development fund expend- 
iture estimated for the year at : Basutoland 107,397, Bechuunalund Protectorate 
119,282, and Swaziland 143,369. I Swaziland is dealt with for customs pur- 
poses as part of the Union of South Africa and separate import figures arc not 
available. 

Principal exports: (Basutoland) livestock, grain, wool, hides and 
skins; (Bechuanaland Protectorate) beans, dairy produce, livestock, 
hides and skins, gold; (Swaziland) livestock, tobacco, asbestos 
(1,223,486 in 1949), gold, groundnuts, tung oil. 



BRITISH WEST AFRICA: 

COAST; NKJHRIA; SIERRA LEONE. 



see GAMBIA; GOLD 



BRITISH WEST INDIES. Under this heading 
are treated matters of common concern to the British West 
Indies, which comprise, in the normal official usage of the 
term, the island .colonies of Jamaica, Leeward Islands, 
Windward Islands, Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, and the 
two mainland colonies of British Guiana and British Hondu- 
ras. Total area: 106, 172 sq.mi.; total population : c. 3,025,000 
(See also separate articles on the individual colonies). 

Among the more important matters affecting the British 
West Indies as a whole during 1950 were the following: 

In March, the report of the Standing Closer Association 
committee was published. The committee had, in effect, been 
considering the possibility of establishing a federation of all 
the British West Indian colonies; and its report was accom- 
panied by a draft constitution of a federal government. The 
proposals were debated during the remainder of 1950 in the 
separate legislatures of the colonies and by other bodies. 
At the end of the year, Trinidad and the four legislatures of 
the Windward Islands (Grenada, St. Vincent, St. Lucia and 
Dominica) which are, in effect, separate colonies though they 
share a common governor, had accepted the report. The 
report of the Holmes commission on the unification of 
public services in the British Caribbean also appeared in 
March; and that of the Me La gen commission on a customs 
union for the British West Indies at the end of the year. 

The debates on federation did not prevent continued 
progress towards individual self-government in the different 
colonies. Events of importance in this field took place in the 
Leeward Islands, the four colonies of the Windward Islands, 



114 



BROADCASTING 



and in Trinidad and Tobago (q.v.). Meanwhile, in default of 
a federal government, the Development and Welfare organi- 
zation, which was set up under the terms of the first Colonial 
Development and Welfare act of 1940 and had its head- 
quarters in Barbados, was made responsible for the holding 
of various conferences on a regional basis during the year. 

Negotiations in London in the summer of 1950 ended in an 
agreement on the question of future purchases by the United 
Kingdom government of British West Indian sugar. In 
February, Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone, was installed 
as first chancellor of the newly established University College 
of the West Indies in Jamaica. But no record of the year 
would be complete without the comment that the chief subject 
of West Indian thought during 1950 was the triumphal tour 
of the West Indian cricket team in England which for the 
first time in history beat the mother country at her own game, 
in England. (P. H.-M.) 

BROADCASTING. The formation of a European 
Broadcasting union was an important event in the field of 
zonal co-operation. This took place in Feb. 1950 at Torquay, 
England, when accredited representatives of the broadcasting 
organizations of 21 European countries pledged themselves 
to active membership of the new union. They were from 
Belgium, Denmark, Egypt, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, 
Lebanon, Luxembourg, Morocco and Tunisia, Monaco, 
Norway, Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, 
Turkey, the United Kingdom, Vatican City and Yugoslavia. 
Israel and Finland also took part but postponed any decision 
concerning adherence. Thus the democratic powers sank 
the differences which since the end of World War II had kept 
them divided into two broadcasting organizations and 
secured the co-operation of the most powerful single institu- 
tion, the British Broadcasting corporation, which hitherto 
had held aloof. The eastern European broadcasters, though 
invited to Torquay, retired to Prague where they formed a 
body of their own, with which the E.B.U. declared its 
intention of maintaining friendly relations. The E.B.U.'s 
headquarters were at Geneva, with a technical centre in 
Brussels. Sir Ian Jacob, director of the B.B.C. overseas 
services, was the first president of the E^B.U. and L. 
Wallenborn, of Switzerland, the first director. 

The Copenhagen wavelength plan which aimed at bringing 
order out of chaos in the air networks of^ Europe came into 
nearly complete operation in March despite earlier mis- 
givings. The technical centre of the new union was quickly 
at work monitoring and reporting on conditions, more so 
later in the year when, in the normal course of events, inter- 
ference became more apparent. As expected, Germany and 
Austria provided the chief difficulties, with Spain a close 
third. The U.S. had declined to accept recommendations in 
the plan so far as they affected the U.S. zone of Germany. 
The result was that there was broadcasting on 27 frequencies 
in that zone and on 9 in the other three zones. The long 
term effect of this might conceivably have been advantageous 
since all the broadcasting organizations in Western Germany 
and notably Nord-West Deutsche Rundfunk in the British 
zone were compelled to experiment with ultra-short waves, 
which were free from interference. By December, 20 such 
transmitters were operating and as many again were planned 
for 1951, although suitable receiving sets were few in number. 
The immediate effect of U.S. non-participation in the plan, 
however, was disastrous: it was estimated in Bonn at the 
end of the year that at least a third of the people in Western 
Germany could not receive a single native programme 
clearly and regularly. The case of Austria was also that of a 
country under four-power occupation, which involved 
multiplicity of programmes and the inevitable operation of a 
number of transmitters for the benefit of the occupying 



forces. Allocated four frequencies at Copenhagen, Austria 
continued to work on at least 13. Her central position and 
the grouping of her stations round the centre of gravity of 
European broadcasting made this divergence from the plan 
a serious one. 

The other principal factor compromising the success of the 
plan was the position of Spain. For reasons thought valid 
at the time and supported by the majority of the delegates 
at Copenhagen, Spain was not invited to attend. Not un- 
naturally, she did not consider herself bound by the allocations 
made to her. With the coming of winter it became obvious 
that interference from Spanish stations was going to prove 
a source of nightly irritation to listeners throughout the 
Eastern coastal districts of England and Scotland. 

Luxembourg, another non-signatory of the plan, continued 
to broadcast at high power on a long wave in a part of the 
waveband where very few assignments were available, and 
indeed increased its strength during the year. Its broadcasts, 
increasingly of a commercial character, were directed for 
the most part towards Britain but there was no evidence that 
the size of the audience was in any way commensurate with 
the money expended by the advertisers. These included 
English chocolate manufacturers, U.S. makers of detergents 
and international evangelistic missions. The problem of 
** wavelength piracy " was as old as European broadcasting 
itself. It was roundly condemned by the official bodies 
including the E.B.U. of which, incidentally, Luxembourg 
remained a member. 

Other countries which did not sign the Copenhagen plan 
were eight in the middle east, including Turkey and Egypt. 
Slight interference from Turkey was noticeable towards the 
end of the year, but otherwise the position of these countries 
on the periphery of the European broadcasting area prevented 
their transmission from aggravating the aerial confusion. 

A fully international conference on high-frequency broad- 
casting with the exception of the U.S.S.R. and the eastern 
European countries whose representatives walked out of the 
first meeting because the Chinese Communist government 
was not represented was held at Florence and Rapallo 
during the greater part of the year. After months of hard 
work and the exchange of a great deal of information it was 
finally decided that, since the demands so greatly exceeded 
the spaces available in the bands allocated to high-frequency 
broadcasting by the International Radio conference at 
Atlantic City in 1947, and in view of the international develop- 
ments during the summer months, all work on plan-making 
should be discontinued. Though the conference expressed a 
pious hope that the conduct of such broadcasting should 
conform to principles and technical standards previously 
laid down, the plain and melancholy fact was that to prepare 
a universal high-frequency plan which would have had any 
chance of being applied was out of the question. 

Great Britain. While waiting for the publication of the 
report of the Beveridge committee on the future of broad- 
casting and television, which was expected at end of Jan. 
1951, the B.B.C. continued to experiment and to plan for 
the future both in programmes and in technical matters. 
In the Light programme vast audiences listened to hear 
poetry programmes introduced by the popular entertainer, 
Wilfred Pickles (f.v.), and in the same service children under 
five were offered, and eagerly accepted, a programme of their 
own, called " Listen With Mother." The outstanding suc- 
cesses of the Third programme were a series of talks by a 
Yorkshire and Cambridge mathematician, Fred Hoyle, on 
" The Nature of the Universe," and a full quarter's theme 
expressed in music, readings, drama and discussion, and 
devoted to " The Concept of Liberty." An outstanding event 
in the annals of radio drama was the production, in the 
Home service, of Louis Macnetce's specially commissioned 



BROADCASTING 



115 




Peter Brough and his dummy Archie Andrews , the stars of " Edu- 
cating Archie" one of the most popular radio programmes of 1950, 
visiting the Charing Cross hospital, London, Oct. 1950. On right 
is Julie Andrews. 

translation of Goethe's " Faust." For the first time more 
than 20,000 schools registered as listeners to the expanding 
courses of school broadcasts. In the overseas services, 
financed not by licence money but by the Exchequer, the 
year was notable for increased collaboration with Common- 
wealth broadcasting organizations, especially in the exchange 
of schools broadcasts either on discs or in script. The total 
amount of B.B.C. material carried on U.S. stations during 
the year was nearly 3,000 hr. including many drama and 
discussion programmes. " English by Radio " became a 
highly important " invisible export," for every week the 
overseas services broadcast more than 200 English lessons 
in 24 languages. 

Europe. Insufficiency of funds still hampered a number 
of organizations. The French minister of state in charge of 
broadcasting announced in May that he was prepared to 
seek parliamentary authority for the introduction of adver- 
tising on the Chaine Parisienne. He hoped for an income of 
Fr. 400 million from such sponsored broadcasts. Little 
had been done on this by December. There was some talk 
also of a commercial station for Berlin which already had a 
surfeit of politically sponsored stations. Italian development 
was in a different direction in 1950: paying a compliment 
to the B.B.C., the Italian organization introduced a " Third " 
programme in October, its programme structure, of " Light," 
44 National " and " Third," thereafter corresponding almost 
exactly to the British. The Italian 44 Third " ran for two hours 
each evening, offering perfect reception to a third of the 
listening population. The subject matter, it was declared, 
would be planned to bring to the microphone not only the 
world's inheritance of literary and musical masterpieces 
but also contemporary works showing the vitality of the 
modern art of writing for broadcasting. Poland's free 
university of the air was a somewhat similar project but with 
a more utilitarian purpose, with " The Theory of Dialectical 
Materialism " and " The History of Workers' Movements " 
as two of the ten courses which would cover a two-year 
study period. By the autumn 100,000 persons were listening 
regularly, many of them in groups organized by the trade 
unions. Many of the European countries increased their 
foreign-language broadcasts during the year, the barrage 
directed to Yugoslavia for instance from west and east alike 
reaching formidable proportions. 



Commonwealth. As in Europe, finance caused much heart- 
searching in a number of the Commonwealth countries. 
The Canadian Broadcasting corporation's deficit for 1950-51 
was estimated at $690,000, and a suggestion was made that 
the $2 50 licence fee be doubled. The report of the committee 
on broadcasting emphasized that increased commercial 
sponsorship would be against Canadian interests which were 
to maintain an essentially Canadian service. Ceylon, faced 
with the expense of building an independent service, resorted 
to advertising. South Africa sought to establish its commercial 
service, called Springbok radio, against the neighbouring 
competition of Lourenco Marques. Pakistan was hampered 
by the high price of sets. India, better organized as regards 
community listening, incorporated certain stations belonging 
to the former princely states, and the full network of 21 
stations was put to the task of establishing Hindi as the 
national language. (X.) 

World. There was no appreciable change in the number of 
radio broadcasting stations operating or under construction 
throughout the world in 1950, according to the best available 
estimates. These placed the total at about 6,500, including 
booster or relay stations but excluding television and fre- 
quency modulation (F.M.) stations. The number of radio 
receiving sets in use throughout the world was estimated 
unofficially at between 166 million and 171 million. 

United States. Receiving sets in use in the U.S. were 
estimated at 90 million by O. H. Caldwell, editor of Tele-Tech. 
This represented a gain of 9 million over the 1949 total. 

Stations. The year 1950 brought no spectacular expansion 
in the broadcasting field. The amplitude modulation (A.M.), 
or standard broadcast band contained little room for new 
stations after the unprecedented building programme of the 
first two years after World War II, when stations were added 
at the rate of about 500 a year. The public's failure to respond 
to frequency modulation (F.M.) broadcasting offered little 
incentive for entry into that field. 

Figures published in Broadcasting Telecasting Magazine 
showed that 3,104 broadcasting stations A.M., F.M. and 
television were operating or had been authorized by the 
end of Dec. 1950. This figure compared with 3,138 a year 
before. Althpugh the number of authorizations declined by 
34 during 1950, the number of stations actually in operation 
at the end of the year, 3,014, was the largest in history. 
F.M. stations in operation were 676 against 743 a year earlier. 
Because of the Federal Communications commission's 
licensing 4t freeze," there was no change in the number of 
television station authorizations 109 but during the year 
the number in operation increased from 97 to 107. 

GENERAL COMPOSITION OF NETWORK COMMERCIAL EVENING 
PROGRAMMES, THIRD WEEK IN OCTOBER, 1949 and 1950. 

Percentage of time 
on the air 



Type of Programme 
Mystery drama 
Comedy 
General drama 



Quiz and audience 



participation 



1950 
23-4 
19-5 
12-8 
10-6 
10-6 
10-4 
7-2 
5-5 



1949 



21 
18 



16-0 
14-3 
10-1 
4-7 
9-4 
5-7 



Popular music 
Concert music 
Variety music 
Variety comedy 

SOURCE: A. C. Nielsen, Co. 

Transit and Subscription Radio. One of the most significant 
developments in the F.M. field was the growth of transit 
radio the transmission of special programmes (usually 
music and news) to receivers installed in trams and buses 
and related services such as ** storecasting " and " factory- 
casting." Expansion of this type of F.M. operation continued 
in 1950 despite protests which seemed likely to require a 
ruling by the F.C.C. on the question of its legality. By the 
end of 1950, transport undertakings in 19 cities had subscribed 
to this type of service. 



116 



BROZ-BUDGET 



Broadcasting Revenues and Expenses. According to a 
report referring to 1949, issued by the Federal Communi- 
cations commission in Nov. 1950, total revenues from A.M. 
operations increased 1-67% to $413,784,633. The report 
also showed that broadcast expenses reached $357,521,718, 
which, deducted from the gross revenue figure, left broadcast 
income totalling $56,262,915 before federal income taxes 
had been deducted. The F.C.C. report was based on informa- 
tion supplied by seven A.M. networks, their 27 owned and 
operated stations and 1,994 other A.M. stations, as compared 
with seven networks and 1,824 stations in 1948. 

The four nation-wide and three regional networks and 
their owned stations accounted for $108,079,704 (26-12%) 
of the 1949 total revenues, and $17,473,756 (31-06%) 
of the net broadcast income before taxes had been 
deducted. 

Manufacture. Preliminary estimates by the Radio-Tele- 
vision Manufacturers' association, representing more than 
80% of the industry, placed production for 1950 as follows: 
home radio receivers, 8,002,500; car radios (11 months), 
3,785,297; portable radios (11 months), 1,560,501. (See 
also RADIO, SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENTS IN; TELEVISION.) 

(R.W.CR.;S.TF.) 

BiBtKXiKAPHY. Sir William Haley, The Central Problem of Broad- 
casting (London, 1950); Gerald Nethcrcot, The Coloured Counties: a 
Survey oj Regional Broadcasting (London, 1950); Charles A. Sicpman, 
Radio Television and Society (New York, 1950); I awrence Gilliam, 
n.B.C. Features (London. 1950). 

BROZ (TITO), JOSIP, Yugoslav statesman and 
soldier (b. Kumrovec, Croatia, May 25, 1892). The son of a 
blacksmith, he served as a private in the Austro-Hungarian 
army in World War 1 and in 1915 was captured by the 
Russians. A prisoner of war until 1917, he joined the Red 
army and fought with it against anti-communist Russian 
armies. In 1920 he was sent by the Comintern to Yugoslavia 
to organi/e the Communist party there. He was arrested 
many times, and in 1928 was sentenced to six years' imprison- 
ment for conspiracy. On his release in 1934 he went to 
Moscow, and in 1936 was sent to Paris where he helped to 
organize the transport to Spain of volunteers for the inter- 
national brigades. In 1937 he became secretary general of the 
Yugoslav Communist party and remained in the country. 
After the German attack on the U.S.S.R. he started guerrilla 
warfare in Yugoslavia. In the first months, of 1945 all Yugo- 
slavia was liberated and on March 7, 1945, Tito, who in the 
meantime had appointed himself marshal, became prime 
minister and c. in c. He visited Moscow in April 1945. 
In March 1946 he paid state visits to Warsaw and Prague, 
in Nov. 1947 to Sofia and in Dec. to Budapest and Bucharest, 
signing on each occasion a bilateral treaty of friendship and 
mutual aid. On June 28, 1948, the Cominform published a 
statement denouncing Tito for his " hateful policy in relation 
to the U.S.S.R." But from a correspondence between 
Belgrade and Moscow published later it was possible to learn 
that the real core of Tito's heresy was his brand of Yugoslav 
patriotism. " Even though we love the U.S.S.R. we cannot 
love our own country less," wrote Tito to Stalin on April 13, 
1948. As the propaganda campaign of all Communist- 
controlled countries against Tito continued during 1949 to 
increase in violence, the Yugoslav leader was forced to make 
many public replies. In an interview with a U.S. Progressive 
party member, Tito asserted on Oct. 17, 1949, that if war came 
to the soil of Yugoslavia "it would be no isolated situation 
but a world war/* In June 1950, at Prokuplje, Kosovo- 
Metohija province, he proclaimed that Yugoslavia was the 
only neutral country in the contemporary world. On Oct. 
29, at Zagreb, he paid tribute to the U.S. government, which 
was helping Yugoslavia in its food crisis without imposing 
any political obligations. 



BRUNEI: see BRITISH BORNEO. 

BRUSSELS. Capital of Belgium. Area (city proper): 
12-7sq.mi. Population (city proper): (Dec. 31, 1939, est.) 
189,036; (Dec. 31, 1948, est.) 185,112. However, what is 
described as Greater Brussels, comprises not only the old 
city but also 19 other communes. The total population of the 
whole area was 1,132,697 in Dec. 1939 and 1,296,687 in 
Dec. 1948. Burgomaster, Joseph van De Meulenbroeck. 

Well-stocked shops, illuminated sky-signs and abundant 
new cars continued to illustrate the outward prosperity of 
the first western capital to recover from World War II. 
Restaurants, cafes and large stores, however, suffered from a 
relative scarcity of customers. Restoration of the tower of 
the Palais de Justice, burnt by the Germans, was completed. 
Work on the junction railway connecting the reconstructed 
north and south stations neared its final stage with the 
building of a third, central station. Widening and concreting 
of trunk roads to Ghent, Ostend, Louvain and other centres 
proceeded, though no improvement could be observed in 
the pot-holed pave general in Brussels. The last open section 
of the river Senne was covered in, and new exhibition build- 
ings erected for the Brussels International fair. 

In the referendum on March 12 upon the royal question, 
Brussels showed a vote against the king's return of 417,400 
(51-83%) and 387,914 for him. An anti-Leopoldist tram 
strike on March 24, despite some wilful damage to vehicles, 
was only partly successful. At the general election (June 4) 
the pro-Leopold Social Christian (Catholic) party with 
39 75 % of the votes in the Brussels district obtained 13 seats 
in the Chamber, Liberals 6, Socialists 12 and Communists 1. 
On July 850,000 anti-Leopold Socialist and Liberal demon- 
strators, led by three ex-premiers, marched through Brussels, 
nominally in honour of the regent. King Leopold's return on 
July 22 attracted many sympathizers with offerings of flowers 
to Laeken palace and one ugly counter-demonstration. 
Between July 28-31 anti-Leopold processions, serious strikes 
and riots took place in which cafe chairs and tables were 
hurled across the Place Rogier, newspaper offices and vans 
attacked, shop-windows smashed and counters looted, and 
an attempt made to erect barricades near the Hotel de Ville. 

A meeting of the foreign ministers and defence ministers 
of the North Atlantic treaty powers was held in Brussels, 
Dec. 18-20. (H. D. Z.) 

BRUSSELS TREATY: see WESTERN UNION. 

BUDGET, NATIONAL. The year 1950 might well 
prove to be the turning point in the postwar budgetary trend 
in Europe, the Commonwealth and the middle east. The 
first half of the year was characterized by continued progress 
almost everywhere towards budgetary equilibrium. Countries 
which had succeeded in balancing their budgets during 
earlier years maintained this position. Countries which had 
earlier shown substantial surpluses of expenditure made 
progress towards reducing their deficits. In particular, 
France and Italy which had struggled since World War II 
with chronic budgetary deficits of a Considerable size made 
good progress. 

This almost universal improvement took place in spite of 
the effect of the series of devaluations of 1 949 on the budgetary 
situation. These devaluations did not appear to have pro- 
duced any material adverse effect on the budgets. The price 
rises they provoked during the first half of the year were 
moderate. In most cases increases of expenditure lagged 
behind. On the other hand the revenues benefited by higher 
prices and earnings due to devaluation. Indeed, the profit 
made on the revaluation of the gold reserves came as a 
welcome windfall to finance ministries. They could not use 



BUDGET 



117 



these book-keeping gains to offset deficits in their current 
budgets, but in a number of instances the capital gains were 
used for investment expenditure which would otherwise have 
had to be covered by means of borrowing. 

The budgets for 1950 or 1949-50 showed surpluses in the 
case of Great Britain, Switzerland, Spain, Denmark, Iceland, 
Canada and Pakistan, among others. Deficits continued to 
prevail in Italy, France, the Netherlands, Greece, Turkey, 
Egypt and Israel. The Netherlands was able to reduce its 
deficit because military expenditure was reduced after the 
transfer of sovereignty in Indonesia. On the other hand, 
France continued to bear the burden of its military commitment 
in Indo-China which cost Fr. 200,000 million. Greece, too, 
had to maintain large forces, and her expenditure on these 
and on refugees represented a third of her budget. Israel 
continued to spend unspecified amounts on her army in 
addition to 1 10 million included in the ordinary budget. 
Although military expenditure in Egypt had decreased during 
the previous two years, her postwar budget surpluses gave 
way to deficits both in 1949-50 and in the estimate of 1950-51. 

Of countries under review it may be said that the year 1950 
was characterized by a remarkable degree of budget stability. 
Nevertheless, the outlook underwent a complete change 
towards the middle of the year. As a result of the invasion of 
Korea it became evident that all western countries would have 
to increase considerably their military expenditures to make 
good the deficiencies in their national defences. The example 
set by the United States in deciding upon a vast rearmament 
drive was followed to some extent by most of them. Decisions 
were taken in the third quarter of the year, and steps were 
taken to implement them. 

Until the middle of 1950 it had been the fashion to econo- 
mize in arms expenditure whenever budget economies became 
imperative. Although some countries with immediate 
military commitments, such as Great Britain, France, Greece, 
Israel and the Arab countries spent a great deal on standing 
armies maintained for actual military operation, very few 
were prepared to sacrifice their prosperity for the sake of 
safe-guarding themselves against possible aggression in the 
more distant future. Turkey was an exception, owing to the 
geographical proximity of the source of the potential danger. 
Switzerland was another country which took its national 
defences seriously without, however, having to sacrifice its 
butter for guns. Nearly everywhere else requirements of 
social services and capital investment prevailed over those 
of national defence. Rather than to cut social expenditure 
or public works, many finance ministers preferred to cut 
military expenditure. This tendency had continued for years, 
notwithstanding the periodically repeated international 
tensions. 

After the invasion of Korea most governments appreciated 
the necessity of spending more on armaments. Great Britain 
decided to spend 3,600 million in three years. France 
included in its budget Fr. 650,000 million and even small 
countries such as Denmark provided appreciable amounts. 
Among the Commonwealth countries, Australia's peacetime 
expenditure on defence was raised to A 1 33 million, of which 
A 50 million was for stock piling. This represented a substan- 
tial proportion of the budget of A 738 million. New Zealand 
devoted one-tenth of its budget expenditure to defence. 
Canada expected to spend $1,000 million on defence in the 
financial year. In all these instances, however, the immediate 
expenditure was likely to be small because it would take some 
time before armament programmes got into their stride. 

Countries which had succeeded in restoring their budgetary 
equilibrium were determined to maintain it in spite of their 
armament programmes. Great Britain decided that any 
additional expenditure on national defence must be financed 
out of additional revenue, as did some other countries. 



WHAT IT ALL ADDS UP TO 



EDUCATION, 
HOUSING SUBSIDIES 
A itMr toil nrvicM 



TOTAL 3,89B millta 1 Q Q I 1 ' ' Tom 3 - 898 ^"^ 




77/6* British budget for 1950-51 as shown in pictorial form in n 
pamphlet issued by the government . 

There was no need, however, for Britain to introduce an 
autumn budget because, notwithstanding the larger expendi- 
ture on defence, there appeared to be no indication of a 
deficit. Other countries, too, found it easy to cover immedi- 
ate military expenditure out of current revenue. Nevertheless, 
it was evident that in some instances the reappearance of 
deficits because of armaments was merely a question of time 
and that as soon as arms production was raised to the levels 
that had been planned it would become difficult to cover its 
cost without unbalancing most budgets. 

This need for additional military expenditure was all the 
more deplored, as public expenditure had tended in the 
immediately proceeding years to become more stable. There 
had been a good chance for the dodine of its importance 
through the steady increase of national incomes. Some 
countries such as Italy, the Netherlands and Switzerland 
succeeded in reducing the actual amount of expenditure to 
an appreciable extent, fn some cases this was done mainly 
by reducing or abolishing subsidies. Several governments 
decided that for the sake of reducing expenditure it was 
worth while to accept the increase in the cost of living that 
followed from the reduction of subsidies. This was done in 
particular in Switzerland; also in South Africa where 1 
million was saved by the abolition of the butter subsidy. 
Iceland abolished subsidies on exports but introduced a new 
subsidy on meat. 

But in some other countries the trend of subsidies continued 
upward. The Australian government granted new subsidies 



118 



BUDGET 



on imported coal and prefabricated houses, also on woollen 
goods consumed in Australia. After devaluation both Sweden 
and Norway had increased their subsidies. In Norway the 
new or increased subsidies were drastically cut in April, and 
in Sweden it was intended that they should be cut in 1951. 

In many countries the practice of having separate budgets 
for current and capital transactions was maintained. In 
most instances it served to camouflage deficits. The superficial 
observer was apt to be satisfied with being told that the 
ordinary budget was balanced, without troubling much about 
the extraordinary budget. Yet the latter was sometimes very 
large. For instance, in Israel the ordinary budget was 1 56 
million and the extraordinary 1 65 million. Although certain 
extraordinary revenues were earmarked by various countries 
to cover extraordinary expenditure, a large part of that had 
to be covered by borrowing. In Iceland a capital levy and a 
special tax on certain exports were imposed to provide funds 
for capital expenditure and for the compensation of certain 
categories of savings on depreciation of the currency. 

Although in some countries it was possible to reduce the 
public debt, in most it continued to increase, even in countries 
which had an overall budget surplus. The increases occurred 
partly because of nationalization and partly because of the 
effect of devaluation on external debts. Nor was it possible 
during the year to make further savings through conversion 
operations. The trend of interest rates was, if anything, 
upward, though their level remained low. In some countries 
interest rates were deliberately raised as an anti-inflation 
expedient. These increases did not at once produce any 
appreciable effect on the burden of the public debt. Neverthe- 
less, they foreshadowed the possibility of further increases in 
the debt charges when existing loans fell due and had to be 
replaced. 

Throughout the countries under review ambitious invest- 
ment programmes continued to be applied, but in some 
instances they had to be curtailed, at first for the purpose of 
improving the balance of payments and later as a result of 
rearming. Much of this investment was financed out of 
counterpart funds, representing the equivalent of Marshall aid 
in the national currencies of the recipient countries. Under 
their agreements with the United States this had to be set 
aside for special purposes. In Great Britain the money was 
mainly used to reduce the floating debt. In Norway it was 
used to reduce the government's debt to f the central bank. 
On the other hand, in France, Austria and Greece it was used 
mainly for investment expenditure. 

In Austria Sch. 300 million of capital expenditure was pro- 
vided in the ordinary budget and Sch. 1,076 million in the 
extraordinary budget. There was a noteworthy increase of 
public works expenditure in Belgium to counteract growing 
unemployment. It had to be financed mainly by borrowing. 
Although France increased her capital expenditure, much of 
it was covered by the surplus of the ordinary budget and by 
counterpart funds. In Ireland capital expenditure was 
covered by loans. A remarkable increase in capital expendi- 
ture in Egypt was largely responsible for the budget deficit. 
Expenditure on social services continued to increase in most 
countries. In Britain efforts were made to check the rise in 
the cost of the national health service which nevertheless 
continued. 

In several countries the deficits of nationalized industries 
contributed towards the increase in public expenditure. In 
Great Britain these deficits were left outside the budget and 
were allowed to accumulate in the hope that they might be 
covered out of future surpluses in these industries. Neverthe- 
less, there was an unmistakable pressure in favour of adopting 
the principle that nationalized industries should be subsidized 
out of budgf t resources. In France they represented a con- 
siderable proportion of the budget expenditure and it had 



been suggested that to balance the budget some of the nation- 
alized industries should be handed back to private owners. 
This appeared, however, to be politically impossible. 

Notwithstanding progress made towards budget equilibrium 
the situation in Europe remained far from sound. For one 
thing, in most countries the equilibrium had been reached at 
a too high level. Abnormally high taxation had to be main- 
tained until such time as an increase of the national income 
made it possible to reduce the rate of taxation while main- 
taining a high yield. Unfortunately, the chances were that 
long before that stage could be reached expenditure would 
increase further. There was, indeed, in Britain and elsewhere 
a distinct tendency to use any increase in revenue due to 
higher production and higher prices to make additional 
expenditure. 

Another weak spot in the European budget situation was 
that the receipt of Marshall aid had made it appear more 
favourable than it really was. Although the counterpart funds 
could be used for current budget requirements the possibility 
of their use for debt repayment or investment expenditure 
released other funds for current spending. It was fortunate 
that budget equilibrium had been achieved or approached by 
the time of the devaluation and of rearmament. Had these 
two factors begun to operate some years earlier they would 
have gravely disorganized the budgets: they would have 
caused a further widening of the substantial deficits to such 
an extent as to discourage any serious effort to restore equili- 
brium. 

The situation compared favourably with the corresponding 
period after World War I. In 1923 the budget situation in 
Europe was chaotic. There were large deficits in most of the 
former belligerent countries, and even some neutrals managed 
to unbalance their budgets. Inflationary financing reached its 
climax in Germany in 1923, and the budget position in France 
was very grave. In 1950 both the German federal republic 
and France approached stability, notwithstanding their 
immense problems of reconstruction. There could be no 
doubt that the governments had learnt a great deal since the 
early 1920s in the matter of dealing with budget deficits. 
The budget figures published by the U.S.S.R. and the Commu- 
nist countries of eastern Europe claimed that in that part of 
Europe, too, budget equilibrium was maintained in 1950. 

(P. Eo.) 

United States. The U.S. budget submitted to congress by 
President Harry S. Truman on Jan. 15, 1951, for the fiscal 
year 1952 recommended expenditure of $71,594 million. 
These recommendations represented a substantial increase 
over the estimated expenditure for fiscal 1951 of $47,210 
million. On the basis of existing tax laws, it was expected 
that revenues in fiscal 1952 would total $55,138 million in 
contrast to the total of $44,512 million that was estimated 
for the fiscal year 1951. Expenditures and revenues for the 
fiscal year 1952, as presented in the budget, would result in a 
deficit of almost $16,456 million. Truman stated that he 
would recommend new tax legislation to congress which 
would at least balance the budget. The substantial increase 
that was projected in the budget reflected the rising trend of 
the rearmament programme that was undertaken after the 
outbreak of war in Korea. The president stated that it was 
" one measure of the vast new responsibilities thrust upon 
the American people by the Communist assaults upon free- 
dom in Asia and the threats to freedom in other parts of the 
world." The need for rearmament had already caused a 
large rise in the budget for the fiscal year 1951 as compared 
with the recommendations originally made for that budget. 
Expenditures were almost $5,000 higher and revenues more 
than $7,000 million higher than originally expected. The 
increase in expenditure was entirely for national defence 
purposes; and the increase in revenue came largely from 



BUENOS AIRES BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY 119 



SUMMARY or UNITED STATES BUDGET RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURE, 

FISCAL YEARS 1950-52 (in $ million). 

(Details do not necessarily tally with totals because of rounding) 

Actual Estimate Estimate 
1950 1951 1952 

18,115 22,309 26,780 

10,854 13,560 20,000 

7,597 8,240 8,222 

2,892 3,774 4,984 

423 600 620 

1,430 1,325 1,333 



Receipts 

Direct taxes, individuals . 
Direct taxes, corporations 
Excise taxes . 
Employment taxes . 
Customs 
Miscellaneous 
Deduct: 

Federal old-age and survivors 
insurance trust fund . . 2,106 

Medical care insurance fund 

Refunds . . . . 2,160 

Total 37,045 

Expenditure 

Military services . . . 12,303 

Veterans' services and benefits . 6,627 

International security and foreign 

relations .... 4,803 

Social security, welfare and 

health .... 2,213 

Housingand community develop- 
ment 261 

Education and general research 114 

Agriculture and agricultural re- 
sources .... 2,784 

Natural resources . . . 1,554 

Transportation and communi- 
cation .... 1,752 

Finance, commerce and industry 227 

Labour 263 

General government . . 1,108 

Interest on the public debt . 5,8 1 7 

Reserve for contingencies . 

Adjustment to daily Treasury 

statement basis . . . 330 

Total 40J56 



Excess of expenditure . . 3,111 



2,960 

2,336 

44,512 

20,994 
5,746 

4,726 
2,520 

409 
143 

986 
2,117 

1,970 

368 

212 

1,252 

5,722 

45 



47,210 
2,698 



3,823 

275 

2,703 



55,138 

41,421 
4,911 

7,461 
2,625 

102 
483 

1,429 
2,519 

1,685 
1,524 

215 
1.351 
5,897 

175 



71,594 
16,456 



higher rates on the individual and corporation income taxes 
and from the enactment of a new excess-profit tax. 

The bulk of the projected increase in the budget was for 
the purpose of providing expanded military services. Expendi- 
ture for fiscal 1952 for the Department of Defence was 
estimated at more than $41,000 million as compared with 
actual expenditure in fiscal 1950 of $12,303 million and 
estimated outlays in fiscal 1951 of $20,994 million. The 
president noted that expenditure for military research and 
development amounted to nearly $1,000 million. The other 
significant item included in military services was the stock- 
piling of strategic and critical materials. Outlays for this 
purpose were projected at $1,300 million, as against $438 
million in 1950. 

The other increase of large magnitude in the projected 
budget was for the function of international security, con- 
sisting largely of military and economic assistance. Expendi- 
ture for this purpose was projected at $7,461 million, as 
compared with the outlays of approximately $4,803 million 
and $4,726 million in the two preceding fiscal years. This 
increase reflected the obligations that were undertaken under 
the North Atlantic treaty, which provided for military assist- 
ance to the European nations that organized to strengthen 
the defence of Europe. Whereas the outlays in 1950 and 
1951 were largely directed toward economic assistance, the 
programme for 1952 would be primarily orientated toward 
military assistance. 

In addition to the aid to be supplied in the west, the 
economic assistance programme in Asia was to be expanded. 
The programme included assistance to Indonesia, Indo- 
China, Burma, Thailand, Formosa, the Philippines and 
Japan, and the president stated that aid might have to be 
extended to other Asiatic countries. 

Changes in the remaining budgetary programmes were 



all of smaller size than those for national deferfce and inter- 
national aid. The largest decrease was that projected for the 
services and benefits to veterans. Outlays for 1952 were 
estimated at $4,91 1 million, as compared with $5,746 million 
in 1951 and $6,627 million in 1950. Although the coverage 
of the social security and public assistance programmes 
had been substantially enlarged in 1950 to include about 
10 million additional persons, the president estimated that 
expenditure for all social security, welfare and health pro- 
grammes would increase by only $105 million. 

A budget increase for agriculture was projected from a 
level of $986 million in the fiscal year 1951 to $1,429 in 1952. 
Estimated expenditure in 1951 of $2,117 million on natural 
resources was expected to increase in 1952 to $2,519 million. 
The increase was largely explained by the expanded activities 
of the Atomic Energy commission which were to rise from 
$818 million to $1,277 million. An increase in requirements 
for the merchant marine of $164 million that was to be more 
than offset by a reduction in the deficit of the postal service 
by almost $500 million. (See also TAXATION; WEALTH AND 
INCOME, DISTRIBUTION OF.) (M. GT.) 

BUENOS AIRES. Capital of the republic of Argentina, 
the largest city in the southern hemisphere and of Latin 
America, and the largest Spanish-speaking city in the world. 
Area (federal district): 71 sq.mi. Pop.: (1917 census) 
1,576,597, (1947 census) 3,000,371. 

Life in Buenos Aires was busier and more expensive than 
ever before. Political rumours, celebrations in honour of the 
regime and distributions of largesse by President Juan Peron's 
wife increased. In October the fifth anniversary of Peronismo 
was treated as a % workers' festival, and on Oct. 17 a u torch of 
social justice " was lit at the Ministry of Labour. Throughout 
the year prices seemed to be constantly ahead of wages, which 
were continually being raised as the result of strikes. 
Omnibuses, trams and taxis needed repair and replacement 
and were inadequate for the requirements of the population. 
At central points in the city, awnings, inscribed with the name 
Eva Peron in large letters, protected the queues of urban 
workers who waited, in sun and rain, for public transport to 
take them home. The luxury shops lacked imported goods 
but were wefl supplied with locally manufactured substitutes. 
In this centennial year, portraits of the national hero, 
General San Martin, adorned almost every shop window and 
hung in every office in the capital. A bust of San Martin was 
carelessly broken by an assistant master at the principal 
British boys' school, St. George's college, and in consequence 
a government representative was appointed to investigate the 
school's organization and curriculum. One of the out- 
standing artistic events of the year was the visit of Sir 
Malcolm Sargent, who conducted the chief Buenos Aires 
orchestras. There were shortages of many basic com- 
modities, such as milk and newsprint, and of housing 
accommodation. Large blocks of flats for lower-paid workers 
were constructed on the outskirts of the city. (G. P.) 

BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION 
INDUSTRY. Against a background of international unrest 
and rising expenditure on armaments, hopes of an expansion of 
British building activity were lower in 1950 than at any other 
time since World War II. Construction of dwellings continued 
substantially at the same rate as in 1949; and there was some 
easing of the restrictions which governed the amount of building 
permitted to private enterprise in proportion to that undertaken 
by local authorities. Builders generally continued to complain 
that local authorities did not fully exercise their powers in this 
respect and to point to the whole procedure of licensing build- 
ing operations as a major cause of low output. t 

Material supplies were still not altogether satisfactory, a 



120 



BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY 




An aerial view, taken in Nov. 1950, of the \ite of the Festival of Britain 1951. In the centre is the permanent Royal Festival hall. All the 

other buildings were to be removed after the exhibition. 



shortage of cement occasioning some anxiety in the early 
summer. Official planning moreover appeared not to have 
considered sufficiently that the total volume of building which 
could be completed in a year was uncertain in so far as it 
would be effected by the weather. This served to indicate the 
narrowness of the margin surrounding the activities of the 
industry; and when the Conservative party recommended 
a 50% increase in the housing target, it was felt by many 
that such a promise had little hope of achievement. 

Schemes for incentive payments continued to attract a good 
deal of attention, although the operatives' representatives 
still claimed that such schemes were introduced far too seldom 
and by too few employers: more than one enthusiastic 
employer claimed that prewar output could be achieved by 
them, but it was generally seen that the application of such 
schemes outside a limited range of trades and operations was 
exceedingly difficult. 

Recruitment to the skilled trades, particularly to the trowel 
trades, bricklaying and plastering, was most unsatisfactory. 
A study of the industry led to the estimate that the total 
apprenticeship force should number about 22^% of the 
skilled labour force. But a census carried out by the Ministry 
of Works during 1949 showed that the proportion of young 
employees in the skilled trades was less than 14%; and in 
the north of England, where figures were generally above 
the average, it nevertheless appeared that employers were 
refusing to accept responsibility either for comprehensive 
training or for continuity of employment. Nor was it only 



the disinclination of employers that was responsible for low 
recruitment figures: in spite of many efforts to publicize the 
advantages of apprenticeship in building and the opportuni- 
ties which it offered, it found little favour with boys in general 
or with their parents (a disability which it shared with other 
manual occupations). All sections of the industry continued 
however to show great interest in technical education; and 
the number of students taking organized courses of one sort 
or another was probably greater than ever before. The 
appreciation of the value of technical education at the 
highest levels had its influence on the recruitment and 
training of prospective administrators and executives; and 
after the successful experiments in foremanship training there 
was a noticeable quickening of interest in education for 
management. 

In the field of research and development, the Building 
Research station took over the chief scientific adviser's 
division of the Ministry of Works. This brought to an end 
what many had long regarded as an anomaly, namely two 
official research bodies dealing with overlapping problems. 
The Building Research station continued to wrestle with 
the problem of communicating its findings to the industry, 
apparently with increasing success. 

During the postwar period a number of the larger con- 
tracting firms had organized testing and research units, 
usually concerned with a well-defined section of work, such 
as foundations. By 1950 at least one firm had a laboratory 
investigating a considerable range of constructional problems 



BULGARIA 



121 



and making a valuable contribution to the total volume 
of such work. In spite of day-to-day difficulties building 
expenditure formed the greatest part of capital investment. 

The year 1950 saw the publication (1) of the report of the 
working party set up by the Ministry of Works in 1948; (2) 
of the report of the Anglo-American Productivity team 
which had been in the U.S.A. in 1949; and (3) of the recom- 
mendations for nationalization prepared by the executive 
committee of the National Union of Building Trades 
Operatives. (D. A. G. R.) 

United States. Construction in the United States in 1950 
achieved such proportions as to make meaningless all 
previously held concepts of a boom year. Dollar volume for 
building of all types reached a total of $27,715 million, a 
gain of 22 7% over the 1949 record year, and home building 
soared to 1,395,600 new dwelling units which was 36% 
greater than the record-breaking 1,025,000 total of the 
preceding 12-month period. Home building attained a 
volume of almost $12,500 million exclusive of farm con- 
struction and accounted for more than 40% of the year's 
total building. 

The outbreak of hostilities in Korea at mid-year modified 
the pattern of construction activity but not the pace. Late in 
October the newly constituted National Production authority 
prohibited the building of theatres, race tracks, bowling alleys 
and a long list of other types of places of amusement and 
social gathering, unless specifically authorized by the 
N.P.A. 

Government expenditure for new construction amounted 
to $7,067 million and was almost 1 1 % higher than the 
previous year but it was much smaller than private outlay, 
which totalled $20,648 million or 27-4% more than the 
comparable figure for 1949. 

The physical volume of new construction was greater than 
the preceding year but reflected a steadily rising cost curve 
which began in the fall of 1949 and reached a peak in the 
fall of 1950 after which a slight levelling off was seen. 
According to the Boeckh index, based on costs in 20 repre- 
sentative cities, residential construction in August reached 
a record of 228-3 (1939-100). The prices of materials 
had moved up steadily throughout the year with the big 
jump coming after the start of the Korean war. 

August set a record of 2,588,900 workers employed 
by construction contractors. Wage rates, which during the 
preceding year had approached a stabilized level, resumed 
their upward march during 1950. As at Oct. 2, 1950, it was 
estimated that the average hourly wage for all union workers 
in the construction industry was $2-32 an hour. 

Construction of government-subsidized public housing 
under the Housing act of 1949, which had been expected to 
contribute between 60,000 and 80,000 units to the year's 
volume of building, missed that mark by a very wide margin. 
As at Nov. 30, the Public Housing administration, the unit 
within the Housing and Home Finance agency having 
responsibility for the administration of the programme, 
reported a total of somewhat more than 10,200 units being 
built under the 1949 act and 5,400 additional units under a 
previously authorized programme. 

A drop of 14% in total building volume to approximately 
$23,000 million was predicted for 1951 by the Magazine of 
Building, with residential construction showing the biggest 
drop. Even so the building of new homes was expected to 
dip not much lower in dollar volume than the record-breaking 
1949 total of just under $7,500 million. In terms of the 
number of dwelling units started, this was expected to mean 
a total of between 800,000 and 850,000, the federal govern- 
ment's officially announced goal when the second set of 
restrictive regulations was issued in October. (See also 
ARCHITECTURE; HOUSING.) (H. M. P.) 



BULGARIA. People's republic in the eastern part of 
the Balkan peninsula, bounded N. by Rumania, W. by 
Yugoslavia, S. by Greece and E. by Turkey and the Black 
sea. Area (incl. southern Dobruja) : 42,796 sq.mi. Pop. : ( 1946 
census) 7,022,206, (mid-1950 est.) 7,300,000. Language 
(1947 est.): Bulgarian 88%, Turkish 9-8%. Religion (1947 
est.): Greek Orthodox 84%, Moslem 1 1 -5% (of whom one- 
sixth Pomaks, or Moslem Bulgars, remainder Turks), Roman 
Catholic 0-9%, Gregorian Armenian 0-4%, Jewish 0-3%, 
Protestant 0-2%. Chief towns (pop., 1947 est.): Sofia (cap., 
434,888); Plovdiv (125,440); Varna (77,792); Russe (53,420). 
Chairmen of the presidium of the National Assembly in 1950, 
Mincho Neychev and (from May 27) General Gheorghi 
Damianov; prime ministers in 1950, Vasil Kolarov (see 
OBITUARIES) and (from Feb. 1) VIko Chervenkov (q.v.). 

History. Prime Minister Vasil Kolarov died on Jan. 23, 
1950. He was succeeded by Vlko Chervenkov who had spent 
most of the period between the world wars in exile in Moscow. 
Chervenkov thus combined in his person the offices of prime 
minister and general secretary of the Communist party, a 
situation otherwise enjoyed only by Stalin and Tito. 

The new premier began his rule by a purge in the Com- 
munist party. Dobri Tarpeshev, who had spent 14 years in 
prison in Bulgaria under the prewar regime and had taken 
part in the resistance movement during the war, was removed 
from the party's central committee and from the secretaryship 
of the Communist-led M mass people's organization, " the 
Fatherland front. In a speech on Jan. 16, Chervenkov blamed 
Tarpeshev for tolerating the sabotage of the Kostovites in the 
economic field when he held the office of chairman of the 
Planning commission and for failing to inform the party's 
central committee of the " anti-Soviet attitude " of Kostov. 
Chervenkov also blamed Anton Yugov, minister of the 
interior and a leader of wartime resistance, for not preventing 
foreign spies from infiltrating into the security police. In the 
government reshuffle, Tarpeshev was relegated to the 
Ministry of Social Welfare, Yugov to that of Industry. Their 
disgrace marked another stage in the victory of the Muscovite 
exiles over the home-front resisters in the party leadership. 

At a conference of the Communist party held in May, it was 
announced trjat the party had 430,000 members. Its social 
composition was regarded as unsatisfactory. Peasants formed 
44% of the membership, and one-quarter of these were 
members of collective farms; workers formed only 25-8%, 
whereas two years' previously they had formed 26-5%, white 
civil servants had increased their proportion during the same 
period from 16-3% to 17-8%. Nearly 30% of all civil 
servants in the country were party members, whereas only 
19% of all workers had joined the party. Among the sins of 
the party * 4 unmasked " at the conference were insufficient 
vigilance towards Kostovites, too frequent expulsions of party 
members for frivolous reasons, and the tendency too easily 
to accept false accusations against members. The conference 
further criticized Tarpeshev, in his new capacity of minister of 
social welfare. Others attacked were the minister of educa- 
tion, K. Dramaliev, and the director of the party's news- 
paper, Petr Gheorghiev. The latter's accuser was the head of 
the party's " Agitprop " department, Ruben Levy. Soon 
after the conference a further cabinet reshuffle took place. 
The minister of defence, Gheorghi Damianov, was trans- 
ferred to the decorative post of president of the presidium of 
the National Assembly and was succeeded by his deputy, 
Lieut. General Petr P. Panchevsky. 

The collectivization of agriculture made considerable 
progress during the year. On Jan 1 , there were 1 ,605 collective 
farms, with 161,000 members and controlling an area of 
560,000 ha. On Sept. 9, 1950, according to a speech by vice 
premier Vladimir Poptomov, there were 2,375 witji an area of 
1,847,113 ha. Collective farms now possessed 11% of the 



122 



BUNCHE BURMA 



arable land in Bulgaria and produced 20% of the country's 
agricultural output. This result exceeded the target given in a 
government statement of Jan 29, which had aimed at 800,000 
ha. for collective farms by the end of 1950. How it was 
achieved was somewhat of a mystery. In March the assistant 
minister of agriculture and the head of the collective farms 
department of the ministry had been dismissed, and the 
minister himself reprimanded, for giving instructions for the 
creation of collective farms. The instructions themselves had 
been revoked. Chervenkov himself had declared in a speech 
of April 5 that the process must be entirely voluntary, that 
results must be obtained not by compulsion but by example 
and persuasion. Despite this apparent relaxation of pressure 
the pace was double that originally intended. 

In the cultural field, book production followed the lines 
desired by the party leaders, Since 1945, it was announced, 
13*7 million copies of books had been produced in Bulgaria, 
of which the works of Gheorghi Dimitrov, Stalin and Lenin 
accounted for more than 2-5 million. In the artistic field, 
however, progress was less satisfactory. In April the Academy 
of Art was reorganized with the avowed aim of eliminating 
bourgeois teaching and to make clear that " not only 
ideological education but also creative development of young 
artists depends on the quality of teaching of Marxism- 
Leninism." The reorganization did not at once achieve its 
aim. A prominent Bulgarian painter, Alexander Ghendov, 
presumed to write a letter to Chervenkov, complaining of the 
way that official artistic policy was being executed, and indeed 
of the policy itself. Chervenkov replied by a speech to the 
Painter's union on May 26. Ghendov was denounced as the 
spokesman of the " bourgeois individualistic revolt against 
the spirit and the leading role of the party in figurative art, and 
against the party's struggle to overcome the rotten and 
demoralized culture of western Europe." A campaign against 
the new sin of Ghendov ism then followed in the Bulgarian 
press. It pointed out that the best painters today followed 
Soviet fine arts, seeking inspiration from ** the masterpieces of 
Surikov and Repin, masters of classical Russian painting, and 
from the best examples of pictorial art in the world.'* 
Ghendov's crime was explained when it was learned that he 
had studied in Berlin and Moscow under artists t who had sub- 
sequently been unmasked as enemies of the Soviet Union. 

The United States broke off diplomatic relations with 
Bulgaria on Feb. 20, after the Bulgaria^ government had 
demanded the recall of the U.S. minister on the ground that 
he had been implicated in the Kostov trial. Bulgarian 
relations with Yugoslavia continued to be as bad as possible. 
A dispute with Turkey became serious in the summer when 
the Bulgarian government decided to expel to Turkey 250,000 
members of the Turkish minority in Bulgaria. The Turkish 
government stated that it could not possibly find room for 
such large numbers at sudden notice. It also suspected that 
among the expelled there would be Communist agents and 
spies. The Bulgarian government dumped numbers of 
unfortunate people on the Thracian border. (H. S.-W.) 

Education. Schools (1949-50): kindergarten, including part-time 
schools 1,403, pupils 57,487, teachers 2,124; primary 6,112, pupils 
7,556,280, teachers 18,801; elementary 2,960, pupils 308,160, teachers 
12,636; secondary 218, pupils 112,633, teachers 4,624; technical 101, 
pupils 26,800, teachers 943; universities and institutions of higher 
education (1947-48) 9, students 49,800, professors and lecturers 1,283. 
Illiteracy (1946) 23%. 

Agriculture. Main crops ('000 metric tons, 1947; 1948 in brackets): 
wheat 902 (1,503); rye 196; barley 131 (249); oats 77 (105); maize 
783 (890); sugar, raw value (1948; 1949 in brackets) 75 (54). Livestock 
('000 head): cattle (1948) 1,918; horses and mules (1948) 449; sheep 
and goats (1948) 8,995; pigs (1948) 957; poultry (1947) 10,329. 

Industry. Fuel and power (1947; 1948 est. in brackets): coal ('000 
metric tons) 4,111 (3,933); electricity (million kwh.) 480 (553). 

Foreign Trade. (Million leva, 1948) import 35,119; export 34,114. 
Main source* of imports: U.S.S.R. 58%; Czechoslovakia 12%. Main 
destinations of exports: U.S.S.R. 52%; Czechoslovakia 11%. Main 



imports: metals, machinery and textiles. Main exports: tobacco and 
products. 

Transport and Communications. Roads (1945): 13,870 mi. Licensed 
motor vehicles (Dec. 1949): cars 6,000; commercial 5,000. Railways 
(1949): 1,996 mi. Telephones (1948): 54,347. Radio receiving sets 
(1949): 205,000. 

Finance and Banking. (Million leva) budget: (1949 est.) balanced at 
152,614; (1950 est.) revenue 207,252, expenditure 198,018. National 
debt (March 31, 1947) 68,896. Currency circulation (Mar. 1947) 
35,000. Saving deposits (Dec. 1947) 17,996. Monetary unit: lev (pi. 
leva) with an official exchange rate of 810 leva to the pound and 290 
leva to the U.S. dollar. 

BUNCHE, RALPH JOHNSON. U.S. political 
scientist (b. Detroit, Michigan, Aug. 7, 1904). For his 
career see Britannica Book of the Year 1950. 

Bundle joined the United Nations secretariat as director 
of the division of trusteeship in June 1946 and was assisting 
Count Folke Bernadotte of Sweden as mediator in Palestine 
when Bernadotte was assassinated in Sept 1948. Afterwards 
Bunche supervised the truce and armistice agreements there. 
For this and for his other work on behalf of the United 
Nations he was awarded the Nobel peace prize for 1950. 
He was the first Negro to receive it. In October he was 
appointed professor of government at Harvard university. 
He was presented with the award in Oslo on Dec. 10 the 
anniversary of the death of A. B. Nobel. 

BURMA. Independent federal republic lying on the 
eastern side of the Bay of Bengal, between Pakistan and 
India on the northwest, Tibet on the north and China, Indo- 
China and Thailand (Siam) on the east. The republic com- 
prises Burma proper, the Shan state, the Kachin state, the 
Chin special division and, when it is constituted, the Karen 
state. Area: 261,749 sq.mi. Pop.: (1941 census) 16,823,798, 
(1947 est.) 17,000,000. Racially, the peoples of Burma are 
Mongoloid. About 90% are Buddhist by religion, and about 
70% use the Burmese language. Largest indigenous 
minorities (1931): Karens 1,367,673, of whom 218,790 were 
Christians; Shans 1,057,406; Chin-Kachin group c. 750,000. 
Largest immigrant minorities: Indians 1,017,825 in 1931, 
divided equally between Moslems and Hindus; and Chinese 
c. 380,000 in 1941. Chief towns: Rangoon, capital and main 
port (pop. 1941, 501,291); Mandalay (pop. 1941, 163,537); 
Moulmein (pop. 1931, 65,506); Bassein (pop. 1941, c. 50,000) 
and Akyab (pop. 1931, 38,094). President of the republic, Sao 
Shwe Thaik; prime minister, Thakin Nu. 

History. During the year steady progress was made by the 
government's forces in reducing the several types of rebels 
who were in the field. The opening months of the year saw 
the recovery of much of the territory held for the previous 
12 months by the Karens, and subsequently the left-wing 
rebels also suffered severe set-backs. Advancing northwards 
along the Sittang valley, the government troops took Pyuntaza 
on Feb. 25 and Kyauktaga the following day, and on March 
19 Toungoo, capital of the Karen "government," also fell. 
The loss of Toungoo was a severe blow to the Karen cause, 
and though resistance continued, by the end of the year it was 
confined to little more than two detached areas, the hilly 
district of Papun by the Salween river and the more inac- 
cessible parts of the Irrawaddy delta. The Karens suffered 
also the loss of their leader, Saw Ba U Gyi, who was killed on 
Aug. 12. The principal reason for these serious defeats 
appeared to have been the Karens' shortage of military 
supplies; despite this, there were still at the end of the year 
several thousand Karens in the field, armed, trained and 
disciplined and apparently determined to carry on their 
resistance until their demand for an autonomous Karen 
state should be conceded. By the end of the year there were 
no signs of any progress towards a political settlement, 
except that the Regional Autonomy commission had been 
revived. 



BURMA 



123 




Thakin Nu, prime minister of Burma, arriving at Westminster Abbey, 

May 77, 7950, for a service of commemoration to those who fell in 

Burma in World War 77. 

After the capture of Toungoo, the government forces 
turned much of their attention to the left-wing rebels. A 
drive northwards up the Irrawaddy valley led to the capture 
on May 19 of Prome, the headquarters of the so-called 
Democratic front. This organization was already seriously 
weakened by differences of opinion and personal rivalries 
between the Communists and the People's Volunteer 
organization who were its principal components, and it was 
rumoured that the two factions had come to actual warfare 
with one another in March. After the fall of Prome, many of 
the disheartened P. V.O. laid down their arms and surrendered. 
Later, at the end of the rainy season, the government forces 
resumed their operations and on Oct. 13 took the important 
riverine town of Thayetmyo. 

The result of these various operations was that the principal 
routes between Rangoon and Upper Burma were reopened to 
use after more than a year's interruption. The main railway 
and the trunk road from Rangoon to Mandalay through 
Toungoo and the Irrawaddy river from Rangoon to Man- 
dalay, by way of Prome and Thayetmyo, were once more 
accessible to lawful traffic, though they were still at the end 
of the year liable to sporadic attack. On the other hand, 
though the government held nearly every important town and 
the principal routes, the administration had little control a 
short distance away from the towns and routes, and in many 
districts law and order still hardly existed. 

In the political sphere, the principal event was the expulsion 
from the government party the Anti-Fascist People's 
Freedom league of the two leaders of the Trade Union 
congress (Burma) and the suspension, for a month, of the 
congress's affiliation to the league. The leaders of the 
T.U.C.(B.) had long displayed strongly leftist sympathies and 
had earlier in the year sought affiliation to the Communist- 
controlled World Federation of Trade Unions; on Sept. 5 
Thakin Hla Kyway, in a speech in the legislature professing 
to support the government's approval of United Nations 
action in Korea, in fact opposed it. On Sept. 21, there- 



fore, he and Thakin Lwin were expelled from the league. 
In external politics, Burma's relations with the United 
Kingdom remained cordial. On March 7 the offer was made, 
and shortly afterwards accepted, of a loan of 6 million to 
Burma from Commonwealth sources; of this the United 
Kingdom provided 3,750,000, India 1 million, Pakistan 
and Australia 500,000 each and Ceylon 250,000. A British 
parliamentary delegation visited Burma in January, and in 
May the Burmese prime minister, Thakin Nu, visited the 
United Kingdom where on May 1 1 he attended a service of 
remembrance for those who fell in the Burma campaigns. 
The position of British commercial interests was, however, 
not happy. In the more disturbed districts, notably Tavoy, 
Communist activities brought British-owned enterprises, such 
as tin mines, to a standstill. The oil companies also met 
difficulties. Early in 1949 the British government, anxious to 
facilitate Burma's economic recovery, had guaranteed the 
companies against losses incurred in restoring the installations 
destroyed in 1942. On Jan. 8, 1950, the guarantee was ended 
since there appeared to be no prospect of a speedy return to 
peaceful conditions in which the concerns could operate 
profitably. The companies therefore dismissed some 2,500 
workers. These appealed to the Industrial Court of Arbitra- 
tion which declared the dismissals illegal and in general 
attempted to prescribe the policy which the companies must 
follow. The matter was taken to the Supreme Court which in 
October gave a partial reversal of the Industrial Court's 
decision, especially in regard to the attempt to dictate policy. 

In October an economic co-operation agreement was 
entered into between Burma and the United States, under 
which Burma was to receive aid to the extent of $8-10 million 
in the year ending June 30, 1951; a special technical and 
economic mission was to be established in Rangoon to advise 
the Burmese government. The U.S. government also made 
a gift of ten landing craft to the government for the use of 
the Burmese navy. An unfortunate incident detrimental to 
good U.S. -Burmese relations occurred, however, in the 
arrest of a well-knowjn American missionary surgeon, Dr. 
Gordon Seagrave, on a charge of giving aid to the Karen 
rebels. 

Relations .with China presented some slight problems also. 
Early in the year remnants of Kuomintang forces, fleeing 
before the victorious Chinese Communists, crossed the 
border from Yurjnan and took refuge in the Burmese Shan 
state of Kengtung. They maintained themselves there as 
organized units, still possessing their arms, and it was 
suspected, improbable though it might seem, that they were 
planning an attack on Yunnan. The situation was liable to 
cause strained relations with China, and in July the Burmese 
government took strong measures to deal with the problem: 
Burmese forces attacked the Chinese positions, and some 
hundreds of men who were captured were sent to internment 
camps in Meiktila and Mandalay. But though the remainder 
were dispersed from their main concentrations near the 
Burmese-Thai border, they remained in the field, preying 
on the countryside. (B. R. P.) 

Education. State and private primary schools (March 1948) 4,795, 
pupils 431,684, teachers 11,315; secondary schools (1947-48) 142, 
pupils 11,648, teachers 722. Rangoon university (1949): students 
2,960 (incl. 640 women). 

Agriculture and Fisheries. Main crops ('000 metric tons, 1948; 
1949 in brackets): rice 5,287 (4,076); ground nuts 146 (130); cottonseed 
14 (14); cotton, ginned, 8 (8); sesame seed 41-5 (32-9); dry beans 
45 (45); tobacco (1949-50) 29. Livestock ('000 head, 1948): cattle 
5,207; sheep 21 ; goats 172; pigs 394; horses 12; buffaloes 721. Fisheries: 
total catch estimated at 500,000 tons annually. 

Industry. Factories (1947) 473; persons employed 46,480. Raw 
materials: silver (fine ounces, 1948) 450,000; tin concentrates (metric 
tons, 1948; 1950, six months, in brackets) 1,773 (609); natural rubber 
(net exports, 1948; 1949, three months, in brackets) 9,240 (1,890); 
timber, teak (1948-49 rafting season) 68,938 logs; zinc i*\d lead output 
insignificant in 1949. 



124 



BUSINESS REVIEW 



Foreign Trade. (Million rupees, 1949; 1950, six months, in brackets): 
imports 373 (196); exports 733 (362). Main sources of imports (1948- 
49): India 31-6%, United Kingdom 28-2%, China 8-61%. Main 
destinations of exports (1948-49): India 37-8%, Ceylon 19-0%, 
British possessions and Malaya 13-3%. Main imports (1948-49); 
* textiles 36%, food products 13%, machinery appliances and vehicles 
1 1 %. Main exports : rice 82 %, metals and ores 3 %. 

Transport and Communications. Roads (1949) 12,472 mi. Licensed 
motor vehicles (Dec. 1949): cars 5,000; commercial 24,000. Railways: 

(1948) 1,786 mi.; passenger-mi. (1949) 74 million; net freight ton-mi. 

(1949) 113 million. 

Finance and Banking. Budget ('000 rupees): (1949) revenue 430-3, 
expenditure 528-0; (1950 est.) revenue 483-6, expenditure 532-2. 
Monetary unit: rupee with an exchange rate of Rs. 13-33 to the pound 
and Rs. 4-775 to the U.S. dollar. 

BUSINESS REVIEW. Apart from the long-term 
trend towards the higher use of power and more rapid com- 
munications (illustrated by striking increases in the produc- 
tion of electric power and in civil aviation and by the large 
tonnage of tankers under construction), business conditions 
in 1950 were governed by two main factors: the successful 
working-out of the devaluation policy adopted under the 
lead of the United Kingdom by a number of important 
countries in the autumn of 1949; and the boom on the U.S. 
home market. 

In consequence of devaluation the world bought less from 
the United States, with the result that during the first half of 
1950 American exports fell to $4,899 millio' (cf. $6,694 
million in the first half of 1949); and this fall in exports 
was a bigger factor than the increase in American imports 
(which nevertheless was substantial) in reducing the U.S. 
export surplus from $3,267 million in the first half of 1949 
to $1,047 million in the first half of 1950. The world's depen- 
dence on goods obtained from the United States without 
immediate payment thus became less than one-third of what 
it had been. Since Marshall aid was tapering off, the effect 
of devaluation was to place world business on a more lasting 
foundation and to supplement Marshall aid in spreading the 
demand for raw materials, which in any case was being 
fostered by the American stock-piling programme. De- 
valuation could not have been so successful without the 
rising level of business activity in the world outside the 
United States. Still more important was the American boom, 
which easily allowed American producers to sell at home 
the goods that they were no longer able to sell abroad. 

The successful employment of devaluation illustrated the 
growing skill acquired by governments 'in dealing with 
economic difficulties, the recovery from the minor depression 
of 1949 being helped by the fact that many governments 
had learnt in a hard school how to combat such a depression. 
When private initiative failed the state maintained investment 
through the expansion of credits or of currency. 

At the beginning of the year industrialists had not yet 
decided that it was worth while to spend money on increasing 
the existing apparatus of production all round; and hesita- 
tions of this kind were partly reflected in the Schuman plan, 
or European coal and steel pool fy.v.), which, though essen- 
tially a political instrument, also had the makings of a cartel 
the classical defence mechanism in a period of over-production 
(it was in this capacity that it appealed to industrialists in 
France and in the German federal republic). But on the 
whole the amount of money waiting for employment was 
increasing. If optimism had been universal, a due proportion 
of this money would have been used in bidding for (and 
consequently in raising the price of) industrial shares; but 
there was in fact a striking divergence between the downward 
trend of industrial share prices and the upward trend of 
money available in a number of places. This development 
was manifest some months before the Korean crisis. 

But these were warning signs rather than tangible indica- 
tions of a decline: in most directions the statistical symptoms 



were good. At the turn of the year the price of raw materials 
had not diverged widely from the level ruling a year earlier; 
and soon after prices began to rise, so that by the end of 
June long before the Korean war had made itself fully 
felt substantial gains in the prices of maize, cocoa, rubber, 
hides, wool, copper, zinc and steel scrap were recorded in 
American quotations (not affected by devaluation). A general 
expectation that the turnover of world trade was likely to 
improve was reflected in the increased tonnage of mercantile 
shipping under construction. 

These improvements would have been impossible without 
the striking recovery in the United States. By the beginning 
of the year it was fairly clear that business had overcome the 
incipient depression of 1949. In fact a huge volume of pur- 
chasing power was lying ready, and the Christmas trade 
showed that people were ready to use it. Private enterprise 
indeed showed some reluctance to spend its money on 
capital projects, and in normal conditions this might have 
led to a decline in the economic cycle; but in 1950 government 
spending provided a substitute and a preventative. The 
president's recommendations for the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1951, assumed a deficit of $5,100 million (1,800 
million). 

During the early months of the year U.S. business was 
hampered by the Chrysler strike and the coal strike, the latter 
of which at one stage began to clog transportation. But these 
obstacles had no lasting effect. During the first and second 
quarters the earnings of leading business undertakings were a 
shade higher than during the corresponding quarter of 1949. 
The fact that orders for machine tools in March were the 
highest since June 1946 showed that many industrialists had 
by now made up their minds that they need not fear a 
depression. 

Sentiment became more optimistic as the year went on. 
The Department of Commerce had assumed that capital 
expenditure would be running at a lower level than in 1949 
and that the difference would increase during the year. But 
late in spring it became clear that the margin would be 
substantially smaller; and by the middle of the year capital 
expenditure was increasing. The output of steel rose until by 
mid-1950 it was running at 101 -5% of rated capacity, the 
highest output ever recorded; and despite this pressure on 
capacity the arrears of orders were extremely large. In step 
with the demand for steel went a demand for such metals as 
copper and zinc. During the second quarter aluminium, 
nickel and tin had also risen in price, as had various chemicals 
and rubber. 

Meanwhile a number of factors were at work to stimulate 
business nearer the consuming end. Government policy put 
more money into the hands of veterans and farmers. In 
addition there were more consumers: the number of new 
households formed exceeded all earlier estimates. This fact 
strengthened the boom in housing and helped makers of 
household adjuncts in the widest sense makers, for example, 
of cars and of television sets. By the middle of 1950 the out- 
put of motor vehicles was running at the rate of 10 million 
units a year. The soft goods trade also improved as the year 
went on. Easter sales were rather disappointing, but the 
department stores did well in the early summer. Buying of 
wool, rayon and cotton textiles showed that manufacturers 
were looking forward to a continuation of business at a 
high level. 

The flourishing business conditions were those associated 
with a largely (but not entirely) free economy. Incomes were 
high and very widely spread: refrigerators and television sets 
were no rarity in the houses of medium-paid workers. 
Competition for customers was keen; and the existence of a 
substantial reserve of unemployed checked, though it did 
not eliminate, the demands of labour. 



BUSINESS REVIEW 



125 



Outside the United States the world's most important 
group of trading countries was that constituted by the former 
belligerents in western Europe and by Japan. The most 
striking aspect of business conditions in these countries lay 
in their recovery from the abnormalities of World War 11: 
production in most instances was actually higher than before; 
and governments were able largely to finance their needs 
without recourse to the printing press a proof that these 
needs were such as could be met by orthodox means. 

Within this group a special position belonged to the 
defeated powers, Germany, Italy and Japan. All had suffered 
particularly heavily during the war, and in all recovery had 
been delayed. But in 1950 their recovery had got into its 
stride and was more rapid in Western Germany and in Japan 
than in the victorious states, which by 1950 had already 
completed a respectable advance. The defeated countries 
had in common a comparatively liberalistic lay-out, which in 
practice meant a wide spread between maximum and mini- 
mum incomes, fairly low consumption by the great mass of 
people and a downward trend in retail prices (this trend 
showed signs of ending under the influence of the Korean 
affair). Germany and Italy suffered from unemployment 
due to the rapid increase of the population. The fact that 
these increases could not be fully absorbed into the productive 
process and therefore provided a merely negligible market 
differentiated business conditions in these poorer countries 
from those in the United States, where the growth of the 
population provided a keen market. Business conditions 
conformed to this structure: semi-luxury articles sold well in 
Germany and Italy, but the poorer majority looked at their 
money twice before they spent it on standard consumption 
goods; in Germany a quite small increase in the price of 
bread had severe political repercussions, and the very large 
turnover recorded at the summer sales showed how anxiously 
the public had been waiting for lower prices. In these cir- 
cumstances it was natural that the traditional German skill 
in catering for the lower middle class should re-assert itself. 
Exports rose steeply. In Japan the output of cotton textiles 
and wool yarn grew rapidly, and complaints of competition 
could be heard in Yorkshire and in South Africa. 

In the defeated countries laissez-faire meant pressure on 
the working population to increase output; and elsewhere in 
western Europe the same policy implied a similar pressure. 
But the arrears to be made up were smaller: there was a 
shortage of work to be done, and with it signs of slacker 
business. In Belgium and France, for instance, industrial 
production was barely maintained, while prices were steady 
where they did not tend downwards; and, in striking contrast 
to what was happening in the rest of Europe, the production 
of electric power did not increase. Switzerland showed the 
characteristic danger signs rising unemployment and a fall 
in wholesale prices and in the cost of living. 

The remaining former belligerents of western Europe 
comprised the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Denmark 
and Norway; and Sweden can conveniently be considered 
with them. These countries shared a general business 
recovery: conditions continued to be practically normal. 
In Norway and Denmark, for example, the output both of 
consumers' and of capital goods increased, but Norway's 
output increased more rapidly than Denmark's. Unemploy- 
ment either diminished or else was so small that its fluctua- 
tions were negligible. Prices were steady or tended to rise. 
The picture thus was one of an economy in which the oscil- 
lations of the trade cycle were damped down and where the 
upward trend was more prolonged if less violent than under 
laissez-faire. These favourable conditions were purchased at 
the price of continued if diminishing government control, 
one of the instruments of which was heavy taxation. 

In 1950 the world's demand for raw materials accentuated 



the trend of earlier years: essential foodstuffs continued to 
matter less; base metals and semi-luxuries like coffee mattered 
more. The effect was noticeable for example in Argentina, 
where it proved difficult to find a remedy for the disadvantages 
resulting from this shift. On the other hand Brazil gained 
from the striking rise in the price of coffee which began in 
the last quarter of 1949 and continued in 1950. Later in the 
year the higher prices and larger sales of wool, hides and 
cocoa made themselves felt in Latin America generally. 
The growing demand from the United States was particularly 
important; and in this respect the experience of the so-called 
" banana republics " of Central America was characteristic. 
These countries also benefited by an improvement in the 
terms of trade, for example, in the matter of imports of 
machinery, steel and chemicals from Western Germany. 

In the great rubber- and tin-producing area of south- 
eastern Asia business was helped because strongly rising 
prices accompanied a vigorous rise in production reflecting 
the return to more normal conditions. During the first six 
months of the year Malayan exports of tin and rubber sufficed, 
despite devaluation, to earn substantially more dollars than 
during the corresponding period of 1949. In Indonesia the 
output of rubber went ahead rapidly, and the boom in 
exports was accompanied by a boom in imports. This 
development began before the Korean affair. 

Conditions were different in the great raw-material pro- 
ducers, Canada and Australia, where the course of business 
was also determined by industrial factors. The Canadian 
economy, being closely linked to that of the United States, 
suffered from the recession there and had not fully recovered 
by the beginning of the year: as in the United States, expendi- 
ture during the earlier months centred on consumption 
goods rather than on capital goods; and production of base 
metals remained sluggish. As the year went on, however, 
Canada began to share the business activity of the United 
States; and by the middle of the year industrial output and 
international trade reached and maintained new high levels. 
In Australia on the other hand devaluation gave an early 
stimulus to exports: business sentiment was cheerful; prices, 
including those of ordinary shares, rose; and people were 
prepared tojnvest in capital schemes. Towards the end of 
the year there were signs of a boom. 

In the U.S.S.R. and, largely, in the countries within its 
orbit the individual element essential to business elsewhere 
has been more or' less eliminated. In the U.S.S.R. the output 
of meat and of other foodstuffs fell fairly severely short of 
the production plan. The production of spinning machinery 
increased but was not reflected in a higher production of 
textiles. As in other countries the output of electric power 
and of the engineering industry was high. There was a bad 
muddle in the timber industry, which hampered the produc- 
tion of cellulose and paper. A large increase in the manufac- 
ture of private cars had an odd parallel in the similar increase 
(relatively to that recorded for commercial vehicles) in 
Western Germany and France both of them countries where 
the middle and upper middle classes were growing in strength. 
The reduction in the price of a large range of consumption 
goods decreed in connection with the revaluation of the 
rouble in March might have been expected to increase turn- 
over; and when business failed to respond the blame was put 
on the retailing agencies. 

Developments in the second part of the year were power- 
fully modified by the impact of rearmament in many import- 
ant countries and of the new intensification of the U.S. 
stock-piling programme. The U.S. economy reached new 
heights of activity: rearmament orders now absorbed the 
last unemployed worker in Detroit. As a concomitant of this 
feverish activity governmental controls were expected and, 
in some instances, anticipated by industry. In August 



126 



BYELORUSSIA 



industrial production reached a new record. Very high levels 
were attained both at the beginning of the productive process, 
where the output of steel remained close to the theoretical 
maximum, and at the end, where output was beyond record 
levels over a selection of goods ranging from motor vehicles 
to television sets. This intense activity was accompanied by 
some inflation: during the first three months of the Korean 
fighting commercial bank loans were estimated to have 
expanded to $2,500 million (890 million). By this time 
Canadian recovery was fully in step with that of the 
United States. 

As a result of the general rearmament an abrupt sharpening 
occurred in the world demand for a wide range of goods. 
This made itself felt in a striking manner on the great pro- 
ducers of raw materials, who were in any case favoured not 
only by the turn of the trade cycle but also by the long-term * 
development of world business. World production of wool, 
for example, was still well below the artificially high level 
reached during the war and sljghtly below the prewar level, 
whereas consumption was already high, with the result that 
stocks were nearly exhausted; and at the wool sales in the 
autumn, though the Korean war and the resultant rearma- 
ment contributed much to it, the rise in prices was equally 
due to world-wide pressure for higher standards of 
living. 

The position was similar on the rubber market: the prod- 
uction of natural rubber rather exceeded consumption, but 
the output of synthetic fell short. The great rise in the level 
of consumption was due to the great development of civilian 
motor transport no less than to military demands. The 
Korean war merely struck the market at a critical state and 
touched off a violent rise in prices. Similarly with copper 
(which is a good index of the state of business in the electrical 
industries) the level of consumption was not only higher than 
in 1949 but also, more strikingly, higher than before World 
War II; world stocks dwindled; and in the spring the natural 
result occurred in the shape of a strong rise in prices, which 
the Korean war helped merely to accentuate. Analogous 
factors were at work in the markets for cotton, iron and 
steel. 

The way in which this sudden demand served^to stimulate 
business activity is well illustrated by the case of Australia, 
which derived a very large additional income from its wool 
and also in a smaller measure from its wheat: business activity 
reached a high level and an intense demand arose for capital 
goods, which benefited countries supplying Australia; and at 
the same time the increase in the country's earnings of 
dollars gave greater freedom of action to the sterling group 
as a whole (devaluation had already allowed the sterling area 
to build up its reserves of gold and dollars quite apart from 
what it gained in the way of Marshall aid; and this process 
was now speeded up). In Western Germany, too, the rather 
dull business conditions gave way to a sudden activity which 
was set in motion by export orders connected with the 
widespread rearmament drive. 

Towards the end of the year the dominant part still lay 
with the United States, where it seemed that the industrial 
apparatus was vast enough to meet the demands of peace and 
of rearmament with something to spare. It was hence possible 
to argue that the boom must presently give way to a recession. 
There were in fact some signs of slackening towards the end 
of the year: on the other hand a rearmament drive of unprece- 
dented dimensions was looming ahead. For the rest of the 
world these uncertainties were tempered by the knowledge 
that the world's economic dependence on the United States 
was lessening. (See also BANKING; EMPLOYMENT; INTER- 
NATIONAL TRADE; NATIONALIZATION; PRICES; STOCKS AND 
SHARES; TAXATION.) 

(W. H. JN.) 



BYELORUSSIA. A republic formed on Jan. 1, 
1918, and incorporated in the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics on Dec. 30, 1922. It is bounded N. by Latvia, 
E. by Russia, S. by the Ukraine and W. by Poland and Lithu- 
ania. The Byelorussians, or White Russians, are a Slav 
people akin to the Russians and the Ukrainians. Area: 
(before Sept. 17, 1939) 49,022 sq.mi.; (annexed from Poland) 
32,267 sq.mi.; total 81,289 sq.mi. Religion (Nov. 1939 est.): 
Greek Orthodox 71%, Roman Catholic 20%, Jewish 8%, 
other 1%. The population was distributed as follows: 





In pre-1939 


In area 






Soviet 


annexed 


Total 




Byelorussia 


from Poland 


(Nov. 1939 est.) 


Byelorussians 


4,454,400(80%) 


1,458,100(45%) 


5,912,500(67-2%) 


Poles . 


111,360 (2%) 


1,296,800(40%) 


1,408,160(16-0%) 


Jews . 


445,440 (8%) 


291,800 (9%) 


737,240 (8-4%) 


Russians 


389,800 (7%) 


64,800 (2%) 


454,600 (5-1%) 


Others 


167,000 (3%) 


130,500 (4%) 


297,500 (3-3%) 



Total 5.568,000 



3.242,000 



8,810,000 



Poles were either deported to the Soviet Union in 1939-40 
or transferred to Poland in 1945-46 and Jews were extermin- 
ated by the Germans during their occupation of Byelorussia. 
Further reductions were occasioned by war losses which, for 
the armed forces alone, were estimated at 350,000. In March 
1950, however, the official Soviet estimate of the population 
was 9-3 million. Chief towns (1939 est.): Minsk (cap., 
239,000); Vitebsk (167,000); Gomel (144,000). Chairman of 
the presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Byelorussian 
S.S.R., Vasily Ivanovich Kozlov; chairman of the council of 
ministers, Aleksey Efimovich Kleshchev. 

History. Great Britain and the United States having 
accepted at Yalta the Soviet demand that Byelorussia and the 
Ukraine (q.v.) should be founder members of the United 
Nations, Kuzma Benediktovich Kiselev was appointed 
minister of foreign affairs of Byelorussia and in 1945, at San 
Francisco, was among the signatories of the U.N. charter. 
He headed the Byelorussian delegation at the successive 
general assemblies of the U.N. and was at Lake Success also 
from Sept. to Dec. 1950. But there was no Byelorussian 
representation abroad, and at Minsk no foreign country 
not even a people's republic maintained a diplomatic 
mission. 

Byelorussia had suffered from the ravages of World War II, 
four-fifths of the houses at Minsk and Gomel and nine- 
tenths at Vitebsk being destroyed. In the countryside 416,000 
buildings belonging to the collective farms and 1,215,000 
buildings in the villages, including 420,000 cottages, were 
burned or destroyed and 3 million people were left homeless. 
Cattle in 1945 numbered only 30% of the prewar figures and 
pigs only 10%. A great work of relief and rehabilitation 
included a shipment by U.N.R.R.A. of 133,244 long tons of 
supplies valued at $60,440,000. The five-year plan adopted 
on March 18, 1946, stipulated that by Dec. 1950 a total of 
2 7 million sq.m. of housing accommodation should be made 
available and that rehabilitation should begin by restoration 
of housing facilities and municipal services at Minsk. By 
the end of 1950 no claim was made that complete reconstruc- 
tion had been achieved. It was announced in Jan. 1949 that 
more than 360,000 homes had been built for collective 
farmers and more than 2 million people had moved to them 
from dugouts. 

By 1939 the collectivization of agriculture had been com- 
pleted in Byelorussia in its prewar frontiers, but in the area 
annexed from Poland regimentation of the countryside began 
only in 1947. Resistance to the movement was met by 
deportation, and party purges penalized alleged weakness and 
inefficiency. Nilufor Yakovlevich Natalevich, who in 1938 
succeeded N. N. Cherviakov (reported to have committed 



CABINET MEMBERS 



127 



suicide) as chairman of the presidium of the Supreme Soviet, 
was dismissed in 1948 and was succeeded by Kozlov, a 
wartime guerrilla leader. At the same time Panteleymon 
Kondratyevich Ponomarenko, chairman of the council of 
ministers, was moved to Moscow to become a secretary of the 
central committee of the Ail-Union Communist party. He 
recommended as his successor at Minsk Kleshchev, also a 
former guerrilla leader, who continued to press forward the 
policy of collectivization in the former Polish territory. On 
Oct. 29, 1949, Kleshchev announced that 4,000 kolkhozy with 
200,000 peasant holdings had been formed there. On Oct. 27, 
1950, he reported to Stalin that the " principal mass " of the 
peasants of that territory had joined the kolkhoz system. 

In Dec. 1950 it was announced that industry was success- 
fully completing the postwar five-year plan. New car, tractor, 
glass, match and other factories were built and old ones 
restored, and the capacity of electric power stations exceeded 
that obtaining in 1940 by 70%. The country's main resource, 
however, was in its agriculture, and on poor soil it produced 
potatoes, flax and animal feedingstuflfs. Pig and cattle 
breeding were also important. According to the live-year plan, 
the total livestock by the end of 1950 was to be as follows: 
cattle 2,860,000; pigs 2,600,000; horses 770,000; sheep and 
goats 2,900,000. For the forested areas the target for felled 
timber in 1950 was 11 1 million cu.m. No claim was pub- 
lished that the results aimed at were attained. 

On March 12 Byelorussia elected 31 deputies to the Soviet 
of the Union and 25 deputies to the Soviet of Nationalities 
(see ELECTIONS). Out of a possible poll of 4,727,950 votes the 
total cast was 4,727,554 (99-99%) and 4,722,835 (99-90%) 
votes were said to have been recorded for official candidates. 
Elected members of the government and party leaders were 
headed by Nikolay Ivanovich Gusarov, first secretary of 
the Byelorussian Communist party. Marshal Semen Kon- 
stantinovich Timoshenko, commander of the Byelorussian 
military area, was also elected. On Dec. 17, 71,029 deputies 
were elected to the 12 provincial, 175 district, 69 town and 
2,632 village Soviets. More than 99% went to the polls and 
more than 99% voted for the official candidates of whom 
one-third were members of the party. The communique 
admitted that a candidate for a village soviet had not obtained 
an absolute majority and a new election was to be held. 

By 1947 there were no Roman Catholics in Byelorussia: 
Poles had been removed from the country and about 350,000 
Roman-Catholic Byelorussians, formerly Polish citizens, were 
forced to renounce their religion. The majority of Byelorus- 
sians in Poland before 1939 were members of a Greek Ortho- 
dox Autocephalic Church recognizing the spiritual authority 
of the oecumenical patriarch in Istanbul. With the help of 
the Soviet government, Aleksey, the patriarch of Moscow and 
all-Russia, took authority over the Byelorussian clergy and 
prohibited contact with the oecumenical patriarchate. 

Education. Schools (1949): elementary and secondary 11,789; 
pupils 1 -5 million; technical 110; institutions of higher education 28, 
students 16,000 

Finance. Budget ( 1 950 est.) : revenue Rb. 3,777 5 million, expenditure 
Rb. 3,730-4 million. (K. SM.) 

CABINET MEMBERS. The following is a list of 
cabinet members of Great Britain and the other members of 
the Commonwealth of Nations on Dec. 31, 1950. 



Great Britain 



Post 



Name 



Prime Minister and First Lord of the 
Treasury 

Lord President of the Council and 
Leader of the House of Commons 

Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 

Chancellor of the Exchequer . 

Minister of Town and Country Plan- 
ning 



*Clement Richard Attlee 

Herbert Stanley Morrison 
* Ernest Bevin 
*Hugh Todd Naylor Gaitskell 



Post 

Lord Privy Seal and Leader of the 

House of Lords .... 

Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster 

Lord Chancellor .... 
Secretary of State for the Home 

Department .... 
Minister of Defence 
Minister of Labour and National 

Service 

Minister of Health 

Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries 

Minister of Education 

President of the Board of Trade 

Secretary of State for the Colonies . 

Secretary of State for Scotland . 

Secretary of State for Commonwealth 

Relations 

Australia 

Prime Minister . ' 

Treasurer ..... 

Minister for the Interior (also Ministtr 
Resident in London) . 

Minister for Labour and National 
Service and for Immigration 

Minister for Commerce and Agri- 
culture 

Minister for External Affairs and 
External Territories . . . ' 

Minister for National Development, 
Works and Housing . 

Minister for Defence 

Minister for Health 

Minister for Transport, Fuel and 
Shipping ..... 

Minister for Trade and Customs 

Minister for Air and Civil Aviation . 

Postmaster General 

Minister for the Army and for the 
Navy 

Attorney General .... 

Vice president of the Executive 
Council ..... 

Minister for Repatriation 

Minister for Social Services 

Minister for Supply 

Canada 

Prime Minister and President of the 
Privy Council .... 

Minister of Trade and Commerce 

Minister of Agriculture . 

Minister of Public Works 

Minister of National Defence . 

Minister of Transport 

Minister of National Health and 
Welfare 

Minister of Finance 

Minister of National Revenue . 

Minister without Portfolio 

Minister of Labour 

Minister of Fisheries 

Secretary of State for External Affairs 

Minister of Justice, Attorney General 
and Solicitor General . 

Minister of Resources and Develop- 
ment ..... 

Secretary of State of Canada . 

Minister of Veterans' Affairs . 

Postmaster General 

Minister of Citizenship and Immi- 
gration ..... 

Minister of Mines and Technical 
Survey ..... 

Ceylon 

Prime Minister and Minister of De- 
fence and External Affairs . 

Minister of Health and Local Govern- 
ment ..... 



Name 

Viscount Addison 
Viscount Alexander of Hills- 
borough 
Viscount Jowitt 

James Chulcr Ede 
Emanuel Shinwell 

George Alfred Isaacs 
Ancurin Bcvan 
Thomas Williams 
George Tomlinson 
James Harold Wilson 
James Griffiths 
Hector McNeil 

Patrick Chrestien Gordon- 
Walker 

'Robert Gordon Menzies 
Arthur William Fadden 

Eric John Harrison 
Harold Edward Holt 
John McEwcn 
'Percy Claude Spender 

Richard Gardiner Casey 
Philip Albert Martin McBride 
Sir Earlc Page 

George McLeay 
Neil O'Sullivan 
Thomas Walter White 
Hubert Lawrence Anthony 

Josiah Francis 

John Armstrong Spicer 

Dame Enid Lyons 
Walter Jackson Cooper 
William Henry Spooner 
Oliver Howard Bcale 



*Louis Stephen St. Laurent 
Clarence Decatur Howe 
James Garfield Gardiner 
Alphonse Fournier 
Brooke Claxton 
Lionel Chcvrier 

Paul Joseph James Martin 
Douglas Charles Abbott 
James Joseph McCann 
Wishart McLea Robertson 
Milton Fowler Gregg 
Robert Wellington Mayhew 
Lester Bowles Pearson 

Stuart Sinclair Garson 

Robert Henry Winters 
Frederick Gordon Bradley 
Hugues Lapointe 
Edouard Rinfret 

Walter Edward Harris 
George Prudham 



Edward Hugh 
Dalton 



John Neale 



Minister of Justice 

Minister of Transport and Works 

Minister of Finance 

Minister of Agriculture and Lands 



*Don Stephan Scnanayake 

Solomon West Ridgeway Dias 

Bandaranaike 
Lalita Abhaya Rajapaksc 
Sir John Kotelawala 
Junius Richard J?yewardene 
Dudley Shelton Senanayake 



128 



CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY 



Post 

Minister of Labour and Social Services 

Minister of Education . * . 

Minister of Food and Co-operative 
Undertakings .... 

Minister of Posts and Telecommuni- 
cations ..... 

Minister of State .... 

Minister of Home Affairs and Rural 
Development .... 

Minister of Industries, Industrial 
Research and Fisheries 

Minister of Commerce and Trade . 



Name 

M. D. Banda 
Edward Alexander Nugawela 

Abeyratne Ratnayake 

Cathiravelu Sittampalam 
A. E. Goonesinha 

Edwin Aloysius Perera Wijey- 
eratne 

Ganapathipillai Gangesar 

Ponnambalam 
Henry Woodward Amarasuriya 



India 

Prime Minister and Minister for 

External Affairs. 
Minister for Home Affairs 
Minister for Food and Agriculture . 
Minister for States, Transport and 

Railways ..... 

Minister for Labour 

Minister for Works, Production and 

Supply 

Minister for Health 
Minister for Education . 
Minister for Defence 
Minister for Finance 

Minister for Communications . 
Minister for Law .... 
Minister for Commerce and Industry 
Minister of Natural Resources and 
Scientific Research 



"Jawaharlal Nehru 
Chakravarti Rajagopaiachari 
Kanialal Maneklal Munshi 

Narasimha Gopalaswami 

Ayyangar 
Jagjivan Ram 

Narhar Vishnu Gadgil 
Rajkumari Amrit Kaur 
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad 
Baldev Singh 
Chintaman Dwarkanath 

Deshmukh 
Raft Ahmed Kidwai 
Bhimrao Ranvi Ambedkar 
Hare Krishna Mahtab 



ri Prakasa 



New Zealand 



Prime Minister and Minister of 
Finance ..... 

Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of 
Agriculture and Marketing . 

Minister of Labour, Employment, 
Mines and Immigration 

Attorney General, Minister of Justice 
and Minister of Scientific and 
Industrial Research 

Minister of Education . 

Minister of Internal Affairs and 
Minister of Social Security . 

Minister of Customs and Associate 
Minister of Finance, and Minister 
of Supply and Stamp Duties. 

Postmaster General and Minister of 
Telegraphs .... 

Minister of Lands, Forests and Maori 
Affairs ..... 

Minister of External Affairs, Island 
Territories, Broadcasting and 
Tourist and Publicity Departments 

Minister of Works, Housing, Trans- 
port and Railways, and Marine 

Minister of Defence, Rehabilitation, 
War Pensions and Civil Aviation . 

Minister of Health, Industries and 
Commerce .... 

Minister without Portfolio and Minis- 
ter for the Welfare of Women and 
Children ..... 

Minister without Portfolio 

Minister without Portfolio 

Pakistan 



^Sidney George Holland 
Keith Jacka Holyoake 
William Sullivan 



Thomas Clifton Webb 
Ronald Macmillan Algic 

William Alexander Bodkin 



Charles Moore Bowden 
Walter James Broadfoot 
Ernest Bowyer Corbett 



* Frederick Widdowson Doidge 
William Stanley Goosman 
Thomas Lachlan Macdonald 
Jack Thomas Watts 



Mrs. Grace Hilda Ross 
John Ross Marshall 
William Henry Fortune 



Prime Minister .... 
Minister for Foreign Affairs and 
Commonwealth Relations . 

Minister for Finance and Economic 
Affairs 

Minister for Defence, States and 
Frontier Regions 

Minister for the Interior, Information 
and Broadcasting 

Minister for Food and Agriculture 
and acting Minister for Law 
andLatKnr .... 

Minister for Education and Commerce 



*Liaquat Ali Khan 

Sir Mohammad Zafrullah 
Khan 

Ghulam Mohammad 
Mahmud Husain 
Khwaja Shahabuddin 



Pirzada Abdus Sattar 
Fazlur Rahman 



Post 

Minister for Refugees and Rehabili- 
tation 

Minister for Kashmir Affairs . 
Minister for Industries . 
Minister for Communications , 
Minister for Works and Health 



Name 

Ishtiaq Husain Qureshi 
Mushtaq Ahmad Gurmani 
Chaudhry Nazir Ahmad 
Sardar Bahadur Khan 
A. M. Malik 



South Africa 



Prime Minister and Minister of 

External Affairs 
Minister of Finance 
Minister of Lands and Irrigation 
Minister of Justice 
Minister of Transport . 
Minister of Agriculture . 
Minister of Economic Affairs . 
Minister of Health and Social Welfare 
Minister of the Interior . 
Minister of Defence 
Minister of Labour, Public Works 

and Forestry .... 
Minister of Native Affairs 
Minister of Mines, Education, Arts 

and Science .... 
Minister of Posts and Telegraphs 



* Daniel Francois Malan 
Nicolaas Christiaan Havenga 
Johannes Gerhardus Strydom 
Charles R. Swart 
Paul Oliver Sauer 
S. P. Le Roux 
Eric Hendrik Louw 
Albert Jacobus Stals 
Theophilus Ebenhaezer Donges 
Francois Christiaan Erasmus 

Barend Jacobus Schoeman 
H. F. Verwoerd 

Johannes Hendrikus Viljoen 
Jozua Francois Tom Naude 



* See separate article. (See also GOVKRNMENT DEPARTMENTS.) 

CAMBODIA: see INDOCHINA. 

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY. The academic year 
1949-50 opened with the following numbers, the figures 
in parentheses showing corresponding totals for 1938: the 
men's colleges had 5,499 (4,849) undergraduates; 1,304 (483) 
B.A.s; 437 (159) research students; and 1,606 (1,392) M.A.s. 
The women's colleges had 548 undergraduates, 93 fourth 
year and research students and 330 M.A.s. 

During the year the new buildings at King's, Christ's and 
St. Catharine's were completed. An Institute of Education 
was established under the Ministry of Education to be 
responsible for the certification of teachers in East Anglia, 
etc. Madingley hall was acquired as a house of residence 
for post-graduate students. The Regent house would, in future, 
be used as a university combination room for graduates. 

New chairs were founded in economics, Scandinavian 
studies, veterinary clinical studies and applied thermo- 
dynamics; and readerships were established in public law 
and administration, surface chemistry, plant cytogenetics 
and clinical psychology. 

The Nuffieid foundation gave grants for work in chemistry 
and human ecology; the Rockefeller foundation for the 
study of neuro-physiology; and a bequest for Assyriology 
was received from Mrs. Johns in memory of her husband. 

The following retired under the age limit: Professor C. E. 
Raven (divinity); Professor D. S. Robertson (Greek); 
Professor J. H. Hutton (anthropology); Professor J. E. 
Littlewood (mathematics); and Professor H. A. Hollond (law). 

During the year Trinity hall celebrated its sexcentenary, 
and Downing college its 150th anniversary. Both colleges 
entertained considerable numbers of alumni. 

C. E. Raven retired from the mastership of Christ's college 
and was succeeded by B. W % Downs, the first professor of 
Scandinavian studies. 

Honorary doctorates were conferred on the following: 
Viscount Samuel; Sir Brian Hubert Robertson, high com- 
missioner for Western Germany; Sir Gerald F. Kelly, 
president of the Royal Academy; Vannevar Bush, president 
of the Carnegie institute, Washington, D.C.; and W. S. 
Middleton, president of the American College of Physicians. 

Among the losses by death during the year were Jan 
Christiaan Smuts (Christ's), chancellor of the university. 
The vice chancellor in his annual address said, " In this place 
we commemorate not only his greatness and his supreme 
versatility of achievement, but also his direct and simple 



CANADA 



129 



friendliness, his abiding enthusiasm and his affectionate 
loyalty to his college and university/' Others who died were 
J. N. Keynes (Pembroke), registrary emeritus; W. H. D. 
Rouse (Christ's), headmaster of the Perse school and formerly 
lecturer in Sanskrit, the protagonist of the direct method of 
teaching classics; Miss K. T. B. Butler, formerly mistress of 
Girton; R. H. Rastall (Christ's), formerly university lecturer 
in mineralogy; S. F. Armstrong (Christ's), botanist; C. F. 
Angus, vice master of Trinity hall; Alex Wood (Emmanuel), 
formerly university lecturer in physics; W. L. Knox (Pem- 
broke), New Testament scholar; G. S. Graham Smith 
(Pembroke), formerly reader in preventive medicine. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Cambridge University Reporter, vol. 81; Cambridge 
Review, vol. 71. (CH. F.) 

CAMEROONS: see FRENCH UNION; NIGERIA; TRUST 
TERRITORIES. 

CANADA. Self-governing member of the Commonwealth 
of Nations covering all North America north of the United 
States except Alaska. Canada is a federal union under the 
terms of the British North American act (1867). The original 
provinces were: 

Area Population 

(insq.mi.) (1941 (June 1, 

census) 1950est.) 

Nova Scotia . . . 21,068 577,962 658,000 

New Brunswick . . 27,985 457,401 522.000 

Quebec .... 594,860 3,331,882 3,976,000 

Ontario .... 412,582 3,787,655 4,512,000 

To these were added : 

Manitoba (1870) . . 246,512 
British Columbia (1871) . 366,255 
Prince Edward Island (1873) 2,184 
Alberta (1905) . . . 255,285 
Saskatchewan (1905) . 251,700 
Newfoundland and Labra- 
dor (1949) . . . 152,734 

There are also two territories: 

Northwest Territories . 1,304,903 12,028 

Yukon .... 207,076 4,914 



729,744 
817,861 
95,047 
796,169 
895,992 



795,000 

1,138,000 

96,000 

895,000 

874,000 



295,440* 355,000 



16,000 
8,000 



Total 



3,843,144f 11,802,095 13,845,000 



* 1938 est. t Including 228,307 sq.mi. of fresh water. 

Language (1941): English (49-7%), French (30-3%), 
German (4%), Ukrainian (2-6%), Scandinavian (2-1%), 
Dutch (1-9%), Hebrew or Yiddish (1-5%), Polish (1 -5%), 
other (6-2%). Religion (1941): Roman Catholic 4,800,895; 
United Church of Canada 2,204,875; Church of England 
1,751,188; Presbyterian 829,147; Baptist 483,592; Lutheran 
401,153; Greek Catholic 185,657; Greek Orthodox 139,629; 
Jewish 168,367; other 542,152. Chief towns: Ottawa (cap., 
pop., 1949 est., 162,442); Montreal (pop., 1949est., 1,151,670), 
Toronto (pop., 1948 est., 695, 302); Vancouver (pop., 1948, est. 
376,000); Winnipeg (pop., 1948 est., 231,491); Quebec 
(pop., 1949 est., 200,555). Governor general, Viscount 
Alexander of Tunis; prime minister, Louis Stephen St. 
Laurent (q.v.). 

History. Canada entered the second half of the 20th cen- 
tury independent in name and in law. Completion of the 
process of national evolution was in sight and, during 1950, 
federal and provincial representatives considered the task of 
formulating a distinctively Canadian constitution. The 
country's economy continued to be in the grip of a boom, 
with a boom's characteristic (and often painful) effects, but 
it also gave further evidence of " staying-power." The annual 
gross national product had risen from $5,500 million in 1935 
to more than $17,000 million. Industrial employment had 
doubled since 1930. Underwriting the future were long-term 
factors, of which the increasing flow of oil from Alberta gave 
an earnest. Progressive exploitation of the country's vast 
mineral reserves seemed to promise that, long before the end 

B.I.Y. 10 



of the 20th century, it would be one of the world's richest 
nations in terms of realized wealth. 

Already Canada had achieved a position of influence in 
the world community, as a leading spokesman of the middle 
powers. In its relations with other members of the British 
Commonwealth, it saw itself as neither a senior nor a junior 
partner but as an equal among equals. It had become aware 
that, in placing it between Great Britain and the United States, 
history had charged it with a special responsibility for helping 
to devise and support sound international policies. In face of a 
dangerous international situation, Canada linked its defence 
production with that of the United States; accelerated its 
own defence programme and made provision for arms aid to 
western Europe. It passed legislation recognizing for the 
first time by statute the obligation of Canada to contribute 
overseas forces for collective defence under the United 
Nations charter and the North Atlantic treaty. Lester B. 
Pearson, minister of external affairs, proposed the creation of 
an international police force consisting of one or two full 
divisions under the United Nations banner. These divisions, 
it was suggested, would form a permanent force distinct from, 
and in addition to, the national armed force contingents 
which were serving (or would serve) with the United Nations 
in any emergency such as the Korea campaign. 

Three Canadian destroyers, 4 * Athabaskan," " Cayuga " 
and ** Sioux," saw action with the United Nations forces in 
the blockade and successful assault on the coast of west 
Korea and played a major part in the evacuation of about 
8,000 military personnel and civilians from Chinnampo in 
December, when they moved through the swept channel of a 
minefield and navigated 30 unlit miles of the shallow waters 
of the Daido Ko estuary in heavy seas and snowstorms. 
The first large unit of Canadian soldiers to join United Nations 
forces in Korea, the second battalion of the Princess Patricia's 
Light Infantry, landed at Pusan on Dec. 19. Montreal's 
" Thunderbird " squadron of the R.C.A.F. joined the Pacific 
airlift in July and flew North Stars, carrying U.S. reinforce- 
ments and supplies via the fog-girt Aleutians to Tokyo 
bringing back wounded and non-combatants. By October 
there were some 500 Canadian air force personnel in the 
lift operation* 

The Washington Agreement. On Oct. 26 in Washington, 
Canada and the United States signed a six-point agreement 
for co-ordination of their mutual resources for defence. 
The agreement, for an indefinite period, provided for: 
(1) a co-ordinated programme of defence requirements, 
production and procurement; (2) co-ordinated controls over 
scarce raw materials and supplies; (3) emergency controls in 
both countries to be mutually consistent, with each agreeing 
to consult the other before making them law; (4) interchange 
of technical knowledge and productive skills; (5) removal 
of barriers impeding the flow of goods essential to the common 
defence; (6) consultation on financial and foreign exchange 
problems. 

The Economic Picture. The cost of Canada's contribution 
to the common safety of the western world was estimated. 
It ran into huge figures but the nation was prepared to pay 
the price. An emergency session of the Canadian parliament 
passed the Defence Appropriations act, boosting defence 
expenditures for the year to a new peacetime peak figure of 
$670 million and providing for total additional commitments 
of $414 million. 

In addition to heavy new liabilities for defence, Canada's 
economy met other handicaps during 1950. These included 
the rise in world commodity prices, a serious drop in Canadian 
exports to Great Britain and a nation-wide railway strike. 
Nevertheless, the economy remained buoyant throughout the 
year and, in spite of all immediate obstacles and perils, the 
country's rapid internal expansion continued. Capital 



130 



CANAUA 




IMMMWMW^MWK. an. JMPW mm rm. mmrm -*mmmmmmmmmm*mm^*~mm*~*^v -WMHMHMHMMKHMMMMMMHMMMMHMMMHMHBMMMM -Tummmmmmmmmmmmmmmimmm 

The funeral procession of William Lyon Mackenzie King, former prime minister of Canada, passing Union station, Ottawa, July 1950. 



development and construction of factories, machinery and 
houses touched peak levels, Prices and the .cost of living 
generally were at a record height. So was consumer spending. 

Anti-Inflationary Measures. To counteract the dangers 
inherent in such a situation, the Canadian government 
pursued an anti-inflationary policy. During the summer and 
early autumn a flood of " hot money " was poured into 
Canada by the U.S. speculators, betting (correctly, as it 
proved) on an upward movement of the Canadian dollar. 
Canada's reserves of gold and U.S. dollars increased by more 
than $500 million during July, August and September. The 
influx of the U.S. money had the effect of augmenting infla- 
tionary pressure in Canada and increasing the country's 
capital debt to the United States, without any compensating 
growth in its capacity to produce or export. Something had 
to be done to check this " involuntary borrowing." Accord- 
ingly, after notifying the International Monetary fund, 
Douglas Abbott, the finance minister, announced on Sept. 30 
the abandonment for an indefinite period of the fixed rate on 
the Canadian dollar. In the first day of " free " trading, 
the Canadian dollar gained nearly four cents in New York. 
Other anti-inflationary moves included a curb on instalment 
buying and the (largely psychological) gesture of an increase 
in the Bank of Canada's bank rate from l to 2%. 

Canada's foreign trade during the first eight months of 
1950 produced a deficit of $14-3 million, compared with a 
surplus of $83-7 million in the corresponding period of 1949. 
Its traditional balance of debit with the United States and 
credit with the United Kingdom showed signs of levelling 
off. There was a gain of $320 million in Canadian exports 



to the U.S. in the first eight months of the year, and the adverse 
balance with that nation shrank from $389 to $90 million. 
On the other hand, Canada's shipments to Great Britain 
during the same period shrank by $155 million and its favour- 
able balance with the U.K. was cut from $253 to $61 millions. 
The action of the United Kingdom, in continuing to restrict 
its imports of Canadian products, to save dollars, was again 
sharply criticized, and in a speech at Ottawa on Nov. 7 
C. D. Howe, the trade minister, voiced " a rather firm 
demand " for increased British purchases. 

The Canadian International Trade fair at Toronto was 40% 
larger than in 1949. Some 2,247 manufacturers from 33 
countries exhibited at the fair, which was attended by about 
35,000 business men. 

The year saw the end of the four-year Anglo-Canadian 
wheat contract under which Canada shipped a total of 
600 million bushels of wheat to Great Britain. 

The country's inflationary spiral was, according to one 
authority, the basic cause of a nine-day Canada-wide railway 
strike, Aug. 22-31, one of the biggest railway stoppages ever 
to take place in North America. It was terminated by a 
special act of the Canadian parliament, assembled at Ottawa 
by a unique airlift operation. This was the Maintenance of 
Railway Operation act which, in the view of some observers, 
constituted a precedent for direct government intervention 
in industrial disputes. In December Mr. Justice R. L. Kellock, 
the final arbitrator, delivered his award, which granted among 
other things a seven-cents-an-hour wage increase to 124,000 
railway workers and established the 40-hr, week, as from 
June 1, 1950, in the industry. 



CANADIAN LITERATURE 



131 



At their conventions, the two leading labour organizations 
took further vigorous action against Communist infiltration 
and passed resolutions looking to a greater measure of 
co-operation among Canadian trade unions. 

In important parts of the prairie wheat-belt 1950 was a bad 
year, marked by disastrous spring floods in the Red river 
valley (see FLOODS AND FLOOD CONTROL) and early frosts 
and snow which damaged the large crop. 

In October, E. C. Manning, premier of Alberta, opened 
the Edmonton-Regina section of a 1,127-mi. pipeline which 
would eventually carry oil to Superior, Wisconsin, for tanker 
shipment eastward through the Great Lakes. At that time, 
there were 55 million ac. of Alberta land under exploration 
and development, with more than 1,700 producing wells. 
Oil revenue, which had already been used to reduce the 
province's public debt by $56 million, was running at an 
average rate of more than $5-4 million a month. Other 
mineral discoveries during the year included new strikes of 
uranium in Ontario, Saskatchewan and British Columbia 
and additional iron deposits in northern Quebec. Never- 
theless, despite the country's steadily growing wealth, the 
average Canadian found 1950 a somewhat difficult year, in 
which he experienced the sensation of being ** hard up " 
under the impact of rising prices. 

A former Canadian prime minister who, in the words of 
President Harry S. Truman, " brought his country to a new 
stature of greatness " William Lyon Mackenzie King died 
on July 22, aged 75, at his country home in the Gatineau 
hills (see OBITUARIES). On Dec. 10 the British prime minister, 
C. R. Attlee, conferred with the Canadian cabinet in Ottawa. 

(L. BP.) 

Education. Schools: provincially controlled (1948) 49,134. pupils 
2,102,849, teachers 78,203; privately controlled (1947) 1,034, pupils 
138,825, teachers 6,679. Indian schools (1947): 347, pupils 19,622, 
teachers 381. Universities and colleges (1949): 198, students 116,176, 
professors and lecturers 10,430. 

Agriculture. Main crops ('000 metric tons, 1949; 1950 est. in brac- 
kets): wheat 9.999 (14,797); barley 2.621 (3,898); oats 4,003 (6,017); 
rye 254 (390); maize 347; potatoes 2,428 (2,912); sugar beets 872 
(1,044); tobacco 63-4. Livestock ('000 head): cattle on farms (Dec. 
1949) 8,243; sheep (Dec. 1949) 1,322; pigs (Dec. 1948) 4,604; horses 
(June 1949) 1.796. Dairy production COOO metric tons, 1949; 1950, 
six months, in brackets): milk 7,614 (3,601); butter 126-0 (54-0): 
cheese 51-6 (17 6). Meat production ('000 metric tons, 1948; 1949 
in brackets): total 918 (882) of which beef and veal 469 (450); pork 
427 (413). Agricultural labour force (June 1950): total 977,000; farm 
operators 595,000; paid workers 114,000; unpaid family workers 
268,000. 

Fisheries. Total catch: landed weight ('000 metric tons, 1948; 1949 
in brackets) 658 (605); landed value (1949) $82-1 million. 

Industry. Industrial establishments (1947) 32,714; persons employed 
1,131,750. Fuel and power (1949; 1950, six months, in brackets): 
coal COOO metric tons) 15,648 (7,833); lignite 1,692 (875); natural and 
manufactured gas (million cu. m.) 2,497 (1,433); electricity (million 
kwh.) 46,668 (24,804); crude oil COOO metric tons) 2,930 (1,620). 
Raw materials ('000 metric tons, 1949; 1950, six months, in brackets): 
iron ore, metal content, 3,468 (925); pig iron 2,148 (1,071); steel ingots 
and castings 2,892 (1,561); copper, refined, 206.4 (111.4); lead 132-0 
(71-2); zinc 187-2 (90-5); nickel 116-5 (56-3); synthetic rubber 
47-4 (28-5); gypsum, producers' shipments, 2,722 (1,148); asbestos, 
producers' shipments, 521-5 (355-5); gold ('000 fine ounces) 3,916 
(2,196); silver ('000 fine ounces) 17,376 (9,066). Manufactured goods 
(1949; 1950, six months, in brackets): wood pulp ('000 metric tons) 
7,697 (4,076); newsprint ('000 metric tons) 5,151 (2,594); cement 
('000 metric tons) 2,520 (1,279); motor vehicles (thousands), cars 
193-6 (138-6), commercial 99-0 (53-2); woven cotton fabrics 
(million m.) 246-0 (147-6); cotton yarn COOO metric tons) 81 -0 (48-7); 
wool yarn COOO metric tons) 6-8 (3-6); sawn lumber (million bd. ft.) 
5,289-6(2,605-9). 

Foreign Trade. (Million Canadian dollars, 1949; 1950, six months, 
in brackets) imports 2,760 (1,452); exports 3,024 (1,450). Main sources 
of imports (1939): U.S. 66%; U.K. 15%. Main destinations of exports: 
U.S. 41 %; U.K. 36%. Main commodities imported (1939): machinery 
and vehicles 20%; iron and steel manufactures 11%; petroleum and 
products 7%; coal and products 6%; chemicals and allied products 
6%. Main exports: wheat and wheat flour 14%; newsprint 13%; 
wood and manufactures 14%; aluminium and products 3%; lead, 
zinc and products 2%; nickel and products 2%. 



Transport and Commimicatiom. Railways: (1948) 42,248 mi.; 
passenger-mi. (1949) 3,132 million; freight net ton-mi. (1949) 50,848 
million; freight carried COOO tons, 1949) 140,904. Roads (1947) 
554,491 mi. Licensed motor vehicles (Dec. 1949): cars 1,650,641; 
commercial vehicles 544,288. Shipping (July 1949) : number of merchant 
vessels over 100 gross tons including vessels for inland navigation 
1,246; total tonnage 2,204,838. Air transport (1949): passengers 
flown 601,966; cargo carried 2,681,372 tons; air mail carried 3,154,973 
tons. Telephones (1949): 2,230,597. Wireless licences (1948): 1,956,826. 

Finance and Banking. (Million Canadian dollars) budget: (1949- 
50 actual) revenue 2,549, expenditure 2,438; (1950-51 est.) revenue 
2,430, expenditure 2,410. Gross national debt (March 1949) 16,950. 
Currency circulation (Aug. 1950) 1,158. Bank deposits (Aug. 1950) 
3,532. Gold and foreign exchange (million U.S. dollars, Dec. 1949) 
1,122. Monetary unit: Canadian dollar with an exchange rate (Nov. 
30, 1950) C.S2-93 to the pound and C.$ 1-048 to the U.S. dollar. 
Between Sept. 19, 1949, and Sept. 30, 1950, at which date the Canadian 
dollar was freed, the official rate of exchange was C.S3-08 to the 
pound and C.$ I -105 to the U.S. dollar. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. G. W. Brown, ed., Canada (Berkeley and Los 
Angeles, 1950); G. P. de T. Glazebrook, A Hhtory of Canadian External 
Relations (Toronto, 1950); G. S. Graham, Canada: A Short History 
(London, 1950). 



CANADIAN LITERATURE. In 1950 four English- 
Canadian novelists used contemporary themes to treat of 
various Canadian areas: Thomas H. Raddall's The Nymph 
and the Lamp was laid on Sable island off Nova Scotia: 
Stanley C. Tiller's Stormswept described Newfoundland life; 
Edward McCourt's Home Is the Stranger and Flos J. Williams' 
Fold Home both dealt with western Canadian prairies. Grace 
Campbell reported the problems of a village church minister in 
The Tower and the Town. Historical novels included Louis 
Vaczek's panoramic River and Empty Sea, based on the 
Canada of the late 1600s; W. A. Plenderleith's lively Conflict, 
going back to the American Revolutionary War; Harwood 
Steele's Ghosts Returning, a brisk account of red-coated 
mounted police work on the prairies in 1889. There were 
English translations of two major 1949 French-Canadian 
novels, The Plouffe Family by Roger Lemelin and The 
Out lander by Germaine Guevremont, translated by Eric 
Sutton. 

There were a number of books about aspects of World 
War II. Wilfrid Eggleston reported Scientists at War, Scott 
Young described the Salvation Army's Red Shield in Action, 
Joseph SchuA sailed The Far Distant Ships of the Canadian 
navy, R. M. Mickey recalled The Scarlet Dawn of his 
chaplainship and Robert England analysed the sociological 
problems of Twenty Million World War Veterans. There 
were side lights of the war in Canada in World Affairs: 
September 1941 to May 1944 by C. C. Lingard and R. G. 
Trotter and in Canada in World Affairs: From Normandy to 
Paris, 1944-1946 by F. H. Soward. 

The rest of the 1950 crop of non-fiction books was varied. 
Dean E. McHenry's The Third Force in Canada was a detailed 
political study of the Co-operative Commonwealth federation 
(the Socialist party); W. L. Morton's The Progressive Party 
in Canada similarly studied the agrarian revolt on the prairies 
in the 1920s. History was prominent and included The 
Changing Commonwealth by F. H. Soward and A Short 
History of Canada and A History of Canadian External 
Relations by G. P. de T. Glazebrook. 

The leading books of poems included James Wreford's 
Of Time and the Lover, Edna Jacques's Fireside Poems, 
J. A. Ross's The Singer and His Song and Hyman Edelstein's 
Spirit of Israel, and Other Poems. Robertson Da vies' rousing 
At My Heart's Core, set in the Ontario of 1837, was the only 
play published. 

The year 1950 saw the heaviest and best crop of boys' and 
girls* books ever published in Canada. Fiction with outdoor 
settings and action were the most popular: Fire Patrol 
by Dickson Reynolds (Helen D. Reynolds) was about forest 
fire-fighting; The Cave at Cormorant Lake by Frank L. 



132 



CANALS AND INLAND WATERWAYS 



Houghton centred around World War JI spies at Halifax; 
Abitibi Adventure by Jack Hambleton had a pulp and paper 
mill as its theme; The Mystery Horse by Louise Riley 
featured ranching on the prairies; and The Silent Gulls by 
G. E. Tait described game protection along the shores of 
Lake Huron. T. H. Raddall's Son of the Hawk went back to 
Nova Scotia in 1770, and George F. Clarke's David Cameron s 
Adventures went back to early New Brunswick; both were 
gripping historical novels. Juvenile non-fiction books 
included a number about people, such as Canadians, the lives 
of 20 great Canadians, by L. J. Henry and Bay of the North, 
the life of Pierre Radisson, by R. Syme. L. Knott's The 
Children s Guide to Calgary was packed with western prairie 
and foothill lore. ' (C. CY.) 

CANALS AND INLAND WATERWAYS. 

In Aug. 1950 the British Transport commission made its 
second annual report to the minister of transport, covering 
the year 1949. A disappointing revenue position was dis- 
closed. In the interests of economy and to eliminate over- 
lapping services the integration of rail, road and inland 




Dredging operation* in the Corinth ctinuL which uw heinx restored 
in 1950 with funds provided un der the European Recovery programme. 

waterway services was pressed forward as rapidly as circum- 
stances would allow. A charges scheme for merchandise 
traffic was considered and a draft outline of principles 
prepared -such principles to be common, wherever possible, 
to all three services, in particular for classification, conditions 
of carriage, regulations and chargeable distances. 

The Transport commission's report made a useful distinc- 
tion between canal-owning, on the one hand, and waterway- 
carrying on the other. On canal-owning in 1949, the commis- 
sion spent 1,900,000 in working expenses and secured 
1,800,000 in gross receipts; in the business of waterway- 
carrying working expenses amounted to 800,000 and gross 
receipts to 700,000. The deficiencies thus revealed were 
before reckoning appropriate proportions of the commission's 
central charges. The commission had added to its fleet by 
purchasing 172 craft from Fellows, Morton and Clayton, 
Ltd., on Jan. 1, 1949. The net deficit on the year's working 
(in waterway-carrying) was 86,000 compared with 66,000 



in 1948. In canal-owning, the deficiency was slightly reduced. 
The drought that occurred in 1949 had an adverse effect upon 
canal-owning revenue, which came mainly from tolls. The 
closing by the National Coal board of colliery basins on the 
Staffordshire and Worcester section of the waterways also 
reduced the tolls. 

France. Co-ordination and reconstruction schemes were 
developed and in some cases implementedto repair war 
damage to the waterways and also to permit the passage of 
much larger barges. Certain canals which connected Belgium, 
Paris and Strasbourg were to accommodate barges of 600 tons 
and even 1,350 tons as against the old French canal limit of 
300 tons. The schemes included major construction projects 
at the following locks: Jeu de Mail, near Dunkirk; Flandres 
and Fontinettes, near St.-Omer; Dow, between Lille and 
Lens; Grand Carre at Lille; and Lens. 

Netherlands. In 1949 figures were published in Holland 
showing that inland shipping traffic in 1948 was appreciably 
higher than in 1947 but still a long way below the prewar 
level: approximately 24,000 vessels arrived from Belgium, 
Germany, France and Switzerland, compared with 15,000 
in 1947 and 50,000 in 1938. 

Western Germany. Traffic through the Kiel canal during 
Sept. 1950 reached a postwar record of 1,790,382 tons, 
representing 3,670 vessels of which 2,936 were German, 356 
Norwegian, 219 Danish and 159 Finnish. (A. H. J. B.) 

United States. In the U.S. there was an appreciable increase 
in the number of commodities shipped as water-borne freight. 
The principal new traffic came from the rapidly expanding 
chemical industry. Many new products originated in Texas 
and the southwest, and through the ports of Mobile, New 
Orleans and Houston-Galveston. There was a spectacular 
increase in the barge transport of new motor cars from 
mid-west to southern cities. 

According to preliminary estimates, the total net water- 
borne commerce of the U.S., eliminating all known duplica- 
tions of traffic between rivers and ports, was 740,044,573 
short tons in 1949. United States water-borne commerce on 
the Great Lakes totalled 145,591,636 tons, aggregating 
97,503 million ton-miles. Inland waterway commerce, 
excluding the Great Lakes, totalled 41,892 million ton-miles, 
including the deep sea traffic on the Mississippi river below 
Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Of this total, the Mississippi river 
system accounted for 27,399 million ton-miles. 

Canada. Renewed public attention was given to the propo- 
sals for a St. Lawrence seaway and power project. The imple- 
mentation of these schemes would enable the large lake 
carriers to come down to Montreal (they are now prevented 
from doing so by a short series of 14-ft. draft canals): iron-ore 
carriers would be enabled to move westwards: and great new 
supplies of water power would be made available for industrial 
and strategic purposes. Favourable pronouncements upon 
the schemes were made by President Truman of the United 
States and by Lionel Chevrier, Canadian minister of transport. 

Pressure to create a canal through the Chignecto isthmus 
between Nova Scotia and New Brunswick was increased by 
the formation of the Chignecto canal committee, which 
presented a brief to the federal government urging action on 
the project. 

Canal traffic tonnages for the April-Oct. 1949 navigation 
season (with 1948 tonnages for the same period in brackets) 
were: Sault Ste. Marie (Canadian-United States) 93,280,572 
(91,420,487); Sault Ste. Marie (Canadian only) 1,886,881 
(1,979,080); Welland 12,400,905 (11,699,335); St. Lawrence 
8,648,438 (6,993,058). 

See British Transport Commission, Report and Accounts for 1949 
(London 1950). 

A collection of river and canal craft seen at the first festival of boats 
at Market Harborough, Leicestershire, Aug. 1950. 



CANALS AND INLAWU^WATERWAYS 



133 



''<;- ' - , , J '';, - ' r" -' r '!' '' - ' \ ";, -' ,'"--''- ' V, 1 ', 1 ' i^i, vV' r '4^^H rV^'# J rf H " 'i '''V 1 -''"' ';'" l| '' : """ i ' ' 
i - "' ^ - I' ' '- S^ ' " riii n J ' " ' " " 




134 



CANASTA CANNING INDUSTRY 



CANASTA. This new card game from South America, 
while not repeating in Europe the phenomenal success that 
it had in the United States in 1949, established a firm hold 
among card players in many cosmopolitan centres. In Eng- 
land it was played mostly in London and the Home counties. 
As was inevitable in a new game of divers origins, there were 
many variations of the rules. Official laws were published 
in the U.S. by the Regency club of New York. The Canasta 
committee of Crockford's club, London, drew up a code 
based on the Regency club's laws but different from them in 
some important respects. This was published by the Sunday 
Times and by the end of 1950 had come to be regarded as 
constituting the standard rules for Great Britain. 

Canasta is a Spanish word meaning " basket "; the term 
expresses the way in which cards are " woven " together to 
make a " canasta." 

Canasta is primarily a four-handed partnership game, 
but there are variations for two, three, five and six players. 
Two packs of cards and four jokers are used. The game 
belongs to the rummy family. In the four-handed game each 
player is dealt 1 1 cards and at his turn to play draws from the 
stock and discards face upwards. Three or more of a kind 
can be put down on the table. This is called '* melding," 
from a German word meaning " announce." Most points 
are scored by building up canastas; i.e., melding seven of a 
kind. 

When a player has cards in his hand that match the last 
discard by his opponent, he can, in certain circumstances, 
pick up the entire discard pile, thus acquiring extra cards. 
It is this struggle for the pack that gives canasta its inimitable 
excitement. 

Answering in the London Observer the question " Will 
Canasta last?" Terence Reese wrote: " Yes. A gambler's 
heaven, it is quite difficult enough to stimulate the mind as 
well." (T. RSE.) 

CANCER. For years students of cancer had attempted 
to discover the cause of cancer, that is, the reason for the 
changes, and what these minute changes are, which enable 
cells to grow freely in the body without normal tissue controls. 
Changes in chromosomes of the tissues of tfee body were 
accused of undergoing a variety of alterations which it was 
assumed were responsible for the growth capacity of the 
cancer cell, but during 1950 this theory was seriously 
challenged by S. Timonen and E. Therman in a study of 
the changes in the mitotic mechanism of cells in normal 
human tissues. 

Normal human cells were obtained by curettage of the 
healthy endometrium and compared to cells from human 
malignant tumours. It had been considered characteristic 
of neoplastic tissue that more cells divide than in correspon- 
ding normal tissue. But in the endometrium the frequency of 
mitosis is about the same as in cancer tissue. The chromo- 
somes of normal tissues showed many alterations which were 
though to be characteristic of cancer. Comparison of the 
two types of tissue showed that in cancer there are a greater 
number of alterations in number and structure of the chromo- 
somes, but these may be duplicated in normal tissues. Actively 
dividing cancer cells display chromosome numbers ranging 
from 12 to a high number, but these are also seen in normal 
structures. While the most constant feature characterizing 
all cancer cells is the general acceleration in the division rate, 
this is present also in normal structures. Accelerated speed 
in chromosomal division is the most evident difference in 
relation to the slower rate of intra-chromosomal changes. 
The investigations therefore suggested that the origin of 
cancer is not in the chromosomes but in those structures 
known as plasmagenes, on which C. D. Darlington wrote. 
W. R. Earle and his associates had showrt several years 



before that cells from normal tissues, if cultivated over a 
considerable period of time, would assume all the capacities 
of cancer cells. 

Cytologlc Diagnosis. Another subject of wide interest was 
the extraordinary development of cytologic diagnosis of 
accessible cancers. This technique permitted a great increase 
in diagnosis of early types of accessible cancer including 
cancer of the lung, which had almost always been diagnosed 
too late for effective therapy, cancer of the throat and 
especially cancer of the pelvic organs where smears can be 
taken of the surface cells of a growth from the rectum, 
cervix and so on. It was obvious that when a diagnosis is based 
upon a smear only the possibility of error is greater than when 
an actual piece of tissue is obtained, but the patient with 
a positive smear diagnosis was usually willing to have a small 
surgical biopsy to confirm the diagnosis before extensive or 
mutilating surgery was done. (See also SURGERY.) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. S. Timonen and E. Therman, " The Changes in the 
Mitotic Mechanism of Human Cancer Cells," Cancer Research, 10, 
431-439, July 1950; C. D. Darlington, "The Plasmagene Theory of 
the Origin of Cancer," Brit. J. Cancer, 2, 1 18-126, June 1948; Seymour 
M. Farber, Allen K. McGrath, Jr., Mortimer A. BeniofT and Milton 
Rosenthal, ** Evaluation of Cytologic Diagnosis of Lung Cancer/* 
J.A.M.A. 144, 1-4, Sept 2, 1950. (F. C. W.) 

CANNING INDUSTRY. Canning in 1950 was 
limited by the continued shortage of tinplate, but new tinplate 
plant was under construction or planned in the U.S.A., 
south Wales, Australia, South Africa, France, the Nether- 
lands, Belgium and Spain. Figures published during the 
year by the Ministry of Food showed that the production of 
canned fruit in the United Kingdom increased from 45,200 
long tons in 1947 to 89,100 tons in 1949, and of canned 
vegetables from 242,200 tons in 1947 to 300,800 tons in 
1949. Canned soup production fell from 114,100 tons to 
71,200 tons, but canned homogenized baby-foods increased 
from 4,300 tons to 7,200 tons. The canning packs of the 
following countries in 1950 were roughly proportional to 
their tinplate consumption figures, which were (long tons): 
United Kingdom 440,000; Canada 190,000; Australia 
110,000; South Africa 48,000; Western Germany 140,000; 
France 120,000; Netherlands 75,000; Italy 55,000; Denmark 
30,000; Belgium 25,000; Norway 20,000; remainder of 
Europe 75,000. The sardine canning industries of Spain and 
Portugal declined because the fish appeared to have forsaken 
their usual haunts, but sardine canning revived in Cornwall 
and in Morocco. 

A new can-making factory with a capacity of 300 million 
cans yearly was built in Canada by the American Can 
company to meet Canada's increasing production of canned 
fruits and vegetables. 

The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research 
organization investigated the distribution in southeastern 
Australian waters of tuna, pilchards and other fish for 
canning. A steady increase in fish canning was noted in 
Western Australia, but the Tasmantan industry experienced 
difficulties when the British Ministry of Food ceased to 
import canned barracouta. The market for dried apples 
diminished and several factories in Tasmania switched to 
canning. 

In South Africa, the output of canned fish, fish oil and 
fish meal continued to rise and reached an annual value of 
2 million. The record production of 5-5 million 30-oz. 
cans of pineapple was reached. The range of canned foods 
was extended to include such tropical fruits as pawpaws, 
mangoes and guavas. The Deciduous Fruit board made a 
grant of 8,000 and South African canners were invited to 
contribute a similar amount towards a pilot research cannery. 
At Thika, Kenya, a new pineapple cannery opened with an 
annual capacity of 20 million cans. The British government 



CANOEING-CARIBBEAN COMMISSION 



135 



planned to set up cattle ranches, a canning factory and cold 
storage in Bechuanaland. A new cannery, costing 500,000, 
with a capacity of 80,000 cans of beef daily, was opened in 
Tanganyika in September. (G. H. M.F.) 

United States. Canned fruits, juices, vegetables, fish, 
milk and fruit and vegetable specialities in 1950 totalled about 
560 million standard cases (preliminary estimate) compared 
with 534 million standard cases in 1949. 

The International Tin Study group estimated the world 
production of metallic tin for Jan.-June 1950 at 86,000 long 
tons with consumption at 70,700 tons during this period. 
Estimated production and consumption for 1950 were 
165,000 tons and 139,000 tons, respectively. Production and 
consumption for the year 1949 were 168,800 tons and 1 19,200 
tons, respectively. 

Technological developments in the canning industry showed 
marked advance during 1950. In particular, attention was 
directed toward the perfection of equipment adapted to the 
purpose of ** high temperature - short time " processing. 
Most existing equipment of this kind utilizes the principle 
of rotation or agitation of can contents during processing. 
Other types involve rapid treating of homogeneous products 
followed by handling of the sterilized product and sealing 
of the cans under aseptic conditions. (E. J. C.) 

CANOEING. There were entries from all parts of 
Great Britain for the national championships in canoe 
slalom held on the Eden at Armathwaite in May 1950. The 
winner was M. Smith of the Tay Canoe club, with D. Pegram 
of the Manchester C.C. and D. Taylor of the Royal C.C. 
second and third respectively. Canoe slalom, a fast water 
competition, is not yet widely known in Britain. The women's 
event was won by E. E. McLellan, with K. Tootill and 
M. Millner second and third respectively. 

The national paddling championships were held on the 
Thames at Teddington on June 3-4 and Sept. 9-10. A. W. J. 
Simmons of the Royal C.C. successfully defended his titles 
in kayak singles over the distances 500m., 1,000m. and 
10,000 m., as did Joyce B. Farnham of the same club in the 
500 m. W. Churm of the Canoe Camping club, a newcomer 
to kayak racing, took second place in the 10,000m. and 
1,000 m. and T. W. Hezseltine of the same club second place 
in the 500 m. Joyce M. Webb, runner-up to Joyce Farnham 
in 1949, retained that position and showed great promise. 
The competition in kayak pairs was less interesting, since 
there are few craft of this class in Britain. Simmons and 
C. E. Farnham of the Royal C.C. won the 10,000m.; there 
was no contest at 1,000m. or 500m. 

G. D. Marchand retained his title in the 1,000 m. Canadian 
singles and also won the 10,000m. event: he was never 
seriously challenged in either race by the second man, 
R. R. Thornton. 

A new championship event was the 4 x 500 m. relay race 
for kayak singles. The Canoe Camping club was the winning 
team, with the Royal Canoe club second. (J. W. D.) 

CANTERBURY, ARCHBISHOP OF (FISHER, 
GEOFFREY FRANCIS), 100th archbishop of Canter- 
bury, primate of all England (b. May 5, 1887), was educated 
at Marlborough college, Exeter college, Oxford, and Wells 
Theological college. He was assistant master at Marlborough 
(1911) and was ordained deacon (1912) and priest (1913) at 
Salisbury. In 1914 he became headmaster of Repton school 
in Derbyshire. In 1917 he married Rosamond Chevallier. 
In 1932 he was consecrated bishop of Chester; and in 1939 he 
was translated to London, where his administrative ability 
left a great impression. On April 19, 1945, he was enthroned 
as archbishop of Canterbury, in succession to Dr. William 
Temple. 



In Feb. 1950 the archbishop sent a memorandum to the 
Royal Commission on Capital Punishment urging that a 
distinction should be drawn between murder, to which a 
capital penalty would apply, and murder committed under 
extenuating circumstances, to which it would not apply. He 
replied sympathetically to the Russian Orthodox patriarch's 
peace appeal, but advised the clergy against signing the 
petition of the British Peace committee. Later he warned 
against the tyranny of atheistic and imperialistic communism. 
In March he welcomed the Vatican statement on co-opera- 
tion and especially the opportunity created for discussion 
between the churches; but in August, together with the arch- 
bishop of York, he issued a statement criticizing the forth- 
coming declaration by the Vatican of the dogma of the 
bodily Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. On Sept. 22 
he sailed for an extensive tour of the Australian and New 
Zealand churches. (A. J. MAC.) 

CAPE VERDE ISLANDS: see PORTUGUESE COLONIAL 
EMPIRE. 

CARIBBEAN COMMISSION. An advisory body 
set up in Oct. 1946 by an agreement between the four countries 
France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the 
United States that are responsible for the administration 
of non-selfgoverning territories in the Caribbean area. It 
superseded the Anglo-American Caribbean commission which 
had been established in 1942; and was formed with the stated 
aim of " encouraging and strengthening co-operation " 
among the member governments and their territories ** with a 
view towards improving the economic and social well-being 
of the peoples of those territories and ... of promoting 
scientific, technological and economic development in the 
Caribbean area." A further function of the commission was 
to facilitate research on a co-operative basis and eliminate 
duplication of research. The commission had two subsidiary 
bodies: the Caribbean Research council which advised the 
commission on scientific and technical matters, and the West 
Indian conference which assembled every two years and 
provided a forum at which representatives of the peoples 
themselves could discuss social and economic matters of 
common interest. The commission consisted of 16 commis- 
sioners, four from each of the member governments. It 
maintained a secretariat at Port of Spain, Trinidad, and met 
twice yearly. The commission's 10th session was held in 
Martinique in June 1950 and the 1 Ith at Curasao in December. 

The Research council consisted of from 7 to 15 members 
selected by the commission for their special qualifications, and 
it was assisted by a number of technical sub-committees. 
Among its chief activities was the publication of the Yearbook 
of Caribbean Research, a valuable guide to the research work 
of all kinds that was being carried on throughout the area. 
The council and its sub-committees held a joint meeting in 
Trinidad in May 1950. Other meetings of experts held directly 
or indirectly under the auspices of the Caribbean commission 
during the year were devoted to meteorology, soil science, 
livestock and trade statistics. 

The commission continued the publication, in English and 
French, of its monthly bulletin containing reports of its 
activities 1 and news of important developments in the 
Caribbean territories. It also inaugurated the publication of 
the Caribbean Economic Review which was designed to contain 
articles of exceptional interest on matters of economic signi- 
ficance. In July 1950 a joint statement was issued containing 
the interim views of the four member governments on the 
role of the Caribbean commission in technical assistance 
programmes to be carried out in the area. 

The West Indian conference held its 4th session at Curasao 
in December, the theme of the meeting being agriculture. 



136 



CARTOGRAPHY CENTENARIES 



Agricultural scientists of the four member nations and others 
a